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Developments in forest and environmental law of America
Labour-intensive harvesting of tree plantations in the southern Philippines
Involving local communities in biodiversity conservation
Evolution of private forestry and forest extension in Central and Eastern Europe

Developments in forest and environmental law of America

Developments in forests and environmental law influencing natural resource management and forestry practices in the United States of America and Canada F. Schmithusen and W.C. Soegel, eds 1997 IUFRO World Series, Vol. 7. Vienna, IUFRO.

The importance of policy and legislation in forest resource conservation and management is increasing internationally. The work, which has been undertaken by the IUFRO Research Group on forest law and environmental legislation (Research Group 6.13.00), confirms the interest of both lawyers and foresters in exchanging experience and information on the evolution of relevant law in various countries.

This collection of 28 research papers (previously published in research group proceedings) provides an overview of the dynamic and multifaceted development of forest and environmental law in North America and its impact on forest conservation, forestry practices and sustainable resources management.

The first of the book's four sections addresses law developments that pertain to the management of forest as national and local renewable resources. The second contains papers on the interaction of forest law in the United States with environmental protection legislation, while the third section examines more specifically management programmes on public forest lands and public land management issues in the United States and Canada. The fourth section deals with law concerning forestry practices on private lands.

The problems described in the various papers indicate a wide research agenda and the increasingly interrelated body of legislation that has to be taken into account when dealing with sustainable forest resource management. Comprehensively, the contributions offer a broad and informative picture of different stages of forest and environmental law developments in the United States and Canada. These reflect profound changes, not only in economic terms but even more in social ones, in the portrayal of society's perception and understanding of the public role of forest as a natural, vital and cultural heritage.

This volume is a valuable source of information for comparative studies d forest policy and legislation as these impact the protection, conservation and management of forests.

Labour-intensive harvesting of tree plantations in the southern Philippines

Labor-intensive harvesting of tree plantations in the southern Philippines M Jurvelius 1997 Forest Harvesting Case-Study No 9. RAP Publication 1997/41. Bangkok, FAO

Many foresters and development officials share the misconception that simple, labour-intensive timber harvesting and wood transport systems are outdated, inefficient and costly. However, recent experience has given the lie to this. It has been demonstrated that traditional indigenous or modified systems of timber harvesting and transport are often more efficient and less environmentally destructive than so-called modem systems. This is particularly true in areas where there is excess labour capacity and where labour costs are low. This publication presents the experiences of simple, labour-intensive harvesting of timber from tree plantations in the southern Philippines where forests, has evolved from an era of seemingly limitless timber supplies to the present period of highly depleted natural forest. The study clearly illustrates the potential for supplying large volumes of industrial wood to modern processing mills using simple tools and techniques in a cost-efficient and environmentally sound manner. In the process, jobs are provided for thousands of people, helping to satisfy social objectives in areas of few alternative livelihood opportunities.

This publication is one in a series initiated by FAO to promote forest harvesting systems, techniques and methods that are environmentally, socially and economically sound. It aims to encourage systems that are appropriate for local conditions, make the best use of local technologies and emphasize harmony between people and their environment.

It is hoped that by highlighting the experience of the southern Philippines, foresters and development officials in other areas will recognize the potential of simple, labour-intensive systems as a viable option for timber harvesting and job creation.

Involving local communities in biodiversity conservation

Conservation and utilization of natural resources in the East Usambara Forest Reserves: conventional views end local perspectives. J.F. Kessy. 1998. Tropical Resources Management Paper No 18. Wagenigen the Netherlands, Waganigen Agricultural University.

The importance of conserving biological resources and the need for managing these resources for present and future generations has been given much attention worldwide. This study aims to investigate the potential and limitations of involving local communities and other stakeholders in biodiversity conservation in the East Usambara forests in the United Republic of Tanzania and to propose appropriate development strategies for harnessing such potential. In order to achieve this aim, the nature of various stakeholders' activities in relation to the forests was studied and the impact of their actions on long-term biodiversity conservation in the area assessed.

The research consists of a collection of information on both the technical and sociological aspects of forestry. A variety of research methods are deployed such as participatory rural appraisal, a general questionnaire and several more specialized surveys. The latter are: a number of assessments of the different types of forest products collected by local people; a study to ascertain the impact of human activities on the natural forest; and a survey to assess the nature and extent of domestication of forest plants by local people. Additional information is collected through in-depth interviews with key informants, field observations and a study of secondary, data.

The study examines and compares the values, perceptions and actions with respect to the forest resources of conservationists, estate holders and local villagers; it also analyses the impact of their disparity and possible modalities for their reconciliation. According to the author, the main weakness of current forest management is that it provides neither the forum nor the opportunity for different stakeholders to express their interests. This book therefore outlines a Stakeholder Reconciliation Model (SRM), which addresses key issues such as policy formulation, land use planning, communication and the reconciliation of competing stakeholder claims. It suggests that this is an essential institutional prerequisite for achieving sustainable forest resource and conservation in the East Usambaras.

Evolution of private forestry and forest extension in Central and Eastern Europe

Issues and opportunities in the evaluation of private forestry and forest extension in several countries with economies in transition in Central and Eastern Europe 1997. Rome, FAO.

The countries of Central and Eastern Europe are undergoing complex and significant political and economic changes. These affect almost every domain of activity including the forestry sector. The development of dynamic forestry extension systems is essential in order to support private owners for sustainable forest management and to improve the integration of forestry and agriculture. Extension systems need to evolve from local conditions and circumstances, ecological, historical, social and cultural. The sooner flexible systems with high levels of participation and commitment by all partners are developed, the more likely will sustainable forestry have the chance to become a reality.

This publication documents and analyses recent changes in forest ownership patterns. It discusses the needs of, and identifies possible approaches for, forestry extension and private forestry in the region. It is based on a survey of nine countries and four country profiles (Slovenia, Armenia, Croatia, the Czech Republic, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Romania, Slovakia). The book confirms significant shifts in forest landownership through restitution and privatization and dramatic increases in the number of new forest landowners and points out that the ability of the forest services to assist and advise these owners is still in a developing stage.

The first part of the book provides a comparative overview of the evolution of private forestry and the needs and approaches for forestry extension within selected countries of Central and Eastern Europe. According to the authors, privatization will not have the desired effects if the requirements for planned management are controlled by governments. Lessons learned in other countries can be incorporated in the development of the forestry extension systems in this region.

The second part contains country profiles on forestry extension for seven countries in the region.

The present situation is troubled by the lack of interdisciplinary research, a misunderstanding of forestry extension by officials and the unsuitable allocation of financial resources. There is also a lack of information flow between the research sector and the main users.

The book should be useful to a broad range of foresters, extensionists, planners and policy-and decision-makers as well as to those involved in international cooperation.

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