Study area and methods
A field study of tribal households was conducted in the high altitude area zone of the Eastern Ghats region of Andhra Pradesh, the fifth largest state in India. The state has a population of 66.5 million, 73 percent of which lives in rural areas. The high altitude area zone lies between 17°.13' - 19°.09' N and 80°.22' - 84°.33' E, accounting for 6.56 percent of the total area of Andhra Pradesh (National Agricultural Research Project, 1994). Villages included in the study are located at altitudes ranging from 150 to 900 m. Moist deciduous and dry deciduous forest types are predominant.
Data were acquired in two phases. Household data from the two hamlets of Nimmalapadu were collected during surveys conducted between April and October, 1995. Information was obtained on land holding of each family, investments in land development, annual income per acre of land, type of trees on owned land and income from the trees, NWFPs collected by each household, and annual income from NWFPs.
Study Area - Tribal Area Zone within Visakhapatnam District, Andhra Pradesh State, India*
* The high altitude tribal area zone lies between 17.13 - 19°.09 N and 80 22 - 84°.33 E. The area spans Srikakularn, Vizianagaram, Visakhapatnam, and East Godavari districts.
Qualitative data on forest-based activities in the four panchayats of Vishakapatnam district were collected from December 1995 to January 1996. Data on ten additional tribal households were also gathered from eight villages during this same period through long interviews with family members. In these interviews, household members were asked to disaggregate their sources of income and expenditures, and then estimate the relative contribution of NWFPs to household income. All of the interviews were conducted in Telugu, the local language.