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Adhatoda vasica Nees. syn. Justica adhatoda

(Malabar nut, Adotodai, Pavettia)






 Adhatoda vasica Nees. syn. Justica adhatoda
Duke, 1985









Evergreen tree growing to 3 m shrub. Leaves 10-15 cm long, 5 cm wide, lanceolate, entire.

White or purple flowers; 4-seeded fruit

Grieve, 1974

Chevallier, 1996

Habitat Native to India; widely cultivated in the tropics. Perry, 1980
Uses The leaves are used as an insecticide, fungicide and clothes dye. Used in traditional Indian medicine for more than 2 000 years. Duke, 1985
Powdered leaves



Leaf extract



Extract alkaloids

Eight percent (w/w) admixed with mung bean did not significantly reduce percentage damage by

C. chinensis after an exposure period of 135 days.

Four percent extract (w/w) applied to cowpea slightly reduced the number of eggs laid by a single generation of

C. maculatus.

0.5 percent vasicine (w/w) applied to the food medium of 1st instar T. castaneum larvae caused 50 percent mortality. Surviving females that were allowed to oviposit, showed a reduction in fecundity.

Pandey, et al. 1976



Bhaduri, et al. 1985



Saxena, et al. 1986

Constituents Include: adhatodine, vasicinine, vasicinol and vasicoline. Southon and Buckingham, 1988
Toxicity Leaves can cause diarrhea and nausea in large doses. Vasicine and vasicinol exhibit potential to reduce fertility in insects. Duke, 1985


Anacardium occidentale L.

(Cashew nut)

Anacardium occidentale L Rehm and Espig, 1991
Description A spreading tree with leathery leaves; sweet scented; red-striped flowers. Mature kidney-shaped fruits are allowed to fall to the ground and collected when the apple is dry. Vickery and Vickery, 1979
Habitat Indigenous to South and Central America (Brazil to Mexico), now cultivated in all tropical countries.

It will only grow below 1 300 m and will tolerate a coastal climate.

Rehm and Espig, 1991


Vickery and Vickery, 1979

Uses Edible nut; the shells are roasted to produce cashew nut shell liquid (oil) which is processed to make synthetic resins used for brake linings and paint materials. Rehm and Espig, 1991
Cashew nut shell liquid (CSNL) Liquid obtained from perforating two cashew nuts was admixed with 500 g of cowpea. The seeds were protected against damage and infestation by C. maculatus for a period of three months. Echendu, 1991
Crude ethanol leaf extract Topical application of 1 ml (10 percent w/v) of the leaf extract did not affect adult mortality of T. confusum after an exposure period of three days. Williams and Mansingh, 1993
Seed viability


CSNL did not effect the viability of cowpea after an exposure period of three months. Echendu, 1991

CSNL includes: anacardic acid, cardanol and cardol.


Quercetin and kaempferol glycosides have also been reported.

Rehm and Espig, 1991

Oliver-Bever, 1986


Annona reticulata L.

(Bullock's heart)

Annona reticulata L.

Rehm and Espig, 1991





Description Tree reaching 8-10 m in height. Heart-shaped fruit, 10-15 cm in length and 10 cm in diameter; contains cream-coloured, juicy pulp. Burkill, 1985
Habitat Central America, West Indies and Africa. Uphof, 1968
Uses Leaves are used as an insecticide and anthelmintic; fruits as an anti-diarrhoeic and, in Ghana, as a remedy for epilepsy. Oliver-Bever, 1986
Extract Extracts applied at 0.1 percent (w/w) reduced egg-laying in C. chinensis by 70-80 percent and inhibited F1 adult emergence. Islam, 1987


Constituents Leaves and stem constituents include: anonaine, roemerine, corydine, isocorydine and many other aporphine alkaloids.

All parts of the tree contain hydrogen cyanide, especially the bark.

Oliver-Bever, 1986


Burkill, 1985


Annona squamosa L.

(Custard apple, Sweet sop, Sugar apple)

Annona squamosa L.

Rehm and Espig, 1991







Description Small tree reaching 6 m in height; partially deciduious; thin leathery, blue-grey, soft, oval leaves, 15-20 cm long. Small greenish, fleshy 2 cm flowers. Subspherical, greyish beige fruit, approx. 10 cm in diameter; contains a number of black seeds surrounded by white, sweet, juicy flesh. Burkill, 1985; Chevallier, 1996
Habitat Indigenous to tropical America and West Indies; cultivated widely in the tropics. Uphof, 1968
Uses Fruit are consumed fresh in India, Thailand and China.

Ripe pulp can be made into ice-cream; in the West Indies fermented fruit can be used to make a kind of cider.

In North America and the Gambia the leaves are used as an insecticide.

Rehm and Espig, 1991

Burkill, 1985


Oliver-Bever, 1986

Seed powder Five percent (w/w) admixed with stored wheat significantly reduced the F1 adult production of S. oryzae, over a 75 day storage period, following repeated adult introductions. Rout, 1986




Extracts applied at 0.1 percent (w/w) reduced egg-laying in C. chinensis by 70-80 percent and inhibited F1 adult emergence.

An ether extract of seeds has been found to be moderately toxic against adult T. castaneum.

A petroleum ether extract of seeds exhibited insecticidal activity (LC50 = 0.28 percent) against

C. cephalonica. Adults were exposed to treated petri dishes for 15 minutes and mortality recorded after 24 hours

Islam, 1987



Oliver-Bever, 1986


Chauhan, et al. 1987

Antifungal activity Anonaine (100 g/ml) has been determined to have antimicrobial properties against Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Mycobacterium smegmatis and Candida albicans. Oliver-Bever, 1986
Constituents Constituents of the bark, roots, seeds and stems include: aporphine alkaloids (anonaine, roemerine, norcorydine, corydine, norisocorydine and glaucine)

Carvone, linalool, limonene, a - and b -pinene have also been reported.

Leaves, bark and roots contain hydrogen cyanide.

Oliver-Bever, 1986


Ekundayo, 1989


Burkill, 1985

Toxicity Corydine is reported to have anticancer activity. Oliver-Bever, 1986


Monodora myristica (Gaertn.)Dunal.

(Jamaican nutmeg, Calabash nutmeg, Muscade de Calabash)

Monodora myristica (Gaertn.) Dunal

Rehm and Espig, 1991








Description Tree, to 35 m high by 2 m in girth. Subspherical fruit up to 20 cm in length by 15 cm in diameter. Seeds embedded in white, sweet-smelling pulp. Burkill, 1985



Habitat West Indies and West Africa, in particular, Sierra Leone, Upper Guinea, Cameroon and Gabon. Uphof, 1968
Uses Seeds are ground and used locally as a seasoning providing a flavour resembling nutmeg. Also used in traditional medicine and as an aromatic and stimulating addition to snuff. Burkill, 1985
Ether extract of seeds Cowpea, pigeon pea and bambara seeds "rubbed" with diluted extract (20 percent concentration) significantly inhibited oviposition of C. maculatus for 14 days after application. Undiluted extract also exhibited ovicidal and lavicidal activity and protected seed from damage for up to four months. Ofuya, et al. 1992
Seed viability Fifty percent extract admixed with cowpea did not reduce seed viability three months after application. Ofuya, et al. 1992



Seeds contain 5-9 percent of essential oil consisting largely of terpenes; 35-36 percent of a reddish-brown oil consisting mainly of linoleic acid (46.9 percent) and oleic acid (35 percent). The alkaloid anonaceine is also present. Burkill, 1985


Anethum graveolens L.


Anethum graveolens L

Rehm and Espig, 1991






Description Annual or biennial herb. Usually only one upright stem, and glaucous foliage. Bown, 1995
Habitat Mediterranean districts and South Russia. Wren, 1975
Uses Seeds and leaves are used as flavouring in food and for medicinal purposes. Rehm and Espig, 1991
Pulverised seed powder and acetone extract. 0.5 percent seed powder and 2 percent (w/w) extract applied to wheat repelled adult S. oryzae. Application of 680 m g/cm2 on paper produced a repellency of 75 percent over a two month period against T. confusum, equivalent to a Class IV repellent. Topical application of 50 m g of extract caused 60 percent mortality in S. oryzae within 24 hours; it showed only slightly toxicity against

L. serricorne, C. maculatus and T. confusum.

Su, 1985a


680 m g/cm2 applied to paper and stored for 12 months produced 61 percent repellency for T. confusum declining to 41 percent at 24 months. Su, 1987


Constituents Acetone extract of seed contained 2-methyl-5-(1 -methylethenyl)-2-cyclohexen-1-one (d-carvone) and 4,5-dimethoxy-6-(2-propenyl)-1,3-benzodioxole (dillapiol).

Minor components of seed include limonene (34.4 percent), dihydrocarvone (0.1 percent) and traces of eugenol, anisic aldehyde, anethole and thymol.

Seeds contain 2-5 percent volatile oil, main constituent is carvone (40-50 percent), other components are d-limonene and phellandrene.

Su and Horvat, 1988



Southon and Buckingham, 1988


Tainter and Grenis, 1993



The acute oral LD50 for rats of dill seed oil is 4.6 g/kg.

Dill seed oil has been shown to be a potential photosensitizer and can cause dermatitis.

Opdyke and Letizia, 1982

Duke, 1985


Carum carvi L.


Carum carvi L.


Rehm and Espig, 1991






Description Aromatic annual growing up to 60 cm. Ridged stem; feathery leaves; umbels of white flowers. Exploding capsules contain two small, narrow seeds. Chevallier, 1996


Habitat Native to Europe, Western Asia; and Northern Africa. Prefers sunny sites up to 2 000 m above sea level. Tainter and Grenis, 1993; Chevallier, 1996
Uses Fruit is used as a culinary spice and as a flavouring for liqueurs. Rehm and

Espig, 1991

Fruit powder extract Extracts were admixed with wheat and mortality in adult insects was assessed at 24 hours. The lc50 of extracts were: for s. Oryzae 250 mg/kg methanol, 260 mg/kg petroleum ether, 370 mg/kg acetone and 400 mg/kg chloroform; for r. Dominica 420 mg/kg petroleum ether, 610 mg/kg chloroform, 680 mg/kg methanol and 840 mg/kg acetone. The methanol extract at 400 and 800 mg/kg against s. Oryzae caused 100 percent mortality within 24 hours; five and 14 days respectively, were required for r. Dominica. Afifi, et al. 1989


The major component of oil is carvone.

Dried fruits contain sterols, triterpenes, unsaturated steroids, saponins, flavonoids, glycosides, pyrogallol tannin and phloroglucinol.

Nawrot, 1983

Afifi, et al. 1989



Carum roxburghianum Benth.

syn. Athamantha roxburghianum (Benth.) Wall.; Trachyspermum roxburghianum.

(Bishops weed)




Photograph unavailable




Chander and Ahmed, 1983
Description Annual herb. Uphof, 1968
Habitat Native to tropical asia; cultivated in India and Indo-China. Uphof, 1968
Uses Seeds used as a condiment, stimulant, carminative; also used in spices and curries. Uphof, 1968
Powdered seed Five percent (w/w) reduced s. Oryzae damage on sorghum to 30 percent compared with 60 percent on untreated controls over a 180 day period. Five percent (w/w) applied to wheat reduced t. Granarium damage to 14 percent compared with 54 percent in the untreated control after 120 days. This plant was regarded as a promising local control measure. Chander and Ahmed, 1983





Pimpinella anisum L.

(Aniseed, Anise, Anis)

Pimpinella anisum L.

Rehm and Espig, 1991





Description Erect annual growing up to 60 cm; feathery leaves; umbels of yellow flowers; ridged, grey-green seeds. Chevallier, 1996


Native to Eastern Mediterranean, West Asia and North Africa; now widely cultivated. Chevallier, 1996
Uses The fruits are used in baking and the essential oil is used to produce liqueurs. Rehm and Espig, 1991
Oil 15 m l/litre of air in fumigation chamber caused 100 percent mortality in adult T. castaneum, 75 percent mortality in adult R. dominica and 12 percent mortality in S. oryzae within 24 hours. Shaaya and Pisarev, 1991
Constituents Include: anethole, with traces of pinene, phellandrene, dipentene, L-limonene, hydroquinone ethyl ether, methyl chaicol, anisic analdehyde, anisic acid, p-cymene, cineol, safrole and terpineol. Joucher and Poucher, 1991
Toxicity Anethole is a moderately acute toxin, with an oral LD5 0 for rats of 4.52 ml/kg Duke, 1985


Nerium oleander L.

(Oleander, Rosebay)

Nerium oleander L.

Duke, 1985





Description Evergreen shrub, 1.8-6 m high with long slender, upright branches. Leaves in pairs or whorls of three, leathery, grey-green, oblong-lanceolate, 20-25 cm long. Flowers in terminal brunches each 2.5-5 cm across, funnel-shaped with five lobes, fragrant, various colours from pink to red, white, peach and yellow. Perry and Hay, 1982
Habitat Originated in the Mediterrane region east to Japan. Perry and Hay, 1982
Uses Widely planted as an ornamental garden plant in tropical and subtropical countries; also used as a rat poison and for medicinal purposes. Duke, 1985
Plant Five percent (w/w) admixed with cowpeas caused 95 percent mortality in adult C. chinensis within three days and prevented the production of F1 progeny. El-Ghar and El-Sheikh, 1987
Constituents All parts of plant contain: various digitalis-like cardiac glycosides, oleandrin, digitalin, adynerin and neriantin.

Also: neriin, folinerin, rosagenin, cornerin, pseudocuramine, rutin, cortenerin and oleandomycincontain. Additionally, it contains HCN, ursolic acid (4.3 percent), caoutchouc (0.049 percent), sterol (0.014 percent), quercetrin-3-rhamnoglucoside and kamempferrol-3-rhamnoglucoside.

Oliver-Bever, 1986



Duke, 1985

Toxicity All parts of the plant, both green and dry, are considered toxic to livestock. The cardioactive substances in oleander increase the contractibility of heart muscles and may cause cardiac arrest.

A very poisonous plant; a horse can be killed by 15-20 g of fresh leaves, a cow by 10-12 g and a sheep by 1-5 g.

Kingsbury, 1964



Duke, 1985




Acorus calamus L.

(Sweetflag, Sweet rush, Flagroot, Calamus)

Acorus calamus L.


Duke, 1985





Description Aquatic perennial up to 60-150 cm in height; rhizome horizontal and branched, up to 1m long. Leaves narrow. Schauenberg and Paris, 1977
Habitat Widespread in Asia, North America and Europe around watery courses and marshy ground.

Three karyotypes of A. calamus exist: diploid (2n = 24) which grows in North America and parts of Asia; triploid (3n = 36) which is present in Central Europe and Kashmir; and teraploid (4n = 48) found in India, East Asia and Japan.

Schmidt and Streloke, 1994

Schmidt and Streloke, 1994


Uses Oil produced from the rhizome is used in drinks, perfumery, pharmacy and as an insecticide. Rehm and Espig, 1991
0.5 percent (w/w) admixed with maize suppressed populations of R. dominica by more than 80 percent after an exposure period of 14 days.

0.5 percent (w/w) admixed with wheat exhibited 95 percent adult mortality of S. oryzae after an exposure period of 14 days.

At 1 percent (w/w) the level of damage by S. oryzae on sorghum over 180 days of storage was reduced to 14 percent compared with 80 percent on the untreated controls; 1 percent (w/w) on wheat reduced damage by T. granarium to 5 percent compared with 55 percent in the untreated controls, and 1 percent powdered extract completely prevented C. chinensis from damaging green gram.

Tiwari, 1994



Tiwari, 1993



Chander and Ahmed, l983

At 1 percent (w/w) application to wheat caused 100 percent mortality of 1st instar C. cephalonica after two months of storage.

1% (w/w) admixed with mung bean inhibited adult emergence of C. chinensis 135 days after application.

Chander and Amhed 1986


Pandey, et al. 1976








0.2 percent (w/w) applied to milled rice stored for six months caused 71 percent mortality of adult S. oryzae within 14 days and prevented F1 adult emergence. Adult T. castaneum were less susceptible, showing 16 percent mortality within 14 days. F1 progeny of

T. castaneum was reduced by 50 percent.

A petroleum ether extract of rhizomes exhibited insecticidal activity (LC50 = 1.1 percent) against

C. cephalonica. Adults were exposed to treated petri dishes for 15 minutes and mortality recorded after 24 hours.

Chander, et al. 1990





Chauhan, et al. 1987

Rhizome extract 0.2 percent (w/w) admixed with chickpea prevented F1 emergence and damage by C. chinensis for a period of 120 days. Khan, 1986
Oil 0.01 percent (w/w) on maize significantly reduced the amount of damage by P. truncatus over a 21 day trial when measured as the amount of maize dust produced. Schmidt and Streloke, 1994
Topical application of 30 m g per insect caused 100 percent mortality in adult L. serricorne within 72 hours. Application of 50 m g per insect caused 98 percent mortality in adult C. maculatus, 62 percent mortality in

S. oryzae and 3 percent mortality in T. confusum.

Application of 1000 mg/kg oil to insect medium of wheat and black-eyed beans prevented F1 adult emergence of S. oryzae and C. maculatus.

Su, 1991a




Su, 1991a

400 m g/cm2 oil applied to filter paper in choice-chamber experiments produced Class IV, (86 percent) repellency amongst adult T. castaneum one week after treatment; repellency had declined to 45 percent at eight weeks. Jilani, et al. 1988
400 m g/cm2 oil applied to filter paper in choice-chamber experiments produced 53 percent repellency against adult R. dominica eight weeks after application, compared with 72 percent one week after application. Jilani and Saxena, 1990
Oil vapour 10 m 1 oil applied to filter paper in a 400 ml fumigation chamber caused 100 percent mortality of adult C. chinensis exposed for 48 hours, and 86 percent mortality of adult S. granarius exposed for 168 hours. Assessments were made after 168 hours of recovery. Exposure to 10 m l for 192 hours caused 76 percent mortality in adult S. oryzae when assessed after one week of recovery. R. dominica was unaffected by exposure to 10 m l of oil over an exposure period of 264 hours. El-Nahal, et al. 1989
Immature stages of C. chinensis, S. granarius,

S. oryzae and T. confusum were exposed to vapour from 10 m l oil in a 400 ml desiccator for 72 hours. The vapour caused 98.9 percent mortality in 0-24 hour-old eggs of C. chinensis; S. oryzae and S. granarius were less susceptible and showed 17 percent and 33 percent mortality, respectively. The younger embryonic stages were found to be more susceptible than the later stages. Larvae and pupae were less susceptible to the vapours than the eggs. Eggs, larvae and pupae of T. confusum were unaffected by the vapour.

Risha, et al. 1990
S. granarius exposed to 10 m l per 400 ml air for 96 hours showed a 92 percent reduction in F1 progeny during treatment, and a 40 percent reduction in the three week post-treatment period on untreated food medium. S. oryzae, following 192 hours of exposure, showed a 78 percent reduction in F1 progeny during the treatment and a 95 percent reduction post-treatment. Adult C. chinensis exposed to 10 m l for 48 hours died before laying eggs. T. confusum adults were unaffected by this treatment. Schmidt, et al. 1991
Effects on treated


Rice admixed with 0.2 percent (w/w) powdered rhizome and stored for eight months retained its cooking qualities; no off-flavours were detected when the rice was examined by a tasting panel. Chander, et al. 1990


Seed viability No reduction in germination potential of green gram was observed after 60 day exposure to 2 percent (w/w) rhizome powder. Chiranjeevi, 1991
Constituents The active ingredient in A. calamus is b -asarone which belongs to the phenyl propanoid family.

The tetraploid form (A. calamus subsp. varangulatus) contains the greatest amount of b -asarone (70-96 percent).

Baxter, et al. 1960


Streloke, et al. 1989

Include: eugenol, methyl-eugenol, acorin, calamenol, calamene, calameone. Woodley, 1991
Cineole, linalol, pinene, resins, safrole and tannins are also reported. Duke, 1985
Commercial application A commercial preparation containing 70 percent b -asarone is marketed by Aldrich, Weinheim FRG. Streloke, et al. 1989
Mode of action b -Asarone bears a strong structural resemblance to precocene 11, an anti-juvenile hormone.

The oil is reported to exert a specific effect on insect gonads by blocking interstitial cell secretions. The first target in females is the terminal oocyte. In males, sperm malformation and agglutination occur.

Smet, et al. 1986


Saxena and Koul, 1982

Toxicity Oil of Calamus has been shown to possess considerable toxicity in long term feeding trails with rats; it may be carcinogenic due, possibly, to its asarone or safrole content. Malignant tumours were found after 59 weeks when rats were fed 500-5 000 mg/kg.

The European Union (EU) has recommended limits of 0.1 mg/kg in food and beverages and 1 mg/kg in spirits and spices used for snacks. The use of b -asarone is prohibited in the United States and Canada.

Duke, 1985




Ageratum conyzaides L.

(Goatweed, Sharkland, Bulakmanok)

Ageratum conyzaides L. Verdcourt, et al. 1969
Description Annual herb and common weed up to 15-150 cm in height; leaves stalked, ovate and heart shaped, 1-20 cm long. Verdcourt, et al. 1969
Habitat Widespread in the tropics; found on disturbed ground and woodland. Verdcour , et al. 1969
Uses Used in traditional medicine. Perry, 1980
Petroleum ether extract 1.5 percent (w/w) of benzene diluted extract applied to green gram repelled 99 percent of C. chinensis over a ten day exposure period. Admixture of 1.5 percent (w/w) reduced the weight loss of infested green gram to 0.46 percent compared to 38 percent in the untreated control. However, the benzene control samples also repelled 99 percent of C. chinensis and reduced weight loss to 8 percent Pandey, et al. 1986
Oil 5 mg/50 g mung bean seed caused 97 percent mortality in adult C. chinensis within 24 hours and completely prevented egg laying. Morallo-Rejesus, et al. 1990
Constituents Reported constituents are essential oil, alkaloid and coumarin.

Essential oil extracted from Indian varieties has yielded a high percentage of chromenes (85 percent). It was suggested that the amount of chromenes present in the oil may be dependent upon the climatic and growing conditions experienced by the plant.

Perry, 1980


Aalbersberg and Singh, 1991

Also yield a high percentage of precocene 11; plants from Nigeria and Cameroon were rich in precocene 1, while oil from Vietnamese and Fijian (Suva) plants contained roughly the same amount of both compounds. Menut, et al. 1993
Terpenoids, steroids, flavonols, glucosides and polyoxygenated flavones have been isolated from plants from India, China, Nigeria and Northern Vietnam. Monoterpene a -pinene and eugenol have been detected in Indian plants, and p-cubebene, a-farnesene, humulene and caryophyllene oxide have been identified in Fijian plants. The anti-juvenile hormones ageratochromene and 7-methoxy-2,2-methylchromene (precocene 1) form 60 percent of the total essential oils of the flowers, leaves and stems of a Fijian variety. Aalbersberg and Singh, 1991
Toxicity The plant is unpalatable to livestock; death occurred after ingestion of 330-415 g for rabbits; 3 700 g for cows when fed over a period of 18 days. Verdcourt, et al. 1969


Artemisia vulgaris L.

(Mugwort, Carline thistle, Damong maria)

Artemisia vulgaris

Wren, 1975










Description Perennial herb; stem angular, furrowed longitudinally. Pinnate leaves, deeply incised with serrate teeth; dark green, nearly smooth above, silvery white with cotton-like hairs beneath. Wren, 1975


Habitat Northern Hemisphere; hedges and waste land. Wren, 1975
Uses Grown mainly for their ornamental foliage. It is also used as a seasoning, for medicinal purposes and has bactericidal, fungicidal and insecticidal properties. Duke, 1985


Chloroform extract Topical application caused 90 percent mortality in adult S. zeamais, and 100 percent mortality in T. castaneum within 24 hours. Ferrolino-Calumpang and Padolina, 1985
Constituents Cineole is the major constituent; quebrachitol, tauremisin, sitosterol, tetracosanol, fernenol, thujone, a -amyrin, stigmasterol, b -sitosterol and a - & b -pinene are also present. Duke, 1985
Toxicity The plant is reported to be toxic in large doses. Thujone can cause epileptic spasms. Duke, 1985


Blumea balsamifera (L.) DC.

(Sambong, Camphor)

Blumea balsamifera


Perry, 1980






Tropical alpine shrub which grows to between 1.3 and 3 metres, the young plants are herbaceous and have abundant hairs whilst the mature plant is semi-woody.

Stem ribbed; leaves narrow, obovate, 4-7 cm long and 2-3 cm wide. Flower heads numerous forming oblong spike-like inflorescence.

Grainge and Ahmed, 1988;


Graf, 1986

Habitat From the east of India to Southern China and throughout Southeast Asia. Perry, 1980
Uses Extracts of the leaves are used in traditional medicine in Southeast Asia.

Aqueous extraction used in food/drinks; as a perfume/incense; a source of tannin. Shrub is used for animal food and as a windbreak.

Perry, 1980


Grainge and Ahmed, 1988

Oil A contact toxicity of 80 percent and 100 percent adult mortality of C. chinensis was exhibited with 100 mg/ml of oil after exposure periods of 24 hours and 48 hours respectively.

50 mg/ml of oil admixed with mung bean resulted in 100 percent adult mortality of C. chinensis and a complete inhibition of oviposition after an exposure period of 24 hours.

Morallo-Rejesus, et al. 1990



Morallo-Rejesus, et al. 1990

Seed viability Application of 5 ml/kg wheat reduced germination by 23 percent

Essential oil contains levorotatory borneol, cineole, limonene, and palmitic and myristic acids; sesquiterpene alcohol, dimethyl ether; pyrocatechic tannin; glycoside and levorotatory camphor.

GC-mass spectral analysis of volatile oil determined the presence of sequiterpenoidal compounds.

Gupta, et al. 1988


Perry, 1980


Morallo-Rejesus, et al. 1990

Constituents Stem and leaves contain alkaloids and tannins. Grainge and Ahmed, 1988


Chrysanthemum indicum L.


 Chrysanthemum indicum L. Uphof, 1968; Morallo-Rejesus, et al. 1990




Description Annual small diffuse to procumbent herb, 6-20 cm high; stems quadrangular and grooved. Leaves alternate, pinnatifid; petioles 5-15 mm long. Verma, et al. 1993
Habitat China and Japan. Uphof, 1968
Uses An aromatic plant used in traditional medicine in West Africa.

Flowerheads preserved in vinegar and consumed in parts of Japan.

Burkill, 1985


Uphof, 1968

Oil 5 mg/ kg admixed with mung bean caused 100 percent mortality in adult C. chinensis within 24 ours and prevented egg-laying. Morallo-Rejesus, et al. 1990


Saussurea lappa C.B. Clarke

syn. S. costus (Falc.) Lipschitz

(Costus, Kuth, Kut)

Saussurea lappa Rehm and Espig, 1991



Description Tall, robust herb; simple, pubescent leaves, large triangular , irregularly toothed, glabrate above and pubescent beneath. Flower heads hard, many involucral bracts. Dhar and Kachroo, 1983
Habitat Native to India/Kashmir; much exported to China and Red Sea area; found on moist slopes. Uphof, 1968; Dhar and Kachroo, 1983
Uses Resin and essential oil are used for perfumes and also as a treatment for skin diseases. Rehm and Espig, 1991
Rhizome petroleum ether acetone extract One percent extract applied to filter paper showed 79 percent repellency for T. castaneum (Class IV) one week after treatment; repellency declined to 52 percent (Class lll) eight weeks after treatment. Malik and Mujtaba Naqvi, 1984
Constituents Active substances include the alkaloid saussurine. Rehm and Espig, 1991

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