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Alsberg, C.L. and Black, O.F. 1913. Contributions to the study of maize deterioration; biochemical and toxicological investigations of Penicillium puberulum and Penicillium stoloniferum. Bull. Burl Anim. Ind. U.S. Dept Agric. 270: 1-47.

Campbell, T.C. 1983. Mycotoxins. In "Environmental Aspects of Cancer: the Role of Macro and Micro Components of Foods", E.E. Wyndeer, ed. Westport, Connecticut: Food and Nutrition Press. pp. 187-197.

Cariton, W.W., Sansing, G., Szczech, G.M. and Tuite, J.1974. Citrinin mycotoxicosis in beagle dogs Food Cosmet. Toxicol. 12: 479-490.

Ciegler, A.1972. Bioproduction of ochratoxin A and penicillic acid by member of the Aspergillus ochraceus group. Can. J. Microbiol.18: 631-636.

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Krogh, P. and Hasselager, E.1968. Studies on fungal nephrotoxicity. Royal Veterinary and Agricultural College Yearbook, Denmark: pp. 198-214.

Krogh, P., Hald, B. and Pedersen, E.J. 1973. Occurrence of ochratoxin A and citrinin in cereals associated with mycotoxic porcine nephropathy. Acta Pathol. Microbiol. Scand., Sect B. 81: 689-695.

Krogh, P., Hald, B., Englund, P., Rutqvist, L. and Swahn, O. 1974a. Contamination of Swedish cereals with ochratoxin A. Acta Pathol. Microbiol. Scand., Sect. B. 82: 301-302.

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Table 1. Acute mycolaxicoses of human significance.

Date Disease Toxin Cause Diagnosis
To 1954 Ergotism Ergot alhaloids Claviceps purpurea in rye 1800, fungal cause suspected
To 1910 Acute cardiac beriberi Citreoviridin Penicillium cilreonigrum in rice 1910, yellow rice sale banned
      1969, fungal cause demonstrated
To 1948 Alimentary toxic aleukia T-2 Fusarium poae in millet and rye 1950, fungal origin suspected
1976, toxin established correctly
1965-66 'Cobalt-beer' cardio-myopathy T-2 Fusarium spp in barley 1980, fungal origin poposed
1974 Hepatitis A/laloxin Aspergillus flavus in maize 1975, fungal cause demonstrated
Current Pellagra T-2 Fusarium spp. in maize 1980, fungai origin proposed
Current Reye's syndrome Aflatoxin Aspergillus flavus in nuts and maize 1977, fungal origin proposed
Current Kwashiorkor Aflatoxin Aspergillus flavus in nuts and cereals 1983, fungal involvement proposed


Table2. Chronic mycotoxicoses of human significance.

Date Disease Taxin Cause Diagnosis
Current Liver cancer Aflatoxin Aspergillus flavus in foods 1963, fungal cause
1970-75, epidemiological studies
1977, statements of human risk
Current Oesophageal cancer in Transkei Deoxynivaleno, zearalenone Fusanum spp. in maize 1979, fungal cause suspected
Current Nephropathy in Denmark Ochratoxin Peniallium vindicatum in barley fed to pigs 1973, fungal cause known in pigs suspected in humans from residues in pork
1972, fungal cause suspected
Current Balkan endemic nephropathy ? ?  

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