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205. The Conference strongly supported the Director-General's decentralization policy and underlined that the functions of the FAO Regional and Country Offices in this process should be complementary.

206. FAO Representatives (FAORs), in particular, had a fundamental role to play in ensuring the full participation of Member Nations in the Regular Programme activities of the Organization and in developing its field programmes, through active association with the identification of assistance requirements and the monitoring of project implementation,

207. The Conference appreciated the concrete steps which had been taken to delegate effective authority to the FAORs Most members strongly encouraged the Director-General to continue and expand his initiatives in this respect, within the limits set by the rules and regulations of the Organization and constraints on resources, particularly in the area of financial management.

208. The continuing close and constructive cooperation between FAORs and UNDP Resident Representatives was noted with satisfaction. This policy, which was encouraged, was fully reflected in the joint letter which the UNDP Administrator and the Director-General had addressed to their respective representatives on 30 July 1980 1/.

209. Some members expressed reserve about the rate of the proposed expansion in the number of FAORs and also felt that in view of the decentralization to the country level, a review of the continuing validity of the role of the Regional Offices would be desirable. A large majority felt however that the proposed expansion of the number of FAORs was essential and that the role of the Regional Offices was fully valid, particularly since FAO could hardly envisage decreasing its regional involvement at a time when regional institutions and activities, both within and outside the UN system, were assuming growing importance in the economic development of the Third World.

Freedom from hunger campaign/action for development

210. The important role of non-governmental organizations in agricultural development was emphasized. This was due to the innovative nature of many of the projects they undertook, to the flexibility of their procedures, and to the overwhelming importance in the light of the follow-up to WCARRD, of involving people from both developing and developed countries in the struggle against hunger and malnutrition. Activities under FFHC/AD were therefore fully supported and, it was felt, should be intensified.

Technical cooperation programme

211. Strong general support was expressed for this programme. A number of developing countries gave concrete examples of its practical usefulness. The Conference agreed that the TCP filled efficiently an important gap, by rapidly meeting unforeseen short-term, small-scale technical assistance needs including in particular emergencies, investment preparation and training.

212. One of the more significant benefits of the TCP was seen to be its catalytic effect. Besides the generation of investment, this often occurred as a result of projects which led to larger-scale follow-up under UNDP or Trust Funds, or provided critical bridging operations when necessary.

213. It was agreed that the rigour which had been applied in the selection of TCP projects, according to the criteria endorsed by the Sixty-ninth and Seventy-fourth Sessions of the Council, must continue to be applied, and that its existing role should continue unchanged.

214. The Conference noted with satisfaction the priority being given under TCP to Africa, as well as, more generally, to least developed member countries. At the same time, it also noted that the Director-General had to maintain an overall balance reflecting the needs of all regions.

215. The great majority of members endorsed the budget proposed for the TCP. Several pointed to the large gap between the need for TCP-type activities and resources available.

216. A few members, while generally acknowledging the value of the Programme and the efficiency of its operations, felt that the need for the proposed increase had not been fully established and should be reviewed in the light of general economic circumstances and budgetary restraint in their own countries.

217. Some members mentioned their wish for independent full evaluation of TCP activities. The great majority however considered that, taking into account the information in the evaluation Review of the Regular Programme, a new external evaluation was not necessary and would not be useful, in view of the positive evaluation which had already been carried out in 1978 and endorsed by the Seventy-fourth Session of the Council in Resolution 1/74 1/, and the evaluation of TCP activities contained in the Review of the Regular Programme .

Support and common services

218. The steps taken over the past few years to apply the utmost economy in the operations of these programmes, were acknowledged. The Organization was urged to continue these efforts.

219. The quality and timely appearance of documents was commended, but continuing vigilance to maintain brevity and keep their numbers and cost down was stressed.

220. The Conference approved Supplements 1 and 2 to the Programme of Work and Budget (list of sessions and list of publications, etc. for 1981-82).

B. World food day

221. The Conference congratulated the Director-General and his staff on the success of the first World Food Day which had exceeded the expectations of many. World Food Day had concentrated the attention of all groups of nations on the problems of food and hunger in a way which had never been achieved before.

222. The Conference urged Member Nations and Non-governmental Organizations to strive, with the support of FAO, to ensure that the annual celebration of World Food Day would further intensify public awareness.

223. The Conference adopted the following resolution:

Resolution 7/81



Recalling Resolution 1/79 establishing World Food Day to be observed annually on 16 October, the anniversary of the founding of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations,

Noting with satisfaction the outstanding response by Member States of the Organization, including leadership and participation by Heads of State and Ministers, in activities which have assured widespread public recognition of World Food Day and practical efforts in pursuance of its objectives as established in paragraph 1 of Resolution 1/79,

Commending highly the Director-General for this successful implementation of the Resolution,

Appreciating the flow of information, initiatives, and assistance from Headquarters, Regional Offices and FAO Representatives' staff to Member Nations and Non-governmental Organizations in organizing activities at the national, regional and international level,

Expressing appreciation to Governments and institutions which through their voluntary financial contributions have supported the observance of the first World Food Day,

Convinced that the world food situation more than ever justifies support for "the necessary long-term effort to overcome widespread malnutrition", for giving priority to food and agricultural development, and for the role therein of the Food and Agriculture Organization,

Believing that the maintenance and enhancement of World Food Day activities on an annual basis requires continuous initiative and effort, under the leadership of the Food and Agriculture Organization, at national, regional and international levels,

1. Expresses its appreciation to all Member Governments, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, all organizing authorities and Non-governmental Organizations involved at national, regional and international levels for the successful organization of activities celebrating the first World Food Day on 16 October 1981;

2. Strongly recommends the intensification of these efforts in future years, so as to increase public awareness of the problems of the world food situation and of the need to develop greater self-reliance, foster economic and technical cooperation, and strengthen cooperative action, including the efforts of FAO, at the international level, in the struggle against hunger, malnutrition and poverty;

3. Urges Member Governments and Non-governmental Organizations to take the necessary steps towards this end, particularly with a view to improving domestic food production, promoting participation by the rural masses in decisions and measures affecting their development, closing the gap between actual and potential yields, promoting greater self-reliance, and improving living standards for the rural poor;

4. Requests the Director-General to take all necessary measures within approved budgetary resources to assist Member Governments, Non-governmental Organizations and other bodies in these efforts, including, as appropriate, publications, information, and other relevant activities directed towards promoting exchanges of experience and new ideas, sustaining public interest, developing practical follow-up actions, promoting self-financing activities supported by voluntary extra-budgetary contributions for World Food Day activities and to report regularly on progress made to the Conference.

(Adopted 25 November 1981)

C. National Agricultural Research in Developing Countries

224. The Conference welcomed document C 81/26 as presenting a clear and concise statement of the progress made since 1975 in the development of national agricultural research systems in the developing countries and analysing the major constraints still impeding their more rapid progress in terms of available finance, skilled manpower, organization and management, and the need for regional and international cooperation.

225. The Conference laid particular stress on the importance of research being integrated with other essential services in the development process and on the forging of strong two way linkages, especially with the extension services, in order that the full benefits of research reached the "resource-poor" farmer, fisherman and forester. The importance of the human element in this process was underlined, particularly the attitude of research workers themselves vis-ŕ-vis the farmers. In this connexion, the Conference reaffirmed its strong support for the role of the Organization in the training of research workers, planners and managers.

226. The Conference stressed the desirability of research at the national level being organized and conducted on an interdisciplinary basis and reiterated its approval of the integration of research activities in all the programmes. of the Organization.

227. It was considered that the Organization should play an increasingly important role in the support of the application of advanced scientific practices of great importance to agriculture including specifically genetic engineering, remote sensing, systems modelling aimed at better farming practices and land use for the small farmer, the application of radio-isotopes and radiation, the development of scale neutral technologies, and biological approaches to pest control in pre- and post-harvest situations.

228. The Organization's role as a catalyst in effective research collaboration was supported, particular emphasis being laid on the need for stronger linkages to be forged between regional and international research institutions and the national services which would benefit from internationally generated technologies. The Conference approved the proposal to give greater attention to the establishment of research networks, urging the wider utilization of specialized national and regional institutions in the developing countries, in this process.

229. The Conference supported the concept of a global system of agricultural research in which the role of the Organization would be to ensure continued collaboration and monitoring and to take the initiative in closing gaps, but cautioned against over-optimism about its rapid achievement.

230. The importance of prompt and adequate exchange of information was recognized by the Conference to be fundamental to the proper functioning of cooperative research systems, and it approved the continuing decentralized activities of the CARIS project.

231. The Conference emphasized that research activities should have a sound cost benefit ratio and urged its member countries to give urgent attention to the improvement of their national services in order to acquire and retain the necessary credibility on which planners could base financial allocations for research. In this connexion, the need for more rapid results was underlined and it was suggested that greater attention be given to the dissemination and wider adaptation of existing results especially those emanating from the international research system, for which the Organization's continued support was approved.

232. The Conference endorsed the research strategy proposed in the Medium-Term Objectives and also reiterated its approval of the Research Support Programme.

D. World soil charter

233. The Conference considered the World Soil Charter to be a very relevant, timely and well prepared document. It urged the international community to take better care of the non-renewable resource, soil, and highlighted the need for maintaining and improving its productivity which was basic for the survival of mankind.

234. The principles contained in the Charter and the related action were considered to be excellent guidelines for promoting the effective management, conservation, and reclamation of lands' and for combatting desertification.

235. The Conference adopted the following resolution:

Resolution 8/81



Recalling Resolution VI of the World Food Conference (Rome, 1974), by which the Food and Agriculture Organization was urged to establish a World Soil Charter as a basis for an international cooperation towards the most rational use of the world's soil resources,

Realizing that land resources are limited and that of the total land area of the world only a small percentage is currently used to feed the world population which is likely to reach six billion by the end of the century,

Recalling further the Programme of Action as adopted by the World Conference on Agrarian Reform and Rural Development (Rome, 1979), which called for "an efficient use of land... with due regard for ecological balance and environmental protection", and the Plan of Action of the U.N. Conference on Desertification (Nairobi, 1977) to combat land degradation and desertification,

Concurring that the food requirements of mankind including the eradication of malnutrition can be met by:

- the intensification of food crop production including multiple cropping, wherever this can be safely accomplished,

- the bringing into cultivation of new lands, wherever conditions for sustained cropping prevail, with a view to meeting food production requirements,

- the establishment and better utilization of grasslands and forests,

Sharing the concern caused by the dangers of soil degradation resulting from misuse of land and inappropriate measures for intensifying production, particularly in areas which are exposed to water and wind erosion, or salinity and alkalinity,

Noting the research carried out by FAO in conjunction with Unesco, UNEP, WHO, and other competent international organizations, and in consultation with Governments concerned, with a view to assessing the lands that can still be brought into cultivation, taking proper account of permanent vegetation cover for the protection of catchment areas and of land required for forestry, grazing and other uses, with particular reference to hazards of irreversible soil degradation as well as the order of magnitude of costs and inputs required,

Recognizing that decisive progress towards intensified assistance in the improvement of productivity and conservation of soils can be achieved by the adoption and implementation of appropriate principles and guidelines for action at the national and international levels,

Having noted the conclusions and recommendations adopted by the Committee on Agriculture at its Sixth Session and by the Council at its Seventy-ninth Session,

1. Hereby adopts the World Soil Charter;

2. Recommends to the United Nations and international organizations concerned to give effect, within their respective spheres of competence, to the Principles and Guidelines set forth below.


1. Among the major resources available to man is land, comprising soil, water and associated plants and animals: the use of these resources should not cause their degradation or destruction because man's existence depends on their continued productivity.

2. Recognizing the paramount importance of land resources for the survival and welfare of people and economic independence of countries, and also the rapidly increasing need for more food production, it is imperative to give high priority to promoting optimum land use, to maintaining and improving soil productivity and to conserving soil resources.

3. Soil degradation means partial or total loss of productivity from the soil, either quantitatively, qualitatively, or both, as a result of such processes as soil erosion by water or wind, salinization, waterlogging, depletion of plant nutrients, deterioration of soil structure, desertification and pollution. In addition, significant areas of soil are lost daily to non-agricultural uses. These developments are alarming in the light of the urgent need for increasing production of food, fibres and wood.

4. Soil degradation directly affects agriculture and forestry by diminishing yields and upsetting water regimes, but other sectors of the economy and the environment as a whole, including industry and commerce, are often seriously affected as well, through, for example, floods, or the silting-up of rivers, dams and ports.

5. It is a major responsibility of governments that lend use programmes, include measures towards the best possible use of the land, ensuring long-term maintenance and improvement of its productivity, and avoiding losses of productive soil. The land users themselves should be involved, thereby ensuring that all resources available are utilized in the most rational way.

6. The provision of proper incentives at farm level and a sound technical, institutional and legal framework are basic conditions to achieve good land use.

7. Assistance given to farmers and other land users should be of a practical service oriented nature and should encourage the adoption of measures of good land husbandry.

8. Certain land tenure structures may constitute an obstacle to the adoption of sound soil management and conservation measures on farms. Ways and means should be pursued to overcome such obstacles with respect to the rights, duties and responsibilities of land owners, tenants and land users alike, in accordance with the recommendations of the World Conference on Agrarian Reform and Rural Development (Rome, 1979).

9. Land users and the broad public should be well informed of the need and the means of improving soil productivity and conservation. Particular emphasis should be placed on education and extension programmes. and training of agricultural staff at all levels.

10. In order to ensure optimum land use it is important that a country's land resources be assessed in terms of their suitability at different levels of inputs for different types of land use, including agriculture, grazing and forestry.

11. Land having the potential for a wide range of uses should be kept in flexible forms of use so that future options for other potential uses are not denied for a long period of time or forever. The use of land for non-agricultural purposes should be organized in such a way as to avoid, as much as possible, the occupation or permanent degradation of good quality soils.

12. Decisions about the use and management of land and its resources should favour the long-term advantage rather than the short-term expedience that may lead to exploitation, degradation and possible destruction of soil resources.

13. Land conservation measures should be included in land development at the planning stage and the costs included in development planning budgets.


Acceptance of these Principles would require the following action:

BY Governments

i. Develop a policy for wise land use according to land suitability for different types of utilization and the needs of the country.

ii. Incorporate principles of rational land use and management and conservation of soil resources into appropriate resource legislation.

iii. Develop an institutional framework for monitoring and supervising soil management and soil conservation, and for coordination between organizations involved in the use of the countries' land resources in order to ensure the most rational choice among possible alternatives.

iv. Assess both new lands and the lands already being used for their suitability for different uses and the likely hazards of degradation. Provide decision makers with alternative land uses which both satisfy communities' aspirations and use the land according to its capabilities.

v. Implement education, training and extension programmes. at all levels in soil management and conservation.

vi. Disseminate as widely as possible, information and knowledge about soil erosion and methods of controlling it both at the farm level and at the scale of entire watersheds stressing the importance of soil resources for the benefit of people and development.

vii. Establish links between local government administration and land users for the implementation of the soils policy and emphasize the need to put proven soil conservation techniques into practice, and to integrate appropriate measures in forestry and agriculture for the protection of the environment.

viii. Strive to create socio-economic and institutional conditions favourable to rational land resource management and conservation. These conditions will include providing security of land tenure and adequate financial incentives (e.g. subsidies, taxation relief, credit) to the land user. Give encouragement particularly to groups willing to work in cooperation with each other and with their government to achieve appropriate land use, soil conservation and improvement.

ix. Conduct research programmes. which will provide sound scientific backing to practical soil improvements and soil conservation work in the field, and which give due consideration to prevailing socio-economic conditions.

By International Organizations

i. Continue and intensify efforts to create awareness and encourage cooperation among all sectors of the international community, by assisting where required to mount publicity campaigns, conduct seminars and conferences and to provide suitable technical publications.

ii. Assist governments, especially of developing countries, on request, to establish appropriate legislation, institutions and procedures to enable them to mount, implement and monitor appropriate land use and soil conservation programmes.

iii. Promote cooperation between governments in adopting sound land use practices, particularly in the large international watersheds.

iv. Pay particular attention to the needs of agricultural development projects which include the conservation and improvement of soil resources, the provision of inputs and incentives at the level of the farm and of the watershed, and the establishment of the necessary institutional structures as the mayor components.

v. Support research programmes. relevant to soil conservation, not only of a technical nature but also research into social and economic issues which are linked to the whole question of soil conservation and land resource management.

vi. Ensure the storage, compilation and dissemination of experience and information related to soil conservation programmes. and of the results obtained in different agro-ecological regions of the world.

(Adopted 25 November 1981)

E. Resources for Food Production and Agricultural Development

236. The Conference adopted the following resolution:

Resolution 9/81



Noting the United Nations General Assembly Resolution 35/56 on the International Development Strategy for the Third UN Development Decade which inter alia stressed the key importance of food and agriculture in the fight against hunger and poverty,

Recalling the Declaration on the Eradication of Hunger and Malnutrition of the World Food Conference,

Aware that still hundreds of millions of people continue to suffer from hunger and malnutrition,

Noting further the priority assigned to food and agricultural development in the deliberations of Heads of State at the Lagos, Ottawa, Melbourne and Cancún meetings,

Noting also the serious concern expressed by the Executive Heads of organizations in the United Nations system to the current session of the General Assembly with the deteriorating situation facing all organizations of the United Nations system with regard to the declining level of concessional resources in real terms available for international technical cooperation and other development activities,

Recalling the repeated endorsement by the international community of the need to ensure an increased flow of resources on a sustained, continuous and more predictable basis, to support economic and social development programmes. of the developing countries, particularly in the fields of agriculture and rural development,

Recognizing the current economic difficulties facing both developed and developing countries and the need for economy in public expenditures, and considering that these difficulties reinforce the need to confront the acute necessities of the large hungry and malnourished proportion of the world's population,

Reaffirming its belief that the Foot ant Agriculture (ORGANIZATION of the United Nations (FAO) is an indispensable instrument of international cooperation in the efforts of the international community to overcome hunger and malnutrition,

Recognizing with appreciation in this connexion the nature and level of collaboration between FAO and multilateral funding organizations, including the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), the International Fund for Agricultural Development IFAD the World Bank, and the Regional Development Banks.

Reiterating its general approval of the strategies and priorities for 1982-83 and over the medium term as proposed by the Director-General and the need to implement these by provision of funds through the assessed contributions to the Regular Programme and adequate extra-budgetary contributions to FAO's Special Action Programmes and other Trust Funds,

1. Calls Upon all Member Nations to give the highest priority to food and agricultural development in their national development plans, to make every effort towards greater self-reliance in their development, including follow-up of the recommendations of WCARRD, and to take all necessary steps to avoid reducing the production and availability of food supplies for the poorest sections of the world's population;

2. Invites all the developing countries to pursue the policy of collective self reliance in food and agriculture, to develop cooperation between themselves, including cooperation between those with untapped agricultural production potential ant those with available financial resources to develop mutually beneficial collaborative arrangements for food production;

3. Affirms that greater self-reliance calls for fuller international cooperation including not only economic and technical cooperation between developing countries but also increased external aid and assistance to investment and technical assistance in food and agricultural development by countries in a position to provide these;

4. Strongly Urges Member Nations to take all possible steps without delay to ensure the replenishment of the resources particularly concessional resources, for food and agricultural development of the multilateral financing institutions, in particular to replenish IFAD 1/ to assure the attainment of the agreed target for pledges to the UNDP for the Third Programming Cycle (1982-86), to provide adequate support to the Special Action Programmes and other extra-budgetary activities of FAO, as well as to fulfil the targets for WFP and the IEFR;

5. Reaffirms the special position and importance of the Food and Agriculture ORGANIZATION in the fight against hunger and malnutrition through its four main roles of information, policy, advice, and support for operational activities, including the Technical Cooperation Programme, and the need for providing adequate resources both to the Regular Programme and to extra-budgetary activities supported thereunder;

6. Requests the Director-General to continue with his efforts to streamline the programmes, staffing and administrative costs of the Organization and to make improvements in efficiency and economy and, in the exercise of his responsibility under Article XVIII.1 of the Constitution, to put forward his proposals for the next Programme of Work and Budget on the basis of his best judgment of the world food situation, taking into account the views of all Member Nations on their needs and constraints.

(Adopted 25 November 1981)

F. Review of the Regular Programme 1980-81

237. The Conference welcomed the format and content in the Review of the Regular Programme 1980-81. The Review reflected the suggestions made by the Governing Bodies two years ago and was a major improvement over the first issue. It was very informative and useful for assessing programmes, and issues for the future.

238. As regards Part I, the Conference welcomed in particular the deepening of the analysis, the use of tables and charts, the pooling of the results of common activities (i.e. training, meetings, publications, technical backstopping of field projects and direct assistance to member countries) as well as the chapter on the Special Action Programmes.

239. The Conference felt that Part II (the in-depth reviews) was especially useful in evaluating FAO's programmes, It welcomed the increase in the number of topics covered and their extended time coverage for assessment purposes, the increased coverage of effects and impact, as well as the fuller exploration of the relationship between the Regular Programme activities and their respective field components, which enhanced the comprehensiveness of the Review.

240. In discussing both parts of the Review, the Conference supported the thrust of the Major Programmes, programmes, and sub-programmes and felt that the sections on "Outlook and Issues" drew attention to useful points for consideration by the Governing Bodies and the Secretariat in regard to formulation of programmes. in future.

241. Some members regretted the lack of quantification and/or measurement of impact. One member felt that in this regard the Medium-Term Objectives and the Review could be linked by quantifying objectives and impact. The majority however recognized the difficulties of measuring the impact of FAO's Regular Programme activities, since the resources available to the Organization under the Regular Programme were modest; considerable time was required for impact to manifest itself at the country level, impact depended on the degree to which FAO's assistance was buttressed by larger resources from governments, donors and financing institutions, and there were methodological and cost problems in quantification and measurement of impact.

242. The Conference supported the Director-General's policy of improved internal evaluation through auto-evaluation, the biennal review, the Programme and Finance Committees and the JIU. The majority emphasized the need for continued strengthening of the internal evaluation system as the most appropriate, effective and economical way of ensuring useful evaluation and its use in future programme formulation. Some members particularly stressed the value of thematic evaluations with other UN agencies, particularly UNDP. Some members reaffirmed that they highly valued independent evaluations and that they should be seen as complementary to internal evaluations.

243. A number of suggestions were made for improvements in the Review. In this connexion, the Conference gave special importance to the further strengthening of the in-depth reviews, with special emphasis on the treatment of effects and impact and the further improvements of the sections on "Outlook and Issues". To accomplish this, without lengthening the document, the Conference supported the views of the Programme Committee that certain sections of the performance report, especially the sections on objectives and resources, could be eliminated or sharply curtailed.

244. Other points stressed by some members included a desire for expanded coverage of constraints and difficulties encountered by the Organization and by Member Governments during implementation; increased coverage of the activities of the Regional Offices and FAO, country offices; more information on TCP; better criteria for the selection of topics for in-depth reviews; indications of how feedback from the Review helps solve identified problems, and some evaluation at the component (i.e. programme element) level which, it was felt, could give more information on impact than could assessment at higher programme levels.

245. In discussing the substance of the Review, the Conference emphasized the continued importance of several programmes, and sub-programmes covered in the Review.

246. In discussion of the Soil Management and Fertilizers sub-programme, under Major Programme 2.1 (Agriculture), strong support wee given to the Judicious use of mineral fertilizers complemented with organic material less demanding in fossil energy and involving also biological nitrogen fixation. The integration of crop/livestock/soil management practices wee also stressed. To achieve these goals, it was essential to ensure closer links between the Soil Management ant Fertilizers sub-programme and other complementary activities, especially in those field projects which have greater access to small farmers.

247. The Conference recognized the value of the Special Action Programmes and voiced concern about the slow response of donors for the programmes, for food security assistance, prevention of food losses, fertilizers, control of African Animal Trypanosomiasis, seed improvement and development, and WCARRD follow-up.

248. Strong support was expressed for FAO assistance in support of national agricultural research, which implied also closer links with existing international research network. Many members stressed the need to enhance effectiveness through stronger inter-action at the country level between research, extension and farming practices. Another factor highlighted was the need for improving the low statue of research workers in the developing countries.

249. The role of credit, especially supervised loans for smallholders, was supported. The critical role of improved internal and external marketing as a stimulant to increased food and agriculture production was also emphasized.

250. Other areas which received special notice ant support were home economics, the integration of nutrition criteria in the planning of agricultural and food production, the global early warning system, the role of women in development, the role of and assistance to cooperatives, improved livestock management for small animals and farm structures and storage facilities.

251. It wee agreed that communication techniques were an important element of agricultural and rural development programmes, in the developing countries. There was an exchange of views on the value of using video in such programmes, The need was stressed for a built-in communication element in the design of every rural development project with emphasis on people's participation.

252. In fisheries, the importance of decentralized implementation through inter-country projects (especially in the context of the EEZ Programme) with a strong TCDC element built into them, wee fully recognized. The development of small-scale fisheries (both marine and inland) was strongly supported, including the need for better socio-economic data on rural fishing communities. The promotion of private sector investment in fisheries was also highlighted.

253. The thrust of the forestry programme wee endorsed with special emphasis on community level fuel wood supplies, wood for energy, agro-forestry, protection of the environment, mapping of zones threatened by desertification, the development of appropriate forest industries and trade in forestry products. The element of training wee considered to be an essential aspect of the rural development orientation of FAO's forestry programmes.

254. Many members stressed the critical role of FAO in the promotion of training activities, especially the training of trainers They felt that the latter approach had a considerable multiplier effect and should, therefore, be vigorously pursued in all relevant and appropriate FAO programmes.

255. Under Technical Cooperation and Development Support, the Conference gave full recognition to the catalytic and bridging role of TCP in tackling pressing short-term problems expeditiously; to the benefit to the developing countries of the Investment Centre's work in attracting outside investment for agriculture and rural development; to the role and functions of the FAO Representatives in assisting governments in their development efforts, including coordination with other donors; and to the significance of FFHC/AD in promoting small-scale rural development projects. It also stressed the increasing use where appropriate of national institutions and consultants in the implementation of FAO's Regular and field programme activities as well as the promotion of TCDC as an effective mechanism for the transfer of technology.

256. The Conference endorsed the Review of the Regular Programme and noted with satisfaction the intention of the Secretariat to take account of the various views expressed in the discussion.

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