Previous Page Table of Contents Next Page

5 Coral Reefs of Sri Lanka: Current Status And Resource Management by Arjan Rajasuriya1

1 National Aquatic Resources, Research and Development Agency, Sri Lanka.


Sri Lanka is situated south of the Indian sub-continent between 5° and 10° north of the equator. The island has a total land area of 65,000 km2 and a coastline of about 1, 585 km of which 300 km are beaches and sand dunes (GSL, 1985, Lowry and Wickremaratne, 1989, Olsen et al., 1992). The country's land area is about 65,610 sq km and is inhabited by approximately 18 million people. The maritime area of 230,000 sq km belonging to Sri Lanka is about three times larger than the land area. The continental shelf of the country as an area of about 31,000 sq km and the width ranges from 9 to 45 km with an average depth of 66 m (Cooray, 1967).

There are fringing and offshore reefs of varying conditions around the country. These have been categorized into three main habitat types. They are the true coral habitats consisting of live coral as well as calcareous substances, sandstone and rocky habitats (Rajasuriya & De Silva, 1988; De Silva & Rajasuriya, 1989; Rajasuriya, De Silva & Ohman, 1995). According to Swan (1983) about 2% of the coastline contains nearshore fringing reefs. The growth of coral reefs around Sri Lanka is influenced mainly by the monsoons which has a major impact on the level of turbidity and fresh water input into the coastal waters. As a result extensive coral reef habitats are limited to areas with lower levels of sedimentation with semi-dry climates found in the north-western and eastern coastal areas. Coral reef development in the southwestern sector of the coastline is poor due to heavy rainfall during the monsoon and the resulting impact from sedimentation and turbidity. Fringing coral reefs also occur around some of the islands around the Jaffna Peninsula.

Sandstone and rocky habitats are extensive and widespread. They are found from near-shore areas to offshore areas to depths more than 50 m. Although living corals colonize them to varying levels, live coral cover on these habitats is generally below 10%.

The coastal region supports 32% of the country's total population on 24% of its land area. This region also contains 66% of the urban land, 67% of the country's industry, and 80% of its tourism infrastructure. The marine fisheries contribute about 65% of the animal protein consumed by the population. The coastal fisheries classified as within 40 km from the shore provide the majority of the marine fish production (Baldwin, 1991). Nearly all of Sri Lanka's reefs are located within 40 km from the coast and they contribute significantly to the marine fish production (Rajasuriya and White, 1995).

Figure 1. Important recorded coral reef areas in Sri Lanka. Source: NARA; Rajasuriya and White 1995.

For centuries, reef resources have been utilized for food and building materials. Increased human activities in recent times have begun to degrade the quality of the reefs, particularly the nearshore habitats. The major uses of the reefs are extraction of living and dead coral for the lime industry, capture fisheries and the harvesting of exotic reef resources such as ornamental fish for export and for tourism related activities.

Major causes of reef degradation are sedimentation, destructive fishing methods such as the use of explosives and bottom-set nets, mining of coral from the sea for lime production and uncontrolled harvesting of reef resources. Pollution and sewage have also contributed to the overall degradation of the marine environment (Table 3).

Reef Condition

The condition of reefs based on a combination of substrate cover, diversity and abundance of reef organisms indicate that the best reefs are associated with the Barrier-type reefs located offshore (Fig.1). These are found mainly in the northwestern, southeastern and the eastern waters. Similar reefs have also been investigated off Colombo and Negombo in the western area. Most nearshore reefs are affected by human activities including destructive fishing and coral mining in specific areas. Other than the direct impact from coral mining and destructive fishing the greatest threat to Sri Lankan reefs overall is from sedimentation. Many nearshore reefs, particularly along the southwestern and western coastal areas are being silted up rapidly. Increased turbidity in the coastal waters during the southwest monsoon also hinders the growth of reef building corals.

Live reef building coral cover in excess of 50 % is found mainly in some of the offshore reefs (Fig.2). The live coral cover on most inshore coral reefs is less than 50% while the rocky and sandstone habitats support a percentage of live coral less than the true coral reefs (Rajasuriya and De Silva, 1988; Rajasuriya et al 1995). A total of 183 species of stony corals divided among 68 genera have been recorded from Sri Lanka. The dominant reef building species belong to the families of Acroporidae, Faviidae, Poritidae and Pocilloporidae. Almost 400 species of reef and reef associated species have been identified during the reef surveys conducted by NARA from a total of nearly 1000 known reef and reef associated species. A very high diversity of butterfly fish species (35 species) have also been recorded for Sri Lanka.

Sri Lankan reefs also support many species of invertebrates including commercially important species of spiny lobsters, shrimps and crabs and marine flora such as sea grasses and algae. Dolphins, whale sharks and sea turtles have also been sighted among inshore and offshore reefs.

Most nearshore reefs in Sri Lanka have been severely damaged due to human activities. The major causes of reef damage from human activities are coral mining in the sea, destructive fishing and uncontrolled harvesting (De Silva, 1985; Rajasuriya, 1991; Rajasuriya et al. 1995; Rajasuriya and Wood, 1997). Anchor damage to coral reefs is also common during fishing operations and when boats are anchored within reef lagoons. Studies conducted at the Hikkaduwa Marine Sanctuary indicate that the live coral cover has declined from 21.7 percent in 1985 to 13.2 percent in 1994 where the boats are anchored within the sanctuary (Nakatani et al 1994).

Resource Use And Human Impacts

Coral Mining

Coral mining in the sea to produce lime for the construction industry has destroyed most of the fringing reefs along Sri Lanka's southwestern coast. The construction industry accounts for nearly 92% of the lime used in Sri Lanka. Sometimes lime is also used in agriculture to reduce the acidity in soils (Hale and Kumin, 1992). There are two types of coral mining primarily targeting lime production; traditional mining of ancient fossilized coral reefs found inland and below ground, and a more recent and harmful activity of mining both live and dead coral from the sea.

Some of the ancient reefs which date back to more than five thousand years (Katupotha, 1988) are located in the south-western and southern parts of the country. The most exploited and extensive ancient reefs are concentrated along the coastal belt from Akurala to Hikkaduwa in the southwestern coast and in the Matara District in the southern coast. In some areas inland coral deposits extend more than 5 km inland and down to depths of almost 10m from ground level.

A survey conducted in 1984 by the Coast Conservation Department (CCD) in the south-western and southern coastal areas has revealed that 18,000 t of coral is being supplied annually to the lime industry. A major portion of this (42%) originates from mining inland ancient coral deposits beyond the coastal zone while 16% is mined on land within the coastal zone. Another 30% comprises coral debris illegally collected from the shore. The balance 12% contain coral illegally mined from the sea (Hale and Kumin, 1992). A survey carried out by the Coast Conservation Department in 1990 from Ambalangoda to Hambantota had revealed that nearly 2,000 persons were dependent on inland and offshore coral mining activities (Ranaweera Banda, 1990). Coral mining in the sea is also reported from the east coast around Kalkudah and Passikudah Bays. Coral mining from the sea has resulted in severe coastal erosion in all these areas where the government has spent millions of rupees to build coast protection structures.

Figure 2. Percent substrate cover of coral reef sites investigated by NARA along the Sri Lankan coast. Sources: De Silva and Rajasuriya (1989); Rajasuriya (1991a and b).

Table 1. Coral Collected for Lime Production from Sri Lanka's South-western Coastal Area in 1984

Location of Coral Collected

Amount (Tons)

Total Harvest (% of total)

Relic reefs on land


Inland of the coastal zone



Within the coastal zone



Coral rubble on the beach

Within the coastal zone



Live coral at sea from the reef

Within the coastal zone







Today Sri Lanka has a population of about 18 million people and nearly half of the population live in the coastal districts. The majority of economic centers are also located within these areas. Fishing is the most important economic activity carried out in the sea and supports a large number of coastal dwellers. Fish amounts to approximately 65 % of the animal protein consumption and 13 % of the total protein intake of the people. Over 90 % of the total fishing population in the country belongs to the marine sector and the marine fisheries had supplied over 97 % of the total fish production during 1987 - 1988 (Baldwin, 1991). However it is not clear how much of the total catch is supplied by reefs. Most of the fishing is concentrated in coastal waters classified as within the first 40 km from the shore (Baldwin, 1991). Prior to the last two decades, fishing in Sri Lanka was primarily carried out from non-motorized crafts such as dugout canoes, catamarans and log crafts employing non-destructive fishing techniques such as angling, gill-netting in deep waters and beach seining.

Recently introduced highly efficient techniques such as the bottom-set nets to catch spiny lobsters and reef fish cause severe damage to coral reefs. Blast fishing using explosives is also commonly practiced in many parts of the country, being most prevalent in the southern coastal waters in the Galle District.

Ornamental fish collection and other exports

In addition to fishing activities, collection of reef fish, invertebrates and live coral for the ornamental fish export industry is of considerable importance. In fisheries export products, ornamental fish exports is rated as the third highest in volume and value after prawns and lobsters (Baldwin, 1991). Uncontrolled collection and destructive collecting techniques such as the 'moxy net' technique tends to causes damage to the habitats (Rajasuriya, et al. 1995). Other fisheries and aquatic products harvested around coral reefs are sea cucumber, spiny lobsters and various species of molluscs (e. g. cowries). Collection and export of ornamental fish has increased several fold in recent times (Table 2). However the available data does not indicate the numbers of fish exported or any records by species.

Table 2. Variation in annual export value (Rs. Million) of ornamental species from Sri Lanka over the period 1962 - 1994. Source: Wood 1996.


Minimum annual export value in Rupees (million)

Maximum annual export value Rupees (million)

1962 - 1970



1971 - 1980



1981 - 1990



1991 - 1994



Tourism and recreational activities

Coastal areas, particularly beaches and areas with fringing reefs have become important locations for tourism development. Swimming, snorkeling, scuba diving and viewing corals through glass- bottom boats are popular activities. The majority of hotels along the coast line have been constructed without proper planning and as result numerous problems such as liquid and solid waste disposal have become major issues. In some locations such as in Hikkaduwa these issues have become acute and it has now begun to have an adverse impact on the marine environment (Nakatani et al. 1994; Rajasuriya et al 1995).

Environmental pollution

Dumping of garbage into city waterways and onto beaches has a negative impact on the marine environment in general and on the reefs in particular. The volume of non-biodegradable garbage such as polythene products in inshore waters increase daily particularly near cities and coastal towns. In addition untreated industrial effluent is discharged directly into rivers or canals that eventually pollute the sea. Oil pollution in harbours is a chronic problem particularly when fishing boats are anchored in the protected bays formed by fringing reefs or estuaries. Waste oil and bilge water is washed into these waters.

Table 3. Coral Reef Locations, Status & Causes of Damage or Threats (Major causes of damage are underlined), Sources: De Silva, 1985; Rajasuriya & White 1995; Rajasuriya et al. 1995;)



Causes of Damage or Threats

Bar Reef Marine Sanctuary

Shallow coral area are partially damaged, deep coral area are in good condition

Crown of Thorns Starfish, destructive Fishing, uncontrolled harvesting, boat anchors


Shallow coral areas are heavily damaged

destructive fishing, boat anchors, uncontrolled harvesting


Shallow coral areas are damaged

destructive fishing, boat anchors, uncontrolled harvesting


Partially damaged

destructive fishing, uncontrolled harvesting


Mostly in good condition, damage is evident, inshore reefs are damaged

destructive fishing, sedimentation on inshore reefs, uncontrolled harvesting


Inshore reefs degraded, offshore reefs are in good condition

sedimentation, uncontrolled harvesting, pollution

Ambalangoda to Hikkaduwa

Inshore reefs degraded offshore reef relatively good

coral mining, sedimentation, destructive fishing, uncontrolled harvesting

Hikkaduwa Marine Sanctuary

Partially degraded

sedimentation, boat anchoring, reef trampling, pollution, use of glass bottom boats, increase of Halimeda

Galle including Rumasssala reef


sedimentation, uncontrolled harvesting, destructive fishing, pollution


Partially degraded

sedimentation, pollution, reef trampling, anchors, uncontrolled harvesting


Partially degraded

sedimentation, pollution, reef trampling, anchors, destructive collecting, uncontrolled harvesting

Polhena, Matara

Heavily degraded

coconut husk seasoning, sedimentation, uncontrolled harvesting


Partially degraded

sedimentation, reef tramplina, souvenir collection

Great and Little Basses


uncontrolled harvesting

Batticoloa & Trincomalee

Some locations degraded

destructive fishing, uncontrolled harvesting

Reef Research In Sri Lanka

Early research on corals and coral reefs were carried out at the turn of the century by Ridley (1883), Ortmann (1889) and Bourne (1905) who described primarily the solitary corals collected from the Gulf of Mannar. Pillai (1972), recorded the species diversity of stony corals for Sri Lanka which contained a total of 90 species divided among 39 genera. In 1974 Mergner and Scheer carried out an ecological study at Hikkaduwa and reported on the Physiographic Zonation and ecological conditions of fringing reefs. Scheer (1984), updated the list of stony coral genera for Sri Lanka to a total of 40 genera based on their investigations and the work of previous authors.

More recent research was reported by De Silva and Rajasuriya who carried out research from 1985 through the National Aquatic Resources Agency. In 1985 they discovered 25 species of stony corals previously unrecorded for Sri Lanka, many of these were from Hikkaduwa. An additional 34 species and 8 genera were recorded for Sri Lanka by Rajasuriya and De Silva in 1986. A total of 171 species of stony corals divided among 65 genera were recorded by Rajasuriya and De Silva (1988) of which 65 species and 15 genera were new records for Sri Lanka. Their coral list was based on previous records and on extensive coral collections made by the Coral Reef Research Team at NARA from Tangalle in the South coast to Kandakuliya in the north-western coast. In 1994 Rajasuriya updated this list by adding another 12species and 3 genera previously not recorded for Sri Lanka, increasing the total to 183 species of stony corals divided among 68 genera.

A detailed survey of coastal reefs was carried out by NARA from 1990 onwards with the support of the Swedish Agency for Research Cooperation with Developing Countries (SAREC) (Ohman et al. 1993; Rajasuriya, et al., 1995). Initial surveys conducted by Rajasuriya (1990), at the Bar Reef led to the declaration of the Bar Reef as a Marine Sanctuary (BRMS) in 1992. De Bruin (1972), reported on the destruction of coral reefs off the east coast by the coral predator Acanthaster planci in the early 1970's. In 1994, Rajasuriya and Rathnapriya reported on the destruction of coral reefs in the northwestern of Sri Lanka by the 'Crown of thorns' Starfish and its implication for management of the Bar Reef Marine Sanctuary.

The first investigations geared towards the management of coral reefs was carried out at Hikkaduwa by De Silva and Rajasuriya in 1985. They proposed a zonation and management plan for the Hikkaduwa Marine Sanctuary in 1985 and recommended that the sanctuary be declared a marine park in view of the multitude of activities within the existing sanctuary. This management plan has now been adopted in the Special Area Management Plan (SAMP) for Hikkaduwa prepared by the Coastal Resources Management Project which carried out a Special Area Management Project for Hikkaduwa from 1992 to 1995. The National Aquatic Resources Agency played a central role in the SAM studies which was reported by Nakatani et al. (1994), in the Coastal Environmental Profile of Hikkaduwa.

Research on coastal erosion and socio economic aspects of coral mining has been mainly conducted by the Coast Conservation Department (Madduma Bandara, 1989; Dayananda, 1992; CCD, 1990; Ranaweera Banda, 1990; Baldwin, 1991; Ranaweera Banda et al. 1994)

At present the National Aquatic Resources Agency is conducting studies on the potential of the marine ornamental fisheries in Sri Lanka and is conducting underwater video monitoring of the status of the reefs. These programmes are supported by the Darwin Initiative of UK and by SAREC/Sida of Sweden.

Marine Protected Areas And Management

In Sri Lanka there had been Legislation to protect marine organisms more than a century ago. An example can be traced back to the late 19th century when the Chanks Ordinance of 1880 was introduced to control the collection and export of chanks from the Gulf of Mannar region and around the Jaffna Peninsula. Subsequently this legislation was expanded to introduce a ban on the collection of chanks, beche-de- mer, coral and shells from Mannar to a point 2 miles south of Talawila. The protection to marine organisms had been provided under the "Crown Lands Ordinance of 1929', where removal of coral and certain organisms were prohibited from specific locations. Sanctuaries were declared in Ambalangoda and Hikkaduwa Rocky Islets by Gazette No. 8675 of 25th October 1940. Similarly the Naval Headworks in Trincomalee and the Great and Little Sober Islands within the Trincomalee harbour were declared in 1963. In 1973 the Paraitivu Island west of the Jaffna Peninsula and in 1974 the Pigeon Islands north of Trincomalee were declared as sanctuaries (Gazette No. 136 of 1st November 1974). Although these areas were mostly offshore islands it is not clear whether the sanctuary status extended to include the adjacent waters. In 1973 regulations were drafted to declare the sea area between Mt. Lavinia and Galle Face on the west coast as a Lobster Reserve, but there is no evidence to indicate that it was ever Gazetted. In 1980 Cabinet approval had been granted to the Ministry of Fisheries to declare the Hikkaduwa Harbour area, Polhena Reef area, Great and Little Basses Reefs, Passekuda and Kalkuda Bay and the Pigeon Island as Marine Sanctuaries under the Fisheries Ordinance. However, there is no indication that these areas were ever declared as marine sanctuaries under the fisheries ordinance.

In 1982, an Inter-Ministerial Committee on Marine Parks and Sanctuaries formed by the National Aquatic Resources Agency (NARA) had identified more than 20 coral reef areas around the island to be declared as sanctuaries. However, at present there are only two sea areas that have been declared as marine sanctuaries especially to protect the coral reefs. They are the Hikkaduwa Marine Sanctuary (declared in 1979), and the Bar Reef Marine Sanctuary (declared in 1992) declared under section 2(2) of the Fauna and Flora Protection Ordinance (Chapter 469) as amended by Act No. 44 of 1964 and Act No. 1 of 1970.

Table 4. Ministries and government departments directly or indirectly responsible for the coastal waters.(*) Those with direct authority over coral-reef management or research.

Ministry of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources*

Development and management of all fisheries activities, conservation of aquatic habitats and protection of vulnerable, rare and endangered species. Licensing of fishermen, crafts and gear, also construction and maintenance of fisheries harbours.

Ministry of Forestry and Environment

Responsible for terrestrial and aquatic environments.

Ministry of Ports and Shipping

Activities connected with shipping and commercial harbours.

Ministry of Tourism

Responsible for planning and developing the tourist industry.

Department of Wild Life Conservation*

Management of protected areas and conservation of selected species.

National Aquatic Resources Agency *

Research and development of all aquatic living and non-living resources.

Central Environmental Authority *

Establishing national environmental standards and the principal coordinating body for all environmental related activities, which includes overseeing Sri Lanka's environmental impact assessment (EIA) process.

Coast Conservation Department *

Regulating development activities within the coastal zone and safeguarding coastal resources. Responsible for implementing the Coastal Zone Management Plan.

Urban Development Authority

Responsible for planning and development of towns, cities and their networks of garbage disposal systems etc.

Ceylon Tourist Board

Planning and development of tourist facilities and licensing authority for tourist related activities.

Ceylon Fisheries Harbours Corporation

Development and maintenance of fishery harbours.

Sri Lanka Ports Authority

Supervises port development and management.

National Drainage and Water Supply Board

Supply of drinking water and sewerage facilities.

Coral reefs are an extremely important resource for the people of Sri Lanka, offering a number of economical and environmental benefits. From the presently available information it is clear that they are being depleted at an increasing rate. Almost all the reefs around the island are influenced by people. Although laws have been introduced to protect reefs and regulate human activities, few have been implemented. There are also a number of government organizations that are responsible for the well being of coral reefs and the associated coastal habitats (Table 4).

Sri Lanka's Coastal Zone Management Plan, the National Environmental Act, the Fisheries Ordinance and the Fauna and Flora Protection Ordinance provides the necessary guidelines and regulations for the use and protection of the marine environment in general and sensitive marine ecosystems in particular. Nevertheless due to inadequate coordination at different levels of government as well as various political considerations make it difficult to implement the laws and regulations.

The Coastal Resources Management Project (CRMP) supported by the USAID carried out two Special Area Management Projects (SAMP) at Hikkaduwa Marine Sanctuary and at Rekawa where coral mining from the sea was a major problem. Whilst these projects have had their benefits the lack of continuation of the SAM process poses problems for the sustainability of management efforts at both sites.

Protection has also been given to selected marine species listed under the Fisheries ordinance as well as the Fauna and Flora protection Ordinance of the (Department of Wild Life Conservation (Wood and Rajasuriya, 1996). In 1993 and 1994 the QCD implemented the ban on operation of lime kilns within the coastal zone. However It has proved difficult to enforce the ban due to lack of alternative employment and the inability to enforce the law.


Bourne, G.C., 1905. Report on solitary corals collected by Professor Herdman at Ceylon in 1902. Rept. Govt. Ceylon Pearl Oyster Fish. Gulf of Mannar (Suppl.). 29, 187-242.

Baldwin, M.F., (ed.). 1991. Natural Resources of Sri Lanka: Conditions and Trends. Natural Resources Energy and Science Authority (NARESA), Colombo, Sri Lanka, 280p.

Cooray, P.G. 1967. An introduction to the Geology of Ceylon. Spolia Zeylonica 31: 1 - 324

De Silva, M.W.R.N., 1985. Research needs for the coral reef ecosystem of the Central Indian Ocean, pp. 153-165., In: IOC/Unesco Workshop on Regional Co-operation in Marine Science in the Central Indian Ocean and Adjacent Seas and Gulfs. Colombo, Sri Lanka, Unesco Worshop report No. 37. 366p.

De Silva, M.W.R.N. and Rajasuriya, A., 1989. Collection of marine invertebrates of Sri Lanka (Phase 1) Tangalle to Kalpitiya as part of the Zoological Survey of Sri Lanka. Report to Natural Resources Energy and Science Authority (NARESA) on NARESA/SAREC Zoological Survey of Sri Lanka, Project SAREC/11/ZSSL-2.

De Silva, M.W.R.N., 1985. Status of the coral reefs of Sri Lanka. Proc. 5th Int. Coral Reef Congress, Tahiti, Vol.6, 515-518.

De Silva, M.W.R.N. and Rajasuriya, A., 1985. Management plans for the proposed marine park at Hikkaduwa. (Abs.). Proc. 41st Annual Sessions of the Sri Lanka Association for the Advancement of Science, Colombo, Sri Lanka.

De Bruin, G.H.P. 1972. The 'Crown of Thorns' starfish Acanthaster planci (L.) in Ceylon. Bull. Fish. Res. Stn., Sri Lanka (Ceylon), 23, 37-41.

Dayananda, H.V., 1992. Shoreline Erosion in Sri Lanka's Coastal Areas. CCD/CRMP Sri Lanka. 72 p.

Government of Sri Lanka (GSL). 1985. Second Interim Report of the Land Commission.

Hale, L.Z. and Kumin, E., 1992. Implementing a coastal resources management policy, the case of prohibiting coral mining in Sri Lanka. Coastal Resources Centre of the University of Rhode Island. USA. 30p.

Katupotha, J., 1988. Evidence of high sea level during the Mid-Holocene on the southwest coast of Sri Lanka. Boreas, 17, 209-213, Oslo, Norway.

Lowry, K. and Wickremaratne, H.J.M. 1989. Coastal area management in Sri Lanka. Ocean Yearbook 7, 263-293 pp.

Mergner, H and Scheer, G., 1974. The physiographic zonation and the ecological conditions of some South Indian and Ceylon reefs. Proc. Int. Coral Reef Symp. Brisbane, Australia, 2, 3-30.

Madduma Bandara, CM, 1989. A survey of the Coastal Zone in Sri Lanka. CCD/CRMP Sri Lanka. 116 p.

Nakatani, K., Rajasuriya, A., Premaratne, A. and White, A.T., (eds.). 1994. The Coastal Environmental Profile of Hikkaduwa, Sri Lanka. Coastal Resources Management Project (CRMP), Sri Lanka, 70p.

Olsen, S., Sadacharan, D., Samarakoon, J.I., White, A.T., Wickremaratne, H.J.M. and Wijeratne, M.S., (eds.). 1992. Coastal 2000: Recommendations for a resource management strategy for Sri Lanka's coastal region, Vol 1 & 2. Coast Conservation Department, Coastal Zone Management Project, Sri Lanka and University of Rhode Island, USA, 102p.

Öhman, M.C., Rajasuriya, A., Linden, O., 1993. Human disturbances on coral reefs in Sri Lanka: A case study. Ambio, Vol. 22, No. 7, 474-480.

Ortmann, A., 1889. Beobachtungen an steinkorallen von der Sudkuste Ceylons. Zoo/. Jb. (syst). 4, 493-590.

Pillai, C.S.G., 1972. Stony corals of the seas around India. Proc. Symp. Corals and Coral Reefs., 191-216.

Ridley, S.O., 1883. The coral faunas of Ceylon with descriptions of new species. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. 11, 250-262.

Rajasuriya, A and De Silva, M.W.R.N., 1988. Stony corals of the fringing reefs of the western southwestern and southern coasts of Sri Lanka. Proc. 6th Int. Coral Reef Symposium, Australia, 3, 287-296.

Rajasuriya, A., 1990. Protection of the Bar Reef from further degradation: declaration of a marine sanctuary. Report from National Aquatic Resources Agency to the Department of Wild Life Conservation. National Aquatic Resources Agency (NARA), Colombo, Sri Lanka.

Rajasuriya, A., 1991. Location and condition of reefs along Sri Lanka's Coast, pp. 203-210, Proc. Seminar on Causes of Coastal Erosion in Sri Lanka. Coast Conservation Department, Colombo, Sri Lanka, 366p.

Rajasuriya, A., 1994. Three genera and Twelve species of stony corals new to Sri Lanka (Abs.). Paper presented at the Second Annual Scientific Sessions of the National Aquatic Resources Agency, Colombo, Sri Lanka.

Rajasuriya, A and Rathnapriya, K., 1994. The abundance of the 'Crown-of Thorns' starfish Acanthaster planci (Linné, 1758) in the Bar Reef and Kandakuliya areas and implications for management.(Abs.). Paper presented at the Second Annual Scientific Sessions of the National Aquatic Resources Agency, Colombo, Sri Lanka.

Rajasuriya, A and White, A.T. 1995. Coral Reefs of Sri Lanka: Review of Their Extent, Condition and Management Status. Coastal Management, Vol. 23, pp. 70 -90

Rajasuriya, A. and Wood, E.M. 1997. Coral Reefs in Sri Lanka: Conservation Matters. 14 p. Marine Conservation Society and National Aquatic Resources Agency.

Rajasuriya, A., 1993. Natural disturbances on Bar Reef, Sri Lanka; Acanthaster planci. Report from the SAREC/NARA Marine Science Project, National Aquatic Resources Agency, Colombo, Sri Lanka.

Ranaweera Banda, R.M., 1990. A study of Lime Kilns Located in the Coastal Zone from Ambalangoda to Hambantota. 13 p. Sri Lanka German Cooperation and CCD, Colombo (unpublished).

Ranaweera Banda, R.M., A. Premaratne and I. Ranasinghe, 1994. People, Resources and Development Potentials in the Rekawa SAMP Area. 71 p. Report submitted to CCD and CRMP, Colombo (unpublished).

Swan, B., 1983. An Introduction to the Coastal Geomorphology of Sri Lanka, National Museums of Sri Lanka., Colombo., 182p.

Scheer, G., 1984. The distribution of reef corals in the Indian Ocean with a historical review of its investigation. Deep Sea Research. 31, 885-900.

Wells, S.M, (ed.). 1988. Coral Reefs of the World.: Indian Ocean, Red Sea and Gulf, Vol 2, UNEP/IUCN, Gland, Switzerland, 389 p.

Wood, E., 1985. Exploitation of coral reef fishes for the aquarium trade. Marine Conservation Society, Herefordshire, UK. 121 p.

Wood, E.M. and Rajasuriya, A., 1996. Handbook of Protected Marine Species in Sri Lanka. 26 p. Marine Conservation Society and National Aquatic Resources Agency.

Wood, E.M. 1996. The marine ornamental fishery in Sri Lanka: current status and management needs. 47 p. Marine Conservation Society, UK.

Previous Page Top of Page Next Page