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Annex II




1. The FAO constitution confers on the Organization the mandate to "collect, analyse, interpret and disseminate information relating to nutrition, food and agriculture". The importance of this task was emphasized recently by the Review of FAO's Goals and Operations, which considered information as one of the three primary functions of the Organization.

2. The FAO Statistics Division (ESS) performs five main activities to carry out this constitutional mandate.

a) Collection of countries' data on agricultural statistics, primarily from questionnaires submitted by Member Countries and from national publications; then from international publications and reports issued by boards and associations. All that supplemented with information received through correspondence with Governments and consultations with regional officers and field experts.

b) Selection of the data collected after careful analysis and scrutiny. Since data received by FAO originate from various sources - sometimes with conflicting figures - their selection is of paramount importance. In general, data received need a systematic check for quality and consistency through cross-reference checking.

c) Filling-in gaps when necessary.

d) Processing and storage of the data selected.

e) Dissemination of data through yearbooks, census reports, bulletins and other publications as well as electronic means such as the Web site on Internet, FAOSTAT, PC diskettes and CD Rom, either in plain form or in the form of statistical indicators showing trends and comparisons on various topics, such as Food Balance Sheets, Index Numbers, Economic Accounts for Agriculture, etc.

3. Assembling and tabulating this enormous mass of data in internationally comparable form, present many problems arising from differences found in countries' data as regards concepts, definitions, coverage and classifications. These differences need to be settled to achieve the maximum possible degree of international comparability.

From the early sixties to the present day, particular attention has been given to these problems at various international and regional meetings and seminars, such as those promoted by ESS in collaboration with UN Economic Commissions, the Inter American Statistical Institute, the Conference of European Statisticians, the FAO Statistics Advisory Committee of Experts, etc. Advice, suggestions and recommendations emanating from these meetings and seminars are reflected in the text that follows on problems of definitions and classifications of commodities and commodity groups.


1. Primary crops are those which come directly from the land and without having undergone any real processing, apart from cleaning. They maintain all the biological qualities they had when they were still on the plants.

2. Certain primary crops can be aggregated, with their actual weight, into totals offering meaningful figures on area, yield, production and utilization; for example, cereals, roots and tubers, nuts, vegetables and fruits. Other primary crops can be aggregated only in terms of one or the other component common to all of them. For example, primary crops of the oil-bearing group can be aggregated in terms of oil or oil cake equivalent.

3. Primary crops are divided into temporary and permanent crops. Temporary crops are those which are both sown and harvested during the same agricultural year, sometimes more than once; permanent crops are sown or planted once and, then, occupy the land for some years and need not be replanted after each annual harvest.


1.1 Concept of area. Crop area is a surface of land on which a crop is grown. In general, the area measured for cadastral purposes includes, in addition to the area cultivated, headlands, ditches and other non-cultivated areas. Such an area can be called gross area as against the net area which includes only the portion of the gross area actually cultivated. For various reasons, e.g. natural calamities or economic considerations, certain areas planted or sown with a given crop are not harvested or are harvested before the crop reaches maturity. Hence the need for the concept of area to be sub-divided into sown or planted area and harvested area.

It has been recommended that countries report net area sown and net area harvested. Countries which normally do not present data for harvested area were requested to show these figures, at least when the harvested area differs significantly from the normally-reported area. Depending on the date of enumeration, it could be possible that sown and harvested area are practically identical. Sown area data are necessary to estimate quantities used for seeding purposes; harvested area, to provide reliable and accurate yield and production data.

1.2 Coverage of area. In certain countries, the unit of enumeration is the holding; in other countries, administrative units (commune, village, etc.) When the enumeration unit is the holding, a criterion of the minimum size is generally introduced for the inclusion in the enumeration, e.g. a minimum size of area or economic criteria. In such cases, the smallholdings' area risks being completely disregarded. This is particularly so with regard to horticultural crops, which are cultivated outside agricultural holdings, in kitchen gardens and similar small plots.

It was recommended that area data should cover the entire area devoted to each crop, including, when necessary, estimates for small areas not covered in the current annual area surveys. This can be made by conducting special enquiries at appropriate intervals.

1.3 Associated or mixed cropping. Associated crops are those sown interplanted with other temporary or permanent crops, for example, beans and maize. This way of cultivation is widely used in many African countries, particularly for food crops. Sometimes the area covered by crops grown in association with others is reported to be about the same as if the crops were sown alone. In this case the entire area of the plot could be attributed to each of the crops grown in association. Otherwise, it is recommended that area for each one of the associated crops be estimated in such a way that figures relate to that part of the area the particular crop would have covered if it had been grown alone. The criteria for area allocation to specific crops in mixed cropping are, inter alia, quantities of seed used, plant density, yield obtained, eye estimates. When this allocation is not possible, countries should report separately for crops grown alone and for crops grown associated with others.

1.4 Successive cropping. Successive crops or catch crops are those which are sown and harvested on the same piece of land previously occupied by another crop, or even by the same crop, during the same agricultural year. It has been recommended that the area of crops growing under this condition be accounted for in the total crop area, conducting, if necessary, ad hoc surveys for that purpose.

1.5 Shifting cultivation. This is a peculiar land utilization method practised generally in remote and not easily accessible areas in certain African countries. A particular piece of land is cultivated for some years and then, when productivity decreases, it becomes more convenient to open up a new piece of land and abandon the exhausted one. Naturally, the crops grown in this sort of itinerant agriculture, are most probably excluded from the regular agricultural surveys. Some rough estimates may be undertaken when such crops are important at national level.

1.6 Cultivation under glass or protective cover. Area data or crops growing in these conditions should be reported by all countries, preferably separated from field and garden crops.

2.1 Concept of yield and production. In certain countries, estimates of crop production are obtained by multiplying the average yield per unit of area by the corresponding crop area harvested. Other countries estimate production on the basis of information gathered from various sources, including declarations of producers, deliveries to marketing boards, administrative records, etc. In the first case, production figures are derived from yield and area, while in the second case, yields are derived from production and area figures.

Three main concepts of production (and yield) are used by countries. Biological production refers to the production still on the plants. Production actually harvested excludes harvesting losses and production not harvested for various reasons. Thirdly, the marketed production, or production for sale, excludes own consumption by farmers and perhaps some post-harvest losses. It is recommended that countries report primarily production in terms of harvested production, and when this is not possible that they indicate clearly the concept adopted in reporting production (and yield) figures.

2.2 Coverage of yield and production. It is recommended that the coverage of yield and production data be total and complete, similar to the coverage of area figures (see 1.1 above). They should, therefore, include field crops and garden crops; main, secondary and successive crops; crops grown alone and associated with others; in the open and under glass. They should include crops for sale as well as crops used by farmers for own consumption as food, feed, seed, etc.


1. Cereals. This is, by far, the most important group of crops. Carbohydrates, mainly starches, are the dominant nutrient element in cereal crops. They also contain a modest amount of protein and little fat. Moisture content is low.

1.1 Definition. Cereals are annual plants, generally of the gramineous family, yielding grains used for food, feed, seed and industrial purposes, e.g. ethanol. They exclude legumes, such as pulses, but include rice, canary seed, buckwheat and triticale. It has been recommended that the denomination of "cereal crops" be limited to crops harvested for dry grain only, excluding, therefore, crops harvested green for forage, silage, grazing, etc.; and, in the case of maize, harvested green, also for food.

1.2 Classification. Cereals shoud be classified individually according to the genus to which they belong. However, when two or more genera are sown and harvested together as a mixture, they should be classified as "mixed grains" and reported in one single figure.

1.3 Recommendations. It is recommended that countries report production figures in terms of clean, dry grains, in the form these are usually marketed. The only exception is rice, which should be reported in terms of paddy rice, although it was suggested that countries report also, when available, figures for brown rice and milled rice.

It was suggested that the moisture content of the production figures be made available by the countries.

Another recommendation stated that countries report, wherever possible, separate data for durum wheat and other hard wheat, hybrid maize and hybrid sorghum as part of the total wheat, total maize and total sorghum, the same goes for winter and spring crops.

2. Pulses. These protein-rich crops no longer have the importance as human food that they did at one time. In addition to their value as food and feed stuffs, pulses are also important in cropping systems for their ability to produce nitrogen and thus increase the fertility of the soil.

2.1 Definition. Pulses are annual leguminous crops yielding grains or seeds used for food, feed and sowing purposes.

The denomination "pulses" should be limited to crops harvested for dry grain only, excluding, therefore, crops harvested green for forage, used for grazing or as green manure, and also crops harvested green for food (green beans, green peas, etc.), which are considered vegetables. They exclude those used mainly for extraction of oil, e.g. soybeans. Also excluded from this group should be those leguminous crops whose seeds are used exclusively for sowing purposes, such as alfalfa and clover.

2.2 Classification. Although the botanical classification of pulses is somewhat controversial, it was suggested that data on at least the following genera be collected and reported separately by the countries:

2.3 Recommendations. Production data should be reported in terms of dry clean weight, excluding the weight of the pods.

3. Roots and tubers. These crops contain mainly starch. Their water content is very high.

3.1 Definition. These plants grow generally as annual crops and yield roots, tubers, rhizomes, corms and stems which are used largely for human food, either as such or in processed form, but also for animal feed. In certain countries, they are used to manufacture starch and alcohol.

The denomination "roots and tubers" excludes those crops which are cultivated mainly for feed (mangels, swedes), or for processing into sugar (sugar beets), or which are generally classified as "roots, bulb and tuberous vegetables" (onions, beets). It does include the starchy pith and flour which are derived therefrom and which are contained in the trunk of the sago palm, and in the stem of the Abyssinian banana (Musa ensete).

Propagation of root crops is carried out in various ways, depending on the various crops. For potatoes, for example, a live tuber or seed is required for planting the following season; for yams, only a part of the live tuber, and for cassava, pieces of the stalk (not the root).

3.2 Classification. Roots and tubers are classified by genera. Potatoes grown specifically for seed and potatoes grown for industrial (non-food) purposes should be reported separately, when such crops are important. Countries are advised to report early/new potatoes and other potatoes, separately .

3.3 Recommendations. The production of root crops (and related yield) should be reported in terms of clean weight, i.e. the weight of the product free of earth and mud.

Particular attention is to be given to coverage of the data (total) and the concept of production (harvested).

4. Sugar crops. Contrary to cereals, pulses and root crops, the main component of sugar crops is not starch but simple monosaccharides (glucose and fructose) and particularly disaccharides (sucrose or saccharose). The protein and fat content is negligible.

4.1 Definition. Sugar crops are those crops cultivated primarily for the manufacture of sugar, secondarily for the production of alcohol (food and non-food) and ethanol. There are two main sugar crops: sugar beets and sugar cane. Sugar cane is a perennial grass (replanted at certain intervals using pieces of the cane stalks); sugar beets are an annual crop, propagated by the seed of the flowers. In certain countries, sugar cane is eaten raw in significant quantities. Both sugar cane and sugar beets are used for feed.

Sugar and syrups are also produced in North America from the sap of certain species of maple trees and, in a few countries, from maize and sorghum which are primarily cereal crops, except sweet sorghum when it is cultivated explicitly for making syrup.

4.2 Classification. Sugar beets cultivated explicitly as a fodder crop, and red or garden beets, which are grown and classified as vegetable crops, should be excluded from the denomination of "sugar crops"; the same goes for both sugar cane and sugar beets, when cultivated explicitly for alcohol making or ethanol.

4.3 Recommendations. Production of sugar beets and sugar cane should relate to the stage when they are sent to the sugar factories, i.e. reasonably clean and free from tops and leaves.

5. Oil-bearing crops (Temporary only).

5.1 Definition. Temporary oil-bearing crops are usually called oilseeds. These are annual plants whose seeds are used mainly for extraction of culinary and industrial oils, excluding essential oils. These crops could be consumed raw as well. Some temporary oil crops are rich in protein content, particularly soybeans, but when processed into oil, the proteins go with the cake which is fed to animals.

As in the case of cereals and pulses, the denomination of "oilseed" should be limited to crops harvested for the dry seed only, excluding crops harvested green and used for food or feed, or used for grazing and green manure.

The oil content of oilseeds varies widely from one to the other. It can be as low as 17 percent (soybeans) and as high as 50 percent (sesame seed).

5.2 Classification. Oilseeds are classified according to the genera to which they belong. Although rape and mustard seeds belong to the same genus, it seems advisable that they are treated as two distinct oilseed crops.

There are some oilseed crops which are also fibre crops, i.e. from the same plant both seeds and fibres are harvested and utilized by industry. These crops are: cotton, cultivated for both seeds and fibres; flax and hemp, which in some countries are cultivated for seeds only and in other countries for both seed and fibre; certain crops being cultivated mainly for fibre and others mainly for seed. As an example, most linseed comes from crops cultivated for seed only.

Area figures of crops yielding both seeds and fibres could go either with the oilseed group or with the fibre group. If they are included in both groups, particular attention is required to avoid double counting.

Production figures for fibres and seeds are always reported separately for flax and hemp. In the case of cotton, certain countries report fibres and seeds separately while others report fibres and seeds together in one single figure reported as seed cotton or unginned cotton.

Both cotton seed and cotton lint (but not seed cotton) are considered by FAO to be primary crops and are classified in the oil crops and fibre crops groups. This is because seed cotton is a mixture of both food (seed) and non-food (fibre).

5.3 Recommendations. Production of oilseeds should always relate to the quantities actually harvested, whatever use is made of them after harvest.

Groundnut data should be reported in terms of groundnuts in the shell; other oilseeds, in terms of the weight of the seeds.

6. Fibre crops (Temporary only)

6.1 Definition. Fibre crops are annual crops yielding vegetable fibres, mostly soft fibres, which are utilized by the textile industry to produce first thread and yarn, and, from these, innumerable fabrics or manufactures. The primary fibre crops are cotton, jute and flax.

6.2 Classification. As mentioned previously (5.2), fibre crops also yield seeds which are utilized for sowing purposes, and in certain cases are processed into oil and cakes (cotton seed, linseed).

6.3 Recommendations. Area data for each fibre crop should cover all areas from which the fibres have been harvested.

Specific problems relating to fibre crops are to be solved as follows:

7. Vegetables. Vegetables are made up of 70 to 95 percent of the total weight of water. They are, therefore, very low in dry matter and accordingly in nutrients. Vegetables also contain minerals and vitamins, which are partly lost during cooking and processing. Moreover, the "refuse", i.e. those parts of the vegetables which are discarded before consumption or processing, is quite substantial, accounting for up to 50 percent of their total weight as harvested for leguminous vegetables, and for artichokes and watermelons. Refuse includes tops, stems, seeds, rind, peel, pods, damaged and withered leaves and parts that are high in cellulose. Owing to the highly perishable nature of vegetables, waste also tends to be rather high.

7.1 Definition. Vegetables are plants cultivated both as field crops and garden crops, both in the open and under glass.

Certain gramineous and leguminous plants which, if harvested for the dry grain, are classified among cereals and pulses, belong to this group as far as they are harvested green for the green grains and/or for the green pods (e.g. green maize, green peas, green beans, string beans, etc.).

Moreover, only those vegetables which are cultivated principally for human consumption belong to this group. Consequently, vegetables grown principally for animal feed should be excluded, as should vegetables cultivated for seed.

This group includes also melons and watermelons which some countries classify as fruit crops. As with all other vegetables, melons and watermelons are temporary crops, while fruit crops are permanent crops.

7.2 Classification.

Vegetables are grouped according to botanic characteristics as follows: leafy or stem vegetables (e.g. cabbage); fruit-bearing vegetables (e.g. melons); flower vegetables (e.g. cauliflowers); root, bulb and tuberous vegetables (e.g. onion); leguminous vegetables (e.g. green peas); other vegetables (e.g. green maize and mushrooms).

Since vegetables grown under protective cover are becoming increasingly important, it is desirable that area, yield and production data for covered crops be collected and reported separately from those of vegetables grown in the open.

7.3 Recommendations. Area and production of vegetables of little importance in the context of total area and production of vegetables, for example, less than 1 percent each of them, could be reported together in one single figure.

Countries should report both total area and total production of individual vegetable crops and, as separate items whenever possible, estimate that portion of each crop produced mainly for sale as distinct from that produced mainly for consumption by producers.

General recommendations on mixed and successive cropping as well as coverage of area and production data, are particularly applicable to vegetable crops.

8. Tobacco

8.1 Definition. Any of a genus of plants, Nicotiana, cultivated for their leaves. Tobacco is consumed primarily through smoking, and less extensively through chewing or sniffing. N. tabacum is by far the most important species. The main active element of tobacco leaves is alkaloid nicotine, a highly toxic substance.

8.2 Classification. Although tobacco crops are classified by countries according to varieties and/or according to the different ways in which leaves are dried, cured and prepared, it would be sufficient for countries to report separate figures for N. tabacum and for other low quality tobacco species, if any.

8.3 Special recommendations. Tobacco yield and production figures should refer to farm sales weight, i.e. the weight of the leaves leaving the farm for tobacco factories. The leaves are usually drier than at harvest, though not fully dry.

9. Fodder crops (Temporary and permanent). Fodder crops are those cultivated explicitly or primarily for feeding animals. By extension, natural grasslands and pastures, whether somewhat cultivated or not, are also included in this category.

Fodder crops may be classified as temporary or as permanent crops; the former are cultivated and harvested like any other crop, the latter relate to land used permanently (five years or more) for herbaceous forage crops, either cultivated or growing wild (wild prairie or grazing land). They may include some areas of forest lands that are used for grazing.

Temporary crops grow in artificial meadows which are normally used very intensively, with various cuttings per year. They contain three major groups of fodder: grasses, including cereals harvested green; legumes, including pulses harvested green; and root crops that are cultivated for fodder. All can be fed to animals as green feed; as hay, i.e. crops harvested dry or left to dry if harvested green; or as silage products. Silage or ensilage is a method of preservation of green fodder through fermentation to retard spoiling.


Much of what has already been said about temporary primary crops under item III, applies to permanent crops as well. Peculiarities of permanent crops are highlighted in the paragraphs that follow.

1. Concept of area. A peculiarity of permanent crops is that most countries report number of trees or plants in addition to, or instead of, the area planted. This is particularly so as regards plants growing outside compact plantations, which are either interplanted with other crops or are scattered. Both area and number of trees are also divided into productive or bearing and non-productive or non-bearing areas or trees. In most cases, non-bearing refers to young plants that are not yet bearing.

It is recommended that countries report primarily the area or number of trees actually harvested or the bearing area/trees actually harvested and, secondarily, the total planted area or number or trees. Countries reporting differently should define the concept behind the published figures.

2. Coverage of area. As is the case for temporary crops, reported area, or number of trees, should cover the entire area or the total number of trees. Estimates should be made, when necessary, to cover small areas and/or scattered trees which might be neglected by annual area surveys.

It is recommended that countries which collect current data for commercial areas only should also conduct periodic surveys of the area or number of trees in small allotments and family gardens, or which are scattered.

3. Interplanted crops and scattered trees. It is recommended that the area of permanent crops interplanted and scattered be added to the area of compact plantations by estimating the area that such crops would have covered had they been growing in compact plantations. When such estimates are not possible, countries should report separately area figures for compact plantations and for interplanted crops, as well as for the number of scattered trees.


1. Fruits and berries.

1.1 Definition. Fruit crops are those yielding fruits and berries which generally are characterized by their sweet taste and their high content of organic acid and pectin.

Apart from strawberries, all fruits and berries are permanent crops, mainly trees, bushes and shrubs, but also vines and palms. Fruits and berries are generally found in great numbers attached to the branches or stalks or trunks of the plants, in most cases singly, in other cases grouped in bunches and clusters (e.g. bananas and grapes). Commercial crops are cultivated in well ordered orchards and compact plantations, but significant quantities are also collected from scattered plants, either cultivated or growing spontaneously.

Bananas, plantains, grapes, dates and carobs are considered fruit crops by FAO, while nuts, olives, coconuts, melons and water melons are not considered fruit crops.

1.2 Classification. Fruits are broadly classified as either sub-tropical/tropical fruits, or fruits of the temperate zones. These are sometimes classified as pome fruits (with seeds/pips contained in rather light endocarp, e.g. apples and pears) and stone fruits (with seed/kernel enclosed in hard woody shells surrounded by the pulp or mesocarp, e.g. peaches and plums). Grapes, dates, figs and some other fruit crops are not part of any sub-group, while berries and citrus comprise independent groups.

In principle, fruit crops should be classified according to the genus and species to which they pertain with related data reported separately. In certain cases, a further distinction by variety of the same species may be very useful.

1.3 Recommendations. As far as fruit crops are concerned, it is recommended that countries report separately area figures for commercial orchards or compact plantations and for interplanted crops, as well as the number of scattered trees in instances when it is not possible to arrive at a single total area figure in terms of pure stand equivalent.

It is further recommended that separate data on area and number of trees in new plantings should be an integral part of current statistics on fruits. It is considered desirable that countries report the density or planting space of various fruit crops in commercial orchards. It is also suggested that fruit crops be classified by variety.

It is worth emphasizing that fruit crops are grown outside agricultural holdings and commercial orchards to a greater degree than are other crops. It is necessary, therefore, to evaluate periodically how much of the production comes from non-commercial crops.

With especial regard to bananas, production should be reported in terms of weight, not in terms of numbers of bunches. The weight should include the weight of single bananas or the weight of banana hands, excluding, therefore, the weight of the central stalk of the bunches.

Finally, the gathering of wild plants, particularly berries, should be recorded separately from the production of cultivated crops.

2. Nuts

2.1 Definition. Nuts are tree crops yielding dry fruits or kernels. They are characterized by their woody shells or hard husks which are generally covered by a thick, fleshy/fibrous outer husk which is removed at harvesting time.

The weight of the shells or husks ranges from as little as 20 percent for chestnuts to as much as 70 percent in the case of cashew nuts of the total weight of unshelled/unhusked nuts.

2.2 Classification. In the FAO classification, only those nuts used mainly as dessert or as table nuts are included. Nuts mainly used for flavouring beverages are excluded, as are masticatory and stimulant nuts and nuts used mainly for the extraction of oil or butter. Therefore, areca/betel nuts, cola nuts, illipe nuts, karite nuts, coconuts, tung nuts, oil palm nuts, etc. are excluded.

2.3 Recommendations. Production data should relate to the weight of the nuts in the shell, or in the husk, without counting the weight of the outer husks.

Gathering of wild plants, particularly chestnuts, walnuts and hazelnuts, should be recorded separately from the production of cultivated crops.

3. Oil-bearing crops (Permanent only)

3.1 Definition. Permanent oil-bearing crops are perennial plants whose seeds (kapok), fruits or mesocarp (olives) and nuts (coconuts) are used mainly for extraction of culinary or industrial oils and fats. Consequently, dessert or table nuts, such as walnuts, are excluded because although they are high in oil content, they are not used mainly for extraction of oil.

3.2 Classification. The oil palm produces bunches containing a large number of fruits or nuts having a fleshy mesocarp or pulp enclosing a kernel covered by a hard shell. As regards coconuts, the primary product is the nut, including the woody shell, the flesh and the water or milk, but excluding the fibrous outer husk (coir), which represents about one third of the total weight of mature unhusked coconut.

3.3 Recommendations. Production data should be reported in terms of dry mature products as they are usually marketed. For coconuts, see 3.2 above. Olive crops should be classified according to their main use, i.e. olives for oil or table olives.

4. Spices, condiments and aromatic herbs. Spices are plants which, in one or the other of their components (rhizome, bark, fruits, berries, seeds, etc.), contain strongly flavoured and aromatic substances, and for that reason are used mainly as condiments. Most of them are perennial.

Spices are rich in essential oils which, in addition for use in the food industry, are also used in cosmetic and medicinal preparations. The nutritive value of spices is insignificant, but their commercial value is high.

Production data of spices should be reported in terms of ripe, dried or powdered products in order to make them roughly comparable with trade figures.

A partial listing of some of the main spices includes peppers, pimento, vanilla, cinnamon, canella, cloves, nutmeg, mace and cardamom, ginger and anise, badian and fennel.

5. Other permanent crops

5.1 Coffee. A tropical shrub or small tree yielding two-seeded fruits or cherries which are processed to free the seeds or "beans" from the pulp fruit and then from the mucilage and silver skin covering the beans.

By weight, the mature but still fresh cherries consist of 45-55 percent pulp, mucilage and skin, and 45-55 percent beans. The dried/clean/cured beans are generally called "green coffee" or "clean coffee". At this stage, coffee is considered a "primary crop". It contains very little in the way of nutritive elements, apart from some fat. For this reason coffee is classified among the edible but "non-food" crops. Because it contains caffeine, an alkaloid, it is also counted with "stimulant" crops.

The coffee with mucilage and skin not removed is called parchment coffee.

5.2 Cocoa. Cocoa is a tropical rain-forest tree cultivated for its beans which are contained in large numbers in ovoid pods growing directly on the trunk and on the large branches.

The beans and the white mucilage or pulp covering them represent about one third of the total weight of the pods. Beans and mucilage are taken out of the pods and fermented. The fermented and dried beans are considered a "primary crop", from which various processed products may be derived, including roasted beans (in the shell), and nibs (fragments of roasted/shelled/crushed beans). The nibs are ground to give cocoa mass, from which cocoa fat or butter is extracted by pressing. The resulting cake is then pulverized into cocoa powder.

Cocoa beans contain carbohydrates, protein and particularly fat. As such, it is considered a "food" crop. Since they also contain alkaloids, caffeine and theobromine, they are considered a "stimulant" crop as well.

5.3 Tea. A shrub or small tree of the Camellia family that is cultivated in sub-tropical and tropical regions, mainly the Far East and China, for its tender leaves which, when prepared by different processes give the so-called "made" tea. There are two main varieties: assamica and sinensis. FAO defines the "primary" crop as the tender leaves, withered, rolled, fermented and dried (black tea). Green tea is unfermented black tea.

As tea leaves contain no nutrients but do contain various alkaloids, caffeine and theine or theophylline, they are classified among the "non-food" and "stimulant" crops.

Green tea leaves may be consumed fresh as vegetables, while oil may be extracted from the seeds.

5.4 Natural rubber. The Para rubber or caoutchouc tree is indigenous to Brazil but now is cultivated mainly in the Far East. The natural rubber is the milky fluid latex which exudes when the tree is cut (tapped), and coagulates on exposure to air. The dried latex is treated with sulphur at high temperatures in a process known as vulcanization to increase the more desirable properties of the final product, such as elasticity, strength and stability.

For FAO, the "primary crop" is the latex, concentrated, stabilized and dried.

5.5 Hops. A climbing perennial vine cultivated for the female unfecundate inflorescence called hop "cones". Ripe, dry cones, which are used for imparting a bitter flavour to malt liquor, are the primary product.

5.6 Sisal. Agave sisalana. The agave family includes many plants with fibrous, fleshy and persistent spiny leaves attached to rizometous rootstock which flower only once. The fiber obtained is a hard fiber.

5.7 Abaca or Manila hemp. Extracted from the leafy stalks of certain banana trees that are found mainly in the Philippines.



The importance of collecting and publishing countries' agricultural statistics and the difficulties encountered in assembling them according to the maximum possible degree of international comparability as regards concepts, definitions and classifications, have been illustrated in Chapter I of the paper dealing with crop statistics.


1. Importance of livestock

Domestic animals are very important to mankind. They furnish precious food products (meat, milk, eggs, honey) and valuable non-food-industrial products (wool, hair, silk, hides, skins, furs, wax, feathers, bones, horns, etc.). Quadrupeds are widely used, particularly in developing countries, as beasts of burden and for draught or are used for commuting to and from agricultural holdings. Some are used also for recreation purposes (horse riding), and most of them are a source of organic/natural fertilizers and fuel.

Feeds of animal origin are also important, e.g. meat meal, bone meal, blood meal, tankage, etc. These are produced from slaughtered animals rejected at the sanitary inspection, from inedible offal, from residues of meat scraps and trimming after the fat has been extracted, from tannery by-products, from poultry by-products (particularly from those processed into ready-to-cook), from hatcheries by-products (infertile eggs and other refuse), from eggshells, etc.

2. Definition. The terms "livestock" and "poultry" are used in a very broad sense, covering all domestic animals irrespective of their age and location or the purpose of their breeding. Non-domestic animals are excluded from the terms unless they are kept or raised in captivity, in or outside agricultural holdings, including holdings without land.

Cattle, buffaloes, camels, sheep, goats, pigs, horses, mules, asses and chickens are raised and enumerated in many countries. Some countries raise and enumerate ducks, geese, turkeys and bees, whereas rabbits, guinea fowl, pigeons, silkworms, fur animals, reindeer and various kinds of camelids are limited to far fewer countries.

Many factors are known to affect the comparability of statistics of livestock numbers between countries. The main ones relate to the coverage of data, the date and frequency of enumeration and the classification of animals.

3. Classification. Livestock is generally classified by countries by genera, sub-divided in a few cases by species. More frequently, individuals of various genera or families are aggregated into a single group, e.g. the term "poultry" covers domestic fowls, guinea fowl, ducks, geese and turkeys.

It is recommended that countries enumerate, when applicable, at least the animals listed below, classified according to this list. All the items underlined have been recommended, while those items not underlined are suggested on an optional basis:

It is suggested that countries collect data on births and natural losses of various livestock categories, as well as further sub-divisions, according to age and/or utilization. These data are important indicators of productivity of the livestock herd and are used for the construction of herd balances and herd models.

In the poultry sector, considerable changes have taken place over the last twenty years in many countries, particularly with regard to the growth of a modern specialized and intensive sector alongside the traditional sector. It is, therefore, desirable to collect and publish, whenever possible, poultry data for the modern sector separate from the traditional sector. For the modern sector, several countries conduct monthly enumerations to collect data on poultry numbers, as well as on closely related items, such as number of eggs put in incubators, chicks hatched and chicks placed, all separately for laying hens and for broiler production. It is recommended that countries collect and publish this information which is usually available from commercial hatcheries.

4. Date and frequency of enumeration. The livestock population is subject to marked seasonal fluctuations, resulting in periods of maximum and minimum numbers within the course of the year. These periods are different for various species of livestock and are, also, different from country to country.

While recognizing the need for estimating livestock numbers more than once a year, particularly pigs and poultry, it is recommended that at least one enumeration should be made towards the end of the year.

5. Coverage of the data. All domestic animals should be taken into account in an enumeration, irrespective of their age or purpose of breeding.

In areas where nomadism and transhumance are practised, livestock may be enumerated twice, or may not be enumerated at all if enumerators fail to pay sufficient attention to these livestock-rearing practices. Nomadic animals are those without any fixed installation which continually or periodically shift from place to place. The seasonal migration of livestock from pastures on plains and lowlands (autumn-winter) to pastures on mountain-sides (in spring and summer) and vice versa is known as transhumance. The phenomenon of nomadism exists in Africa and in the Near East. Transhumance, including alpine pasture, is no longer as important as it was at one time in Spain, Italy and other European countries, but it is still widely practised in other countries.


Total numbers. Animals enumerated in a given day, or in few consecutive days of the year.

Females in reproductive age. This includes females of 3 years of age and over for horses and buffaloes; 2 years of age and over for cattle; one year of age and over for sheep and goats; and six months of age and over for pigs.

Females actually reproducing during the year. The number of females which have had offspring during the year. In the case of species which can have more than one offspring during the year, the breeding female has to be included for each litter.

Birth rate. The number of animals born alive as a percentage of number of females actually reproducing.

Number born. The number of animals born alive during the year.

Natural deaths. The number of animals which died during the year for natural causes.

Number of animals slaughtered. Includes all animals slaughtered during the year, of both indigenous and foreign origin, within the national boundaries.

Take off rate. The percentage of all animals of the species which are taken from the national herd during the year, for slaughter in the country or in other countries.


1. Primary products. Those products, coming directly from the slaughtered animals, including meat, offal, raw fats, fresh hides and skins.

2. Processed products. These are derived from the processing of primary products and include sausages, lard and salted hides.


1. Slaughtering and meat production

1.1 Definition. Meat can be defined as "the flesh of animals used for food". In statistical language, meat is intended to be with bone-in, unless otherwise stated, and to exclude meat unfit for human consumption. From the term "meat" are to be excluded edible offal and slaughtered fats.

1.2 Concept of production. Data on meat production are usually reported according to one or more of the following concepts:

1.2.1 Live weight of animals intended for slaughter is the weight taken immediately before slaughter. It is assumed that animals intended for slaughter are kept on slaughterhouse premises for 12 hours and are not fed or watered during this time.

1.2.2 Killed weight is the gross weight of the carcass including the hide or skin, head, feet and internal organs, but excluding that part of the blood which is not collected in the course of slaughter.

1.2.3 Dressed carcass weight is the weight of the carcass after removal of the parts indicated for each of the livestock species listed below:

Cattle, Buffaloes, Horses, Mules, Asses, Camels;

Sheep and Goats:


1.2.4 Carcass weight is the weight of the carcass as defined above, including slaughter fats.

1.2.5 Data on production of meat for minor animals (poultry, rabbits, game, etc.), are usually reported according to one or the other of the following concepts:

a = Thighs + Wings+ Breast + Ribs + Back = Ready-to-cook (oven ready)

b = a + Heart + Liver + Gizzard + Neck = Ready-to-cook (incl. giblets)

c = b + Feet + Head = Eviscerated weight

d = c + Viscera (inedible offal) = Dressed weight

e = d + Blood + Feathers + Skins (when applicable) = Live weight

The concept of meat production changes with the coverage of production as follows:

1.2.6 Production from slaughtered animals (SP): all animals of indigenous and foreign origin, slaughtered within the national boundaries.

1.2.7 Production from indigenous animals (GIP): indigenous animals slaughtered plus exported live animals of indigenous origin.

1.2.8 Total indigenous production (TIP) or biological production: indigenous animals slaughtered, plus exported live animals of indigenous origin and net additions (plus/minus) to the stock during the reference period. If it is expressed in weight, this measure should take into account the change in the total live weight of all the animals.

1.2.9 In calculating indigenous production, it should be noted that as imports and exports of live animals are generally recorded in numbers, not weight, it is important to know what kind of animals (large or small) are imported and exported. For example, the meat equivalent of two million chicks can vary by 80 to 250 tons, while the meat equivalent of two million adult chickens can vary by 2000 to 4000 tons.

1.3 Coverage of production. Most countries distinguish in their statistics between controlled or inspected or commercial slaughtering and other slaughtering, called variously, farm or private, non-commercial or uncontrolled slaughtering.

Under the first category, slaughtering in public and industrial slaughterhouses, meat processing plants and major poultry farms are usually included. Statistics on those slaughterings, and corresponding meat production, are easy to obtain from the administrative records of the establishments concerned. They report normally on a monthly basis; in some countries, weekly.

Under the second category slaughtering in small slaughterhouses, butchers' shops and on farms is included, mainly for the farmers' own consumption. Statistics on non-commercial slaughtering, which can be derived from various sources, are essentially rough estimates and should be established once a year.

1.4 Recommendations

1.4.1 On the different possibilities of measuring the production of meat, it is recommended that countries collect and publish data primarily in terms of dressed carcass weight. However, in view of the fact that national practices regarding the definition of carcass weight are still far from homogeneous, each country should clearly indicate which parts of the animal are included in or excluded from its carcass weight concept. It would be desirable if countries provide conversion factors from carcass weight to live weight or vice versa.

1.4.2 Countries not reporting according to the dressed carcass weight concept should clearly indicate which concepts they use when reporting production figures. They should provide appropriate conversion factors to convert their production into carcass weight equivalent, indicating also which parts or organs of the animal are excluded for conversion to dressed carcass weight.

1.4.3 Production of meat of small animals should be reported, preferably according to the concept "ready-to-cook", specifying whether giblets are included or excluded. It is important that whatever concept is used be clearly explained.

1.4.4 It is recommended that all countries collect and report meat production data and corresponding numbers of slaughterings according to the concept of slaughtered production and indigenous production, both in line with FAO definitions, (see 1.2.9 above). In all cases, production should cover only that "approved for human consumption".

1.4.5 It is also recommended that countries which report edible offal and fats together with meat production in one figure provide the approximate percentage of edible offal and fats in the aggregated meat figures.

1.4.6 It is recommended that countries report at least annual figures covering all slaughterings, commercial and non-commercial, and corresponding meat production, for the following livestock species as applicable: cattle, buffaloes, sheep, goats, pigs, horses, chickens, turkeys, ducks, geese, guinea fowl, rabbits, other.

1.4.7 Countries reporting commercial figures only should indicate this limitation in a note or footnote and furnish, at least from time to time, estimates on non-commercial production. In general, separate figures should be reported for commercial and non-commercial production, particularly when the estimates of the last category are considered to be weak.

1.4.8 It is recommended that slaughtering data be reported in terms of both numbers slaughtered and meat production. In case any country collects and publishes statistics only in terms of one or the other, appropriate conversion factors should be provided, i.e. average carcass weight figures. If possible, countries should report, in addition to annual data, also monthly or quarterly data, at least for commercial slaughtering and production.

1.4.9 It is recommended that figures for cattle slaughtering be shown separately for calves and adult cattle, a suggested borderline between the two being 220 kg, live weight. Other animals, for which a breakdown of the total slaughtering between young and adult animals are considered to be useful, are: sheep, goats and pigs.

1.5.0 It is suggested that countries collect and release statistics on meat production from non-domestic animals, such as game meat, etc.

2. Edible offal

2.1 Edible offal are those edible parts or organs of the animals, other than fats, which are usually separated in the course of the preparation of the carcasses at slaughterhouses. Which of these organs or parts are considered edible offal varies from country to country, depending on the definition of "dressed carcass weight" adopted by those countries in reporting meat production data as well as on the countries' habits. Some countries calculate edible offal as a percent of the carcass weight, the percentage varying from 3 to 10 percent according to various classes of animals.

2.2 In view of the above remarks, it is recommended that countries report production figures separately of what they consider edible offal, which, logically, should not be included in meat production figures. Below is a list of items which are considered edible offal in most countries:

Head or head meat

Throat bread

Thick skirt


Sweet bread

Genital organs




Feet (cleaned)


Stomach or tripe

Tail meat





2.3 See 1.4.5 above.

3. Fats

3.1 Under this heading, national sources report production data which include one or more of such fats as slaughter fats, butchering fats, rendered fats (lard, tallow), etc., giving rise to the following concepts:

a) Total unrendered fat: slaughter fats and butchering fats (edible and inedible).

b) Total unrendered edible fats: edible slaughter fats and edible butchering fats.

c) Slaughter fats: edible and inedible unrendered fats which fall in the course of dressing the carcasses and are recovered from discarded and fallen animals, guts, sweepings, hide trimmings, etc.

d) Edible slaughter fats (loose fats): unrendered fats which fall in the course of dressing the carcasses, such as fats in abdominal and thoracic cavities.

e) Inedible slaughter fats: unrendered fats from discarded and fallen animals, guts, sweepings, hide trimmings, etc.

f) Butchering fats: unrendered fats obtained from the excess fat trimmed or removed from the wholesale and retail cuts during butchering. Kidney fats, suet and pig-back fat are also included in this definition.

g) Processed fat: rendered fats such as lard, tallow, etc., obtained by melting or processing slaughter and butchering fats.

3.2 The coverage of slaughter fats differs from country to country, depending on the definition of "dressed carcass weight" adopted by each country in reporting meat production data.

3.3 It is recommended that countries report separately production data at least for slaughter fats as defined above, preferably broken down into edible and inedible. Countries reporting slaughter fats together with meat production in one figure should indicate the approximate percentage of slaughter fats on the aggregated meat/fats figures.

3.4 As for processed fats, production data should be collected for lard and tallow (preferably in product weight basis rather than in fat content), as well as data on utilization of these products for food, feed and industrial uses.

4. Hides and Skins

4.1 It is suggested that all countries collect and release production data for hides, skins and fur skins. Data should be given in terms of weight (fresh or green), except for fur skins which should be reported in numbers.

4.2 Countries reporting production in numbers or expressed in dry, cured or salted weight, should provide appropriate conversion factors to green weight.

4.3 Production figures for hides and skins may include those coming from fallen animals, in addition to those from slaughtered animals.


1. Primary products include the following: milk, eggs, honey, beeswax and fibres of animal origin.

2. Processed products are those derived from primary products.


1. Milking animals and milk production

1.1 Concepts, definitions and coverage

1.1.1 The definition of milking animals varies considerably among countries, from those which include all females in reproductive age to those which include only dairy females bred especially for milk production which were actually milked during the year.

1.1.2 On the other hand, estimates of milk production given by countries may refer to one or more of the following concepts: gross production includes milk actually milked and milk suckled by young animals; net production excludes milk suckled by young animals but includes amounts of milk fed to livestock; production available for consumption is net production minus milk fed to animals and waste at the farms; milk deliveries to dairies or dairy plants, excludes quantities retained by farmers for food, feed and direct sales to consumers.

1.1.3 The FAO concept relates to net milk production as defined above, and, as regards milking animals, to all animals which have contributed to produce that milk.

1.1.4 Data on production delivered to dairies are easily obtained from the dairy plants. Estimates for the balance of the production may be obtained from various sources, such as ad hoc surveys or subjective estimates.

1.2 Recommendations

1.2.1 In view of the differences identified above, it is recommended that countries report the number of milking animals along with milk production, and also that countries at least ensure that the concept of milking animals adopted is in line with the estimated average milk yield per animal.

Countries are encouraged to refine their concept of milking animals to gradually approach the concept of animals actually milked during the year, keeping, when possible, separate records for dairy females bred especially for milk production and for other females milked.

1.2.2 Countries should report data on milking animals by animal type, i.e. cows, buffaloes, sheep, goats, etc.

1.2.3 It is recommended that all countries report (at least annually) total net milk production as defined above, in addition to the data on deliveries to dairies or milk plants. Such data are to be given by kind of milking animal (cows, buffaloes, sheep, goats) and they should relate to whole milk. If possible, they should be reported in terms of weight rather than in liquid measures.

1.2.4 Countries reporting on a different basis should indicate the concept behind their figures.

1.2.5 Countries are advised to report production, or at least deliveries, either monthly or quarterly, and to report the average fat content of their milk production.

2. Layers and egg production. Statistics of Hatcheries

2.1 Concepts, definitions and coverage

2.1.1 The definition of layers is not yet uniform among countries. Under this term, some countries recognize all females in laying age, whether laying or not, while in other countries the term is much more limited, covering only those females of egg-type breeds which have laid eggs during the year.

2.1.2 Female layers are classified by breed according to dominant production characteristics. There are egg-type females, as well as meat-type and mixed-type. They may also be classified according to the agricultural sector in which they are bred: the traditional sector (widely scattered and individually-owned small flocks in farms and backyards), and the modern sector (large scale, semi-intensive and intensive commercial poultry farms).

2.1.3 On the other hand, egg production is generally reported by countries as total or gross production, i.e. production from all types of females and from females kept in all agricultural sectors. Few countries report net production, i.e. gross production minus eggs used for hatching. Certain countries report data for both categories.

2.1.4 Several countries also report figures for commercial production, i.e. the part of the net production which enters commercial channels. Data on commercial production are easily obtained from the modern sector where most, if not practically all, commercial production is produced. Data on the traditional sector are rather weak in certain countries as they are based on assumptions of the number of females and/or rates of egg laying, or are rough estimates based on food consumption surveys and similar indirect sources.

2.1.5 The FAO concept of egg production covers all domestic birds which have contributed to egg production during the year, wherever they lay and the corresponding total production, including eggs intended to be used for hatching but excluding waste on farms.

2.2 Recommendations

2.2.1 In line with the FAO concept, it is recommended that countries report at least annually on layer numbers and egg production. Layers of all types and from all sectors which have laid eggs during the year should be included.

Whenever possible, a distinction should be made between layers of the traditional sector and those of the semi-intensive and intensive sectors.

2.2.2 It is recommended that all countries report, at least annually, both total production of eggs, excluding waste on farms, as defined by FAO, and production available for consumption, i.e. total production excluding hatching eggs and all types of waste. Countries reporting on different bases should indicate how their data differ from the recommended coverage.

2.2.3 It is further recommended that in reporting production data, countries should use both numbers and weight, or, at least, provide a conversion factor from one unit of measurement to the other.

In addition to annual figures, countries should release monthly or quarterly data, at least for commercial production.

It is suggested that countries report production figures separately for the traditional sector and for the modern sector, particularly when the data of the traditional sector have a certain importance and are much less reliable than those of the modern sector.

2.2.4 In all cases, it is recommended that separate data be collected and released by countries according to various kinds of domestic birds: hens, ducks, goose, turkeys, etc.

2.3 Statistics of Hatcheries

Considerable changes have taken place in the poultry sector (eggs and meat) during the last two decades in most countries, resulting in the rapid growth of a modern and specialized sector alongside the traditional sector.

An important role in the devilment of the poultry sector is played by commercial hatcheries. In fact, several countries collect and publish monthly data on various hatcheries' operations, e.g. number of eggs placed, chicks hatched and chick placements.

It is recommended, therefore, that all countries collect data (monthly, if possible) on the number of eggs placed in incubators, chicks hatched and chicks placed, separately for chickens, ducks, geese, turkeys and guinea fowl. Figures for chickens should be divided into, at least, two categories: eggs/chicks for the laying stock and eggs/chicks for the meat stock.

3. Honey and beeswax

Honey is a sweet viscous fluid, being the nectar of flowers collected and worked up for food by certain insects, especially the honey-bee. Flavour and colour of honey depend largely on the plants from which the nectar is gathered.

Bees store honey in honeycombs prepared by them, consisting in hexagonal wax cells. Beeswax is obtained by melting honeycombs with boiling water (yellow wax). White wax is yellow wax bleached. Beeswax is used for candles, cosmetics and other non-food use.

In principle, honey and beeswax production data should cover production recorded from bee-keepers operating commercially, as well as any other honey produced or collected.

4. Wool and Fine Hair

It is recommended that wool production data should be collected and released by all countries, including both shearing wool and pulled wool, i.e. that recovered from skins.

Wool production figures should be reported on both a greasy basis and a clean or scoured basis. When reported in one way only, appropriate conversion factors should be included.

Countries producing significant quantities of fine hair or wool, such as cashmere and mohair, should report relevant production figures separate from common wool figures.

5. Cocoons and Silk

In countries where sericulture is an important activity, data should be collected on the annual cocoon crop as well as on production of natural raw silk, including waste. The cocoons are those suitable for reeling.

6. Processed products from live animals

6.1 Dairy products

6.1.1. The quantities of raw (crude, whole) milk used as such for human consumption are very small. The bulk undergoes more or less complex processes to obtain either products which are still liquid milk (standardized milk, pasteurized milk, partly skimmed milk, skimmed milk, buttermilk, etc.) or products which are no longer liquid milk (cream, butter, cheese, evaporated and condensed milk, milk powder, casein, yogurt, ice cream, etc.). Most milk and products are sterilized, generally with the UHT method (Ultra High Temperature).

In the processing of milk into dairy products, a certain number of by-products are also obtained, such as skimmed milk, buttermilk and whey, which in turn are used in the manufacture of dairy products, particularly dry skim milk, dry butter milk, dry whey and low fat cheese.

Cheese is the curd of milk coagulated by rennet separated from the whey and pressed and moulded into a more or less solid mass. Data on cheese relate, unless otherwise stated, to all kinds of cheese, from full fat cheese to low fat cheese; hard and soft cheese, ripe and fresh cheese, including cottage cheese and curd.

Whey is the serum or watery part of milk which is separated from the curd in the process of making cheese.

Cream is the yellowish part of milk, containing from 18 to 45 percent or more of butterfat that rises to the surface on standing or is separated by centrifugal force.

Butter is a solid emulsion of milk fat and water made to coalesce by churning the cream obtained from milk. Fat content is about 80 percent. Ghee is liquid butter clarified by boiling, produced chiefly in countries of the Far East. Butter oil is butter melted and clarified.

Buttermilk is the fluid milk remaining after milk is converted into butter in the churning process.

The products resulting from a modest or medium reduction of water are evaporated and condensed milk.

Products resulting from an almost complete dehydration are called dry milk or milk powder or powdered milk.

Yogurt is a fermented, slightly acid semifluid milk food made of milk and milk solids (whole, semi-skimmed, skimmed) and sometimes fruit, to which cultures of bacteria have been added.

Casein, also named lactoprotein, is the main protein of milk. It is obtained mainly from skimmed milk.

Lactose or milk sugar is a disaccharide sugar present in milk. It is commercially produced from whey.

Ice cream is a frozen food containing cream or butter fat or milk or milk solids, various flavouring substances, sweetening and usually eggs.

6.1.2. Recommendations. It is recommended that countries collect and report data on utilization of milk produced according to the following uses: milk for liquid consumption, feed, processing, waste and losses. Separate figures should be reported for the various classes of milk-producing animals. The figures should include utilization at farms, as well as at dairy plants. A breakdown of data into the two categories would be most useful. All data should be reported on an annual basis at least, better even on a quarterly or monthly basis.

Countries producing significant amounts of the various products mentioned above should report relevant production data along with the quantities of whole and/or skimmed milk employed in their manufacture.

Cheese production data are classified by countries according to different criteria: full-fat and low fat cheese, hard and soft cheese, ripe and fresh cheese, cottage cheese, curd, processed or melted cheese. While countries are encouraged to develop their cheese statistics, they should report production data at least classified according to the originating livestock species (cow milk cheese, sheep milk cheese, etc.), separately for cheese produced mainly from whole milk and cheese mainly from skimmed milk or whey. Countries reporting data on melted cheese should carefully avoid double counting in reporting total cheese production.

It would be desirable that countries furnish some information on the utilization of various kinds of milk powder: food, feed, etc.

6.2 Egg products

The main products derived from eggs are: liquid eggs, white and yolk, together or single; eggs dehydrated or dried or in powder form, white and yolk, together or single, e.g. albumin, dried whites obtained usually as lumps or powder containing ovalbumin and other proteins.

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