|FAO Animal Health Manual||No. 11|
MANUAL ON THE PREPARATION
OF AFRICAN SWINE FEVER
Text prepared by
William A. Geering
Consultant, EMPRES/Infectious Diseases Group, FAO, Rome
Former Director, Animal and Plant Health,
Bureau of Resource Sciences and Deputy Chief Veterinary Officer,
Assistant Director, ARC-Onderstepoort Veterinary Institute, South Africa
and Consultant, African swine fever epidemiology
and control, FAO, Rome
Associate Professional Officer (Early Warning),
EMPRES/Infectious Diseases Group, FAO, Rome
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African swine fever (ASF) is one of the most serious transboundary animal diseases because of its high lethality for pigs, its crippling socio-economic consequences and its propensity for rapid and unanticipated international spread.
Transboundary animal diseases (TADs) are defined for EMPRES (Emergency Prevention System for Transboundary Animal and Plant Pests and Disease) as those diseases that are of significant economic, trade and food security importance for a considerable number of countries, that can easily spread from one country to another and reach epidemic proportions and that require international cooperation for control and management, including exclusion. The International Office of Epizootics (OIE) International animal health code includes ASF among List A diseases, which are defined as “communicable diseases which have the potential for serious and rapid spread, irrespective of national borders, which are of serious socio-economic or public health importance and which are of major importance in the international trade of animals and animals products”.
This manual provides information on the nature of ASF and the principles and strategic options regarding prevention, control and elimination of the disease. It provides guidelines for individual countries threatened by ASF for formulation of overall national policy on control and eradication of a possible incursion of the disease. The manual identifies the personnel, equipment and facilities needed in a national ASF contingency plan. A suggested outline of the format and contents of a national ASF contingency plan is provided; it should be modified to suit the needs and circumstances of individual countries. Consideration was given to the provisions in the OIE International animal health code in the preparation of the manual. It is suggested that this manual should be used together with the FAO Manual on the preparation of national animal disease emergency preparedness plans, published in 1999.
Sources of information recommended for use in conjunction with this manual include:
Australian veterinary plan (AUSVETPLAN) disease strategy: African swine fever, 2nd ed. 1996. Agriculture and Resource Management Council of Australia and New Zealand.
International animal health code: mammals, birds and bees. 1999. Paris, OIE.
Manual on the preparation of national animal disease emergency preparedness plans. 1999. Animal health manual No. 6. Rome, FAO.
Manual on livestock disease surveillance and information systems. 1999. Animal health manual No. 8. Rome, FAO.
Manual on procedures for disease eradication by stamping out. To be published. Rome, FAO.
Plowright, W., Thomson, G. R. & Neser, J. A. 1994. African swine fever. In J. Coetzer, G. Thomson & R. Tustin, eds. Infectious diseases of livestock, with special reference to South Africa, Vol. 1, p. 568–599. Oxford, Oxford University Press.
Recognizing African swine fever - a field manual. To be published. Rome, FAO.
This manual will be reviewed regularly and revised in the light of experience. Suggestions and recommendations for amendment should be forwarded to:
FAO Animal Health Service
Animal Production and Health Division
Viale delle Terme di Caracalla
00100 Rome, Italy
Tel: 39 06 5705 4798/6772
Fax: 39 06 5705 3023
E-mail: [email protected]
FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION OF THE UNITED NATIONS
Rome, © FAO 2001
Hyperlinks to non-FAO Internet sites do not imply any official endorsement of or responsibility for the opinions, ideas, data or products presented at these locations, or guarantee the validity of the information provided. The sole purpose of links to non-FAO sites is to indicate further information available on related topics.
Acronyms and abbreviations
SUGGESTED FORMAT AND CONTENTS OF A NATIONAL ASF CONTINGENCY PLAN
Nature of the disease
Risk analysis for ASF
Early warning contingency plan
Strategies for control and eradication of ASF
NATURE OF THE DISEASE
RISK ANALYSIS FOR ASF
Principles of risk analysis
Who should carry out the risk analyses?
Risk assessment for ASF
The value of risk assessments for ASF
PREVENTION STRATEGIES FOR ASF
Import quarantine policy
Barrier and border quarantine policy
Swill feeding controls
Containment of pigs
EARLY WARNING CONTINGENCY PLANNING FOR ASF
Training of veterinarians and other animal health staff in early recognition of ASF and collection and dispatch of diagnostic specimens
Farmer awareness/education programmes
Specialist diagnostic team
Laboratory diagnostic capabilities
International reference laboratories and collaborating centres
EARLY REACTION CONTINGENCY PLANNING FOR AN ASF EMERGENCY
Epidemiological features influencing ASF eradication strategies
Strategies for ASF eradication
Actions to be taken in infected zones
Actions to be taken in surveillance zones
Actions to be taken in disease-free zones
Some factors crucial to the success of an ASF eradication campaign
Verification of ASF eradication and national or zonal freedom from the disease
ORGANIZATIONAL ARRANGEMENTS DURING AN ASF EMERGENCY CAMPAIGN
Responsibilities and command structures
Consultative committee on emergency animal diseases (CCEAD)
National animal disease control centre
Local animal disease control centres
Obtaining political support
Slaughter, destruction and decontamination
Prevention of movement
Surveillance for ASF
TRAINING, TESTING AND REVISION OF CONTINGENCY PLANS
The need for regular updating of ASF contingency plans
OIE EXPERTS AND REFERENCE LABORATORIES FOR ASF
This manual is based on the format of the Australian Veterinary Emergency Plan (AUSVETPLAN) with some modifications.
The authors wish to thank Drs Preben Boysen, David Nyakahuma, Roger Paskin, Peter Roeder and Mark Rweyemamu of the EMPRES Livestock Unit, Infectious Diseases Group, Animal Health Service, FAO for providing useful suggestions and comments on various drafts of this manual. In particular, the meticulous way in which Dr. Roeder reviewed the drafts is hereby acknowledged.
|AGIDT||Agar-gel immunodiffusion test|
|ASF||African swine fever|
|AUSVETPLAN||Australian Veterinary Emergency Plan|
|CCEAD||Consultative Committee on Emergency Animal Diseases|
|CSF||Classical swine fever|
|CVO||Chief veterinary officer|
|DVS||Director of veterinary services|
|ECOWAS||Economic Community of West African States|
|EDTA||Ethylenediamine tetra-acetic acid|
|ELISA||Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay|
|EMPRES||Emergency Prevention System for Transboundary Animal and Plant Pests and Diseases|
|FAO||Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations|
|FVO||Field veterinary officer|
|IAEA||International Atomic Energy Agency|
|IATA||International Air Transport Authority|
|OAU||Organization for African Unity|
|OIE||International Office of Epizootics|
|PCR||Polymerase chain reaction|
|PVO||Provincial veterinary officer|
|SADC||Southern African Development Community|
|TADINFO||Transboundary animal disease information system|