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Topics mentioned in the previous chapters have applied primarily to basic principles. We will now turn to specific juice manufacture procedures, starting with the major, commercially important crops. The scale of operation can be enormous, yet an insight into such procedures is of significance to even small cottage industry if only as examples of good manufacturing practices (GMPs) and sanitary/quality norms. Large scale production also offers a reminder of the intensely competitive nature of the international juice business. A large, modern citrus plant can process a million tonnes (~109 kg) of fruit annually. This is over 1 percent of the total 1999 world orange production and consists of ~ 50 000 trailer loads, each containing over 18 000 kg of fruit. On the contrary, one trailer load would be a season's challenge for a small, village scale processor.

There are opportunities at both extremes, although logistics and markets favour juice operations somewhere in between. The wine industry is a relevant example. While the majority of grape wine worldwide is produced in large (greater than 106 L/yr) wineries, often in multiple facilities, there are small vintage wineries (less than 105 L/yr production) with outstanding reputations and comparable consumer demand at premium prices. The "romance of the vine" may not extend to juices. Still, niche markets exist and can be developed and maintained, in the face of global competition.