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Juice processing and utilization is a dynamic technical field. Competent industry, institutional and academic professionals with advanced degrees and decades of experience can devote productive careers to a single juice commodity and still consistently uncover new information requiring more fascinating research. The University of Florida Citrus Research and Education Centre staffed with dozens of scientists and a laudable 70 year history has contributed importantly to the advancement of the state, national and international citrus industry. Research centres in several other States of the United States of America other nations and continents also have comparable research centres. Still, there is much to be learned about citrus and all other juice crops, as citrus is probably the best researched of all juices. The resources cited here are a mixture of old (still relevant classic treatments that age well) and new fast-breaking information on the Internet.

19.1 Working by analogy

From the emphasis given in this text to various juice commodities and processes, it can be seen that there is a substantial body of knowledge applicable to some and much less to others. Part of this background reflects the authors' experience and/or priorities. Thus, many fruits are treated too lightly or ignored. How is one to proceed with, say making mangosteen juice or dealing with an exotic cultivar of apple with a pink flesh that darkens very rapidly?

It is useful to work by analogy using Table 19.1 as a guide. The first approximation would suggest similar handling, juicing, processing and end use. For example, although peach and mango call for vastly different post-harvest handling and prejuicing steps, the general similarity in composition, flavour, consistency and colour suggest reasonably similar processed products specifically puree, nectar, jelly with, of course, fine tuning regarding °Brix/A, solids level, etc. In cases where the juice is difficult to extract, hot press or aqueous extraction may be appropriate. With haze formation, perhaps apple juice clarification procedures would work. An attractively coloured fruit with unbalanced flavour should suggest the cranberry analog as a start.

After such initial evaluations it is important to gain experience with the unique characteristics of the raw material at hand, keeping in mind those factors affecting juice practicality, safety and quality as emphasized in Chapters 3, 4 and 5 and those on well known fruits and vegetables analogous or otherwise. For example, the antidesma bunius, Bignnai. Bignay is a little known tropical fruit with deep red colour, noted by aficionados for its colour stability and wine quality. This immediately suggests pigment and phytochemical properties worth exploring, applying techniques developed for grapes and berries. Technical and anecdotal evidence points to numerous plants with analogous promise.

In a similar sense analogous thinking extends to equipment and procedures. Hot or cold press juice extraction options are dictated by the nature of the pulped fruit or vegetable,

Table 19.1: Unfamiliar juice raw material evaluation.



Growth characteristics

Production feasibility


Harvest/juicing strategy

Skin/seed characteristics

Removal ease or need

Intact durability

Handling, storage

Fresh flavour

Juice suitability

Heat stability - flavour, colour

Processing ease


Blend/phytochemical promise

Brix, pH, acid

Juice stability, processes

Juice/puree viscosity

Beverage type

Pigment intensity/stability

Blending/co-product promise

Juice clarity/turbidity

Juice finishing - clear/cloudy

Residue composition

By-product potential

Similarity to known fruits

Process adaptability, end use

need for and ease of colour extraction, flavour sensitivity, etc. For fruits with soft pulp and no or easily removed seed but instead inedible, off-flavoured skin, a fish deboner capable of gently mashing the flesh through a cylindrical screen by a flexible belt while maintaining and eliminating the intact skin has proven practical. The unit is expensive, but the concept can be modified and scaled to certain fruits, i.e. avocado, papaya, banana, possibly guanabana among others.

Working by analogy goes only so far and at some point differences instead of similarities defines the investigation. Local custom and tastes also suggest utilization schemes, as should international market demands. There are a number of tools at the juice technologist's disposal; use them creatively. However, there is no substitute for experience with a given crop. A hands-on feel for the whole product and the derived juice is essential and it cannot be gained solely on the Internet, from the literature, or by second hand experiences of others. Observe the local flora carefully and patiently; they will tell you their promise.

19.2 Doing your homework

No matter what your expertise, if you have a commitment and strong interest in the area of juice technology, it is essential to keep up with technical, business and legal developments. Of course, your background, professional focus and specific issues will dictate the magnitude of this continual task. Information in all forms whether speech, print, media, electronic, instructional is increasing at a frightening rate and will undoubtedly accelerate. Table 19.2 lists some major resources worth knowing. There is a substantial, growing body of knowledge dealing with all facets of juices. Unfortunately, the hubris (nonessential, marginal, even false information) is growing at an even faster rate. One must separate useful resources from clutter.

Table 19.2: Resources for juice technologists.



Text books

Subject indices of technical and business library holdings

Professional journals

Subject titles- food science, technology, microbiology, etc.

Abstract services

FS and T, Chem, Biological, Business, etc.

Review articles

Titled as reviews - periodicals and annual

Trade journals

Food and business press

Patent literature

U.S. and international


Financial and business press - daily, weekly, monthly

The Internet

Easy search in all - gov, org. com. edu. and international


Courses, conferences, meetings, seminars, workshops

Trade Shows

Professional and trade associations

Institutional Resources

Universities and professional societies

Personal Network

Develop and maintain based on all of the abovewide array of

Consider these resources as if it was an extremely large, versatile buffet line with a food items. Together with appealing dishes are displayed many not so appetizing including those that have minor relevance, are redundant or for which you have no interest. It's impractical to sample everything, particularly at one sitting. Yet in the interest of curiosity and "balanced intellectual nutrition" there are items you should consume or at least be aware are offered. Sample a few to gain familiarity and by all means get a feel for those resources that complement your own expertise. Ignorance is not bliss so an important first step is knowing what you don't know, while understanding how to access needed information. These are described here and listed in detail in the bibliography in Annex B. However, one need not be limited to English, as, increasingly much material is in other major languages such as French, German, Italian, Portuguese, Spanish, Chinese, Japanese, etc.

19.3 Textbooks

There are a lot of good ones out there, as cited. Some of the older books have strong chapters of current relevance that shouldn't be ignored. A library subject search can be a rewarding exercise. For example, if one is interested in food additives or food regulations, enter these terms in a library catalogue. There should be many sources, including recent texts, reviews, even research articles. In a more technical vein are some texts that assume that the reader has more of a food science and technology background and go into more industry detail.

19.4 Abstracts

For a quick review of a certain subject, abstract services are quite efficient. Specific details about technical, legal, business matters are presented effectively by abstracting services. The subject index can provide a comprehensive focus on original research, reviews, or patent literature. First conduct a well-structured subject search and peruse the titles generated to initially screen searches. Those of interest can be further screened by reading the abstract. Then access to the original article or review should provide needed information.

Most university libraries have "Food Science and Technology Abstracts" and "Chemical Abstracts". Up until recently an abstract search involved access to a library with the appropriate holdings in either hard copy (printed) or on CD disc. Now library access is still important, but can be accomplished via the Internet. By the proper use of key words, practically the world's literature (from at least the mid 1990s on) is at your disposal. In fact, too much, since a too broad search request will flag hundreds, if not thousands of selections.

19.5 Patents

A well-orchestrated abstract search rapidly leads to journals, texts and conference proceedings. Practically all professional societies and trade associations have a defining publication, such as a journal, proceedings, newsletter, etc.; some have more than one. Articles dealing with membership interests are usually topical and relevant. This is certainly true of the food field. For example, peruse a few issues of Food Technology to see what juice regulatory, business and technical concerns are topical. It would be a full time job to keep up with dealing with all aspects of juice business/technology; the commodity and industry orientation helps.

Professional journals go into detail regarding the interests of their membership and may include useful reviews and industry news. Special conference topics often end up as published proceedings. Trade journals are apt to be more sales oriented and feature articles and ads emphasizing solutions to industry problems and supplier sources. You should be aware of both as well as review journals, which provide topical overviews. A good current review article comprehensively summarizes pertinent text and journal literature and can be a gold mine of information and a real time saver. Table 19.3 lists some resources with juice relevance covering a broad range of commodities and economic interests (FPMSA, 2000). This list is far from complete.

19.6 Patents

The bottom line in creativity is reflected in patents, trademarks, copyrights and trade secrets. We have reasonable public access to the first three but the last is closely guarded by the ownership. As the depository of innovation, patent literature is invaluable to the entrepreneur. If for no other reason than to discover the rationale behind existing inventions, patent literature is essential. It's hard to read, verbose and repetitive (written by lawyers, not scientists or inventors), yet worth the effort. Patent abstracts are available at most libraries, some major libraries are patent depositories and copies can be purchased from the U.S. Patent Office. International patents can be accessed at

19.7 Periodicals

Newspapers and magazines as sources of information should not be neglected. The business press is a daily, weekly or monthly update. Promotional material is also useful. Most importantly news items, editorials and advertisements indicate popular trends and opinions before they are evaluated and reported by experts.

19.8 The Internet

No development has changed the Information Sciences more than the Internet. With tandem advances in personal computer (PC) hardware, software and Internet links we are in the early stages of an information revolution. Instead of visiting a library, one can readily access most of the above sources using a linked PC from almost anywhere in the world. Recent patent and abstract literature is at your fingertips via the Internet. On-line publication of journals in a growing phenomenon, so a PC with Internet access and a printer can go a long way toward staying abreast of current literature.

Internet as an information vehicle is not free of drawbacks. The Internet is rapidly replacing printed matter and greatly facilitates the task of disseminating up to date materials. However, the medium is in flux, access is sometimes very slow, sites vary greatly in quality, and Website addresses (URL's) change, appear or disappear at an annoying rate.

The ease of Internet access often makes it the method of choice in searches, often the sole choice. This is a mistake. Older literature is usually not on the Internet and provides valuable insights to where the juice industry came from and where it's going. Perusing old issues of Food Technology or trade journals from the 1950s can be a worthwhile exercise. Also, classic texts from the past can provide a sound technical introduction and put new developments in perspective, especially when combined with current literature awareness. One of the most valuable features of the Internet is immediate access to key resources such as government, industry, university, professional and trade societies, commodity groups, etc. It is a rare organization that doesn't have a Website. For a good introduction, check out the FAO, FDA, or IFT ( on the web. Although you may need to wade through copious screens of advertisements on commercial Websites, there's a wealth of information from government organizations, suppliers, even competitors. Table 19.3 illustrates some key journals and related Websites worth noting.

Until recently, any listing of background reference material has logically started with printed material and there is still much of value to recommend. However the Internet's explosive growth merits attention. This is particularly the case with government publications relating to food safety, regulations, grades and standards. FAO Codex, USA Federal and many State governments have impressively user-friendly Websites. Documents and contact information previously available only at libraries or the home office can now be accessed in current form on the web.

Of particular value are trade journal Websites. Their supplier indices and links are a comprehensive and easy access to trade information and greatly facilitate planning, evaluating, and purchasing. One caveat researchers should beware, as anyone can produce a Website, the credibility of the information is no better than that of the provider. There is an abundance of nonsense parading as fact on the web. Sadly disinformation is increasing faster than valid information. Nevertheless, learn to use the Internet in combination with credible and respectable literature.

Table 19.3: Professional and trade journals and supplier links with juice relevance




Food Technology Journal of Food Science

Institute of Food Technologists (USA)

Agriculture and Food Chemistry

American Chemical Society

Beverage Digest

Beverage World

The International Journal of Food Science and Technology

Institute of Food Science and Technology (UK)

Food Science and Technology Today  

The World of Food Science

International Union of Food Science and Technology

Cereal Foods World

American Association of Cereal Chemists

American Oil Chemists Society

American Oil Chemists Society

Many Trade Journals

Cahners Food Publications

Many Trade Journals

Stagnito Communications

Frozen food publications

National Frozen Foods Association

Food Processing


Food Info Net


Food Processors


National Food Processors Association




National Soft Drink Association


National Juice Products Association


Indian Ministry of Food Processing Industries BuyersGuide


International Dairy Foods Association


The Contract Packaging Association

19.9 Institutional resources

Practically every country, state and city has services fostering agricultural development. Add to these private entities such as banks, financial institutions, Chambers of Commerce and efforts at the international level. In the broadest sense, there is more interest in "high tech" promotion such as biotechnology and computer industries than in agriculture. Although our emphasis is juice, many non-agricultural organizations have valuable programs or information, i.e. finance, marketing, relocation, employee training, etc. well worth learning about.

These organizations hold workshops, conferences and short courses on pertinent subjects, with related published newsletters, bulletins, and conference proceedings. The trade shows and industrial exhibits of professional and trade societies can be extremely valuable "hands-on" experience. Of course, the attendant programs and activities are well publicized and promoted in Websites. Some of these half-day to several day activities can be quite costly, equivalent to a university's full semester course tuition (or more). And the fee usually doesn't include all meals, lodging or travel. Nevertheless, if on the basis of your participation you avoid serious technical or business errors, the event can be cost effective.

Courses of a half-day to week duration and industrial exhibits do provide background and specific information. Just as importantly, they can provide a good networking environment with the opportunity to interact with like-minded individuals and experts in the field. As with the Internet, course and exhibit quality varies, so keep in mind the reputation of the presenting organization.

In the United States of America, the Small Business Administration (SBA) provides statewide small business counselling, information services and training for both start-up and existing firms or individuals. Their strategy of providing information and advice while the clients do the legwork and make the decisions is typical of the self -help philosophy. In view of the highly competitive nature of the food industry, the SBA is a welcome and essential resource. A perusal of their Website is informative (SBA, 2000).

Such a huge inventory of resources can be intimidating, so remember the buffet dinner metaphor. You can't sample and digest everything. Get a good overview and feel for what's out there; then be selective. Remember, no one knows more about your juice product ideas and aspirations than you do. It's then a matter of identifying, evaluating, inventorying and utilizing those resources that serve your specific needs. As a matter of principle, maintaining awareness by perusing relevant texts, journals, the Internet and news sources; participating in relevant professional and trade association activities while establishing your personal network are good, if not essential insurance routines.

On the other hand, information is of minor value, until it's put into practice. That's where your expertise, focus, and ambitions come in. All cited resources are at your disposal. There are many local, national, and international agencies that can help and advise, but the ultimate effort must be your own.

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