and Rural Extension Worldwide
Options for Institutional Reform in the Developing Countries

Prepared by
William M. Rivera
University of Maryland, College Park

in collaboration with
M. Kalim Qamar and L. Van Crowder
Extension, Education and Communication Service,
Research, Extension and Training Division
FAO Sustainable Development Department

Rome, November 2001


Table of Contents

The designations employed and the presentation of material in this information product do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries.

All rights reserved. Reproduction and dissemination of material in this information product for educational or other non-commercial purposes are authorized without any prior written permission from the copyright holders provided the source is fully acknowledged. Reproduction of material in this information product for resale or other commercial purposes is prohibited without written permission of the copyright holders. Applications for such permission should be addressed to the Chief, Publishing and Multimedia Service, Information Division, FAO, Viale delle Terme di Caracalla, 00100 Rome, Italy or by e-mail to [email protected]

© FAO 2001

Table of Contents

Purpose and rationale

1. Agricultural and rural extension: definitions

1.1 Extension: a function
1.2 Agricultural extension: a knowledge system
1.3 Agricultural and rural extension: an expanded concept
1.4 Alternative extension approaches
1.5 Government’s role in agricultural and rural extension reform

2. Global developments shaping extension

2.1 The new paradigm
2.2 Responding to the new paradigm

3. FAO’s current programmes for agricultural and rural extension

3.1 Multiple extension approaches and purposes

4. Institutional reform: a new vision for agricultural and rural extension development

4.1 The contemporary institutional reform of extension
4.2 Market reforms
4.3 Non-market reforms
4.4 A dynamic view of extension institutional reforms
4.5 Vision and guiding principles for extension development

5. Reform initiatives

5.1 From pluralism to partnership
5.2 Partnerships with farmers and the private sector
5.3 Cost recovery schemes
5.4 Decentralization to lower tiers of government
5.5 Subsidiarity (decentralization) to the grassroots level

Concluding remarks