1. Primary - 1a: first in order of time or development:
PRIMITIVE <the primary stage of civilization b: of or relating to formations
of the Paleozoic and earlier periods 2a: of first rank, importance, or value:
2. (EU) Relatively intact natural forest which has
remained essentially unmodified by human activity for the past 60-80 years
3. (Nicaragua) - Draft - Bosque Primario: Bosque relativamente intacto que esencialmente no ha sido modificado por la actividad humana durante los últimos 60 a 80 años. www.nicarao.org.ni/ja (see Borrador de la ley, CAPITULO II DEFINICIONES) Harrie [email protected]
4. (Thailand) Forest which are in a close or natural unidusturbed state. The report of Thailand's National Greenhouse Gas Inventory, 1990 "Wilailak Pangtawaong" [email protected]
5. A climax forest comprising primary or climax species, i.e. a forest that either has not been severely disturbed or has ully recovered from disturbance by a secondary succession - John Morrison [email protected]
6. A forest ecosystem with the principal characteristics
and key elements of native ecosystems such as complexity, structure, and
diversity and an abundance of mature trees, relatively undisturbed by human
activity. Human impacts in such forest areas have normally been limited to low
levels of hunting, fishing and harvesting of forest products. Such ecosystems
are also referred to as "mature," "old-growth," or "virgin" forests.
7. A forest in a mature succession phase whose structure
and composition have resulted from unrestrained ecological processes rather than
from human activity.
8. A forest largely undisturbed by human activities.
9. A forest occupying a site that has been continuously forested* even though it may have been clear-felled, provided that the clear-felling does not break the forest continuity (i.e. the forest regenerated or was replanted) (Allaby 1994).
10. A forest that has never been logged or
11. A forest that has never been logged and has
developed following natural disturbances and under natural processes, regardless
of its age. It is referred to "direct human disturbance" as the intentional
clearing of forest by any means (including fire) to manage or alter them for
human use. Also included as primary, are forests that are used inconsequentially
by indigenous and local communities living traditional lifestyles relevant for
the conservation and sustainable use of biological diversity. In much of Europe,
primary forest has a different connotation and refers to an area of forest land
which has probably been continuously wooded at least throughout historical times
(e.g., the last thousand years). It has not been completely cleared or converted
to another land use for any period of time. However traditional human
disturbances such as patch felling for shifting cultivation, coppicing, burning
and also, more recently, selective/partial logging may have occurred, as well as
natural disturbances. The present cover is normally relatively close to the
natural composition and has arisen (predominantly) through natural regeneration,
but planted stands can also be found. However, the suggested definition above
would include other forests, such as secondary forests.
12. An ecosystem characterized by an abundance of mature
trees, relatively undisturbed by human activity. Human impacts in such forest
areas have normally been limited to low levels of hunting, fishing and
harvesting of forest products, and, in some cases, to low density, shifting
agriculture with prolonged fallow periods. Such ecosystems are also referred to
as "mature," "old-growth" or "virgin" forests. (further details will be
addressed by FSC-approved national and regional standards of forest stewardship)
PRINCIPLES AND CRITERIA FOR FOREST STEWARDSHIP. Revised March 1996, edited
13. An old-growth or ancient forest, that has kept recycling for thousands of years.
14. Areas where the primary lot pattern consists of lots
of record (as defined by the Multnomah County zoning code for Commercial Forest
Use-zoned areas) in excess of 40 acres and where there are few existing
residences. Primary forest lands may include smaller lots of record which do not
by themselves meet the definition, but which are isolated from other smaller
lots of record by lands which do meet the definition of primary forest lands.
The second, which shall be designated as COMMERCIAL FOREST - 2, consists of the
remainder of the Commercial forest Use-zoned areas. Secondary forest lands are
defined as areas consisting of contiguous lots of record less than 40 acres,
many of which have existing residences. Secondary forest lands may include
larger lots of record which by themselves do not meet the definition, but which
are isolated from other larger lots of record by lands which do meet the
definition of secondary forest lands
15. Forest that has never been harvested or otherwise disturbed at a large scale by humans.
16. Land which has never been anything other than
woodland since the end of the last Ice Age, although it may have been regularly
http://www.woodland-trust.org.uk/glossary/indexfr.htm The Woodland Trust Glossary
17. Intact forest that has been essentially unmodified
by human activity for the past sixty to eighty years.
18. One that has not been disturbed by anthropogenic action such as grazing, logging, road building, chemical deposition, or by frequent fires. A "primary forest" is also of sufficient size that it is capable of regenerating all the endogenous species that inhabit or dwell there. From: John Foster "J. Foster" [email protected]
19. PRIMARY FOREST (syn. pristine, virgin, or old growth
forest) Forest which has never been subject to human disturbance, or has been so
little affected by hunting and gathering that its natural structure, functions
and dynamics have not undergone any unnatural change.
20. Relatively intact forest that has been essentially unmodified by human activity for the past sixty to eighty years; an ecosystem characterized by an abundance of mature trees. Human impacts in such forests have been limited to low levels of artisanal hunting, fishing, and harvesting of forest products, and, in some cases, low density migratory agriculture (World Bank 1991).
21. Woodland occupying a site which has been
continuously wooded (in Britain since the last ice advance) even though it may
have been clear-felled, provided that the clear-felling does not break the
woodland continuity [i.e. the woodland regenerated or was replanted] (Allaby
1994). Helene M Cleveland CCMAIL
22. Woodland that has had continuous cover of native
trees throughout history.