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This report addresses both the situation of food security in the Russian Federation and the outlook for removing constraints on food security in the future. It argues that, despite great concern, the country does not appear to be food insecure by measures of food availability. The most significant change in food availability since 1992 has been a change in the mix of foods, away from products of animal origin towards those of vegetable origin. Survey information on food consumption indicates that food inadequacy seems to be more severe the more urban the settlement. The greater food security of rural areas is connected with the prevalence of private plots and their role as a buffer against poverty. Also, food inadequacy is higher in larger families, though not necessarily in families with large numbers of children. Finally, contrary to popular concern, pensioner families do not seem to be at higher risk of food inadequacy compared to other families. If problems of food availability and food consumption are less severe than has often been portrayed, the most severe food security problems in the Russian Federation – overweight and obesity in adults and micronutrient deficiencies in both adults and children – have been little appreciated until quite recently. In this respect, the average diet of Russians has become healthier since 1990 owing to decreases in milk, meat and fat consumption and rising consumption of staples such as bread and potatoes. However, there is still much to do to promote healthy diets and improve infant feeding practices in the Russian Federation

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