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When air temperatures fall below 0 °C, sensitive crops can be injured, with significant effects on production. For example, in the USA, there are more economic losses to frost damage than to any other weather-related phenomenon (White and Haas, 1975). Therefore, impacts on affected farmers and the local economy are often devastating. Although it is clearly important, information on how to protect crops from freezing is relatively limited. Consequently, there is a need for a widely available, simplified source of information to help farmers address this serious problem. In this book, the distribution, economics, history, physical and biological aspects of frost damage are presented and discussed, together with methods of protection. This book contains a broad range of information from basic to complex; however, it was mainly written to help growers to better understand freeze protection and to develop strategies to combat crop losses due to freezing...

Over-tree sprinkler experiment in Northern California (photographer: unknown)

Russet patches near the eyes and rings developed on small apple fruits damaged by frost in Northern Portugal (photographer: António Castro Ribeiro)

The use of hoops and plastic to protect Alstroemeria plants in Northern California (photographer: Richard L. Snyder)

Environment and Natural Resources Service (SDRN) publications

SDRN contact: [email protected]

Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO)

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