Strengthening the Pluralistic Agricultural Extension System: A Zimbabwean Case Study

B.T. Hanyani-Mlambo

Agricultural Research Council (ARC)

Zimbabwe, 2002

Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations

Integrated Support to Sustainable Development and Food Security Programme

Table of Contents

Table of Contents

Preface and acknowledgement


Executive summary


The agricultural extension system in Zimbabwe

Historical and organizational background
Agricultural extension approaches used in Zimbabwe
Effectiveness of current agricultural extension services
New agricultural extension approaches

Experiences of improving smallholder farmers' livelihoods

Perceptions of success and failure
Examples of success stories
Examples of failures

Actors in the pluralistic agricultural extension system

SWOT analysis of extension service providers

Formal institutional linkages and informal networks among extension service providers

Linkages and networks around various extension service providers
Networks around rural district councils
Informal farmer knowledge networks

Interface analysis

Political factors
Technical factors
Organizational factors

Recommendations and conclusions for collaborative extension delivery strategies



Annex 1: Key informant interviews: Discussion guide

Annex 2: Profiles of providers of agricultural extension services

Agricultural Research Trust Farm
CARE International
Catholic Development Agency
Commercial Farmers' Union
Communal Areas Management Programme for Indigenous Resources (CAMPFIRE)
Dairy Development Programme
Department of Agricultural, Technical and Extension Services (AGRITEX)
Department of Research and Specialist Services (DR&SS)
Department of Veterinary Services
Farmers' Development Trust
Forestry Commission
German Agency for Technical Cooperation (GTZ)
Intermediate Technology Development Group (ITDG)
International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT)
Ministry of Local Government
Ministry of Youth Development, Gender and Employment Creation
Natural Resources Board
Rural district councils
Silveira House
Smallholder Dry Areas Resource Management Programme
Southern Alliance for Indigenous Resources (SAFIRE)
University of Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe Farmers' Union
Zimbabwe Fertilizer Company Private Limited