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This bibliography concentrates on the following areas: technology transfer systems, communication for technology transfer, new extension and systems paradigms, rapid and participatory appraisal, participatory research and distance learning. It is by no means an exhaustive bibliography. Additional annotated bibliographies were prepared during the study dealing with farming systems research in the Philippines but which were not added to this report due to space limitations.

AED/USAID Communication for technology transfer in agriculture. Washington: CTTA.

Ashby, J.A. 1993. Identifying beneficiaries & participants in client-driven on-farm research. AFSRE Newsletter Vol. 4. No. 1.: 1-10.

Ashby, J.A. 1987. The effects of different types of farmer participation on the management of on-farm trials. Agricultural administration and extension. Vol. 25: 235-52.

Ashby, J.A. 1986. Methodology for the participation of small farmers in the design of on-farm trials. Agricultural administration 22: 1-19.

Bebbington, A.J. et al. 1993. Rural people's knowledge, farmer organizations and regional development: Implications for agricultural research and extension. (or From farming systems to food systems) London: ODA/ODI Network Paper 41.

Bennor D. & J.Q. Harrison. 1977. Agricultural extension: The training and visit system. Washington: The World Bank.

Biggs, S. 1988. Resource-poor farmer participation in research: A synthesis of experiences from nine Naliona1 Agricultural Research Systems. OFCOR Comparative Study Paper No. 3. The Hague: ISNAR.

Bonifacio, M.F. 1992. Images of agriculture: Issues, problems an trend in technology transfer. Socioeconomic Research Division. Los Banos: PCARRD.

Bourgeois, R. 1990. Structural linkages for integrating agricultural research and extension. ISNAR Working Paper No. 35. The Hague: ISNAR.

Calumpang-Malicsi, L. 1989. Communication flow and adoption of artificially induced breeding technology to upgrade native carabaos: A case study. Unpublished M.Sc. thesis. Los Banos, UPLB.

Chambers, R. 1993. Methods for analysis by farmers. Journal for farming systems research-extension. Vol 4, No. 1.

Chambers, R., A. Pacey & Led Thrupp. 1989. Farmer first: Farmer innovation and agricultural research. London: Intermediate Technology Publications.

Chambers, R. & J. Jiggins. 1986. Agricultural research for resource-poor farmers: A parsimonious paradigm. IDS Discussion Paper 220. Brighton (Sussex): IDS.

Christoplos I. & U. Nitsch. 1993. Changing extension paradigm. IRDC Currents No. 6: 22-26.

Coldevin, G & T. Stuart. 1993. Initiatives development support communication for agricultural technology transfer in the Philippines. The Journal of Development Communication No.2 Vol 4: 18-28.

Cornwall, A., I. Guijt, & A. Welbourn. 1992. Acknowledging process: Challenges for agricultural research and extension methodology. (Overview paper for Beyond Farmer First workshop paper). University of Sussex: RED/IDS.

Dar, W. 1993. Philippine farming systems: Recent developments. Paper for the 12th session of the FAO Regional Farm Management Commission for Asia and the Near East. December 11 - 14, Dhaka, Bangladesh.

Dar, W. 1993. Strengthening the extension- research linkage and technology transfer: The DA's continuing commitment. Paper presented at the DOST forum on the same topic. March 25, Bicutan, Metro Manila.

Dela Cruz, C.R., C. Lightfoot & R.C. Sevilleja. 1992. Rice-fish farming in the Philippines: The farmers' perspective. World Aquaculture 23 (1): 5255.

Delman, J. 1991. Agricultural extension in Renshou County, China. A case study of bureaucratic intervention for agricultural innovation and change. R&H Bulletin No.28. Virum (DK).

Drilon, J.D. 1974. Spreading new rice varieties: Then and Now. Communication strategies for rural development. Proceedings of the Cornell-CIAT 1974 International Symposium, Call, Colombia.

Engel, P. and M. Salomon. 1993. Rapid appraisal of agricultural knowledge systems (RAAKS) (version 4.1, unpublished). Agricultural University Wageningen (NL).

Eponou, T. 1993. Partners in agricultural technology: Linking research and technology transfer to serve farmers. ISNAR Research Report No. 1. The Hague: ISNAR.

Escalada, M.M. 1985. Participatory media-assisted reaming system for small lowland rice farmers. Ph.D. thesis in Development Communication. UP, Los Banos.

Farrington, J. & A. Martin. 1988. Farmer participatory research: A review of concepts and recent fieldwork. Agricultural Administration & Extension 29: 249-264.

Flinn, A.J. 1982. Professional communication between researchers of UPLB and IRRI. MSc Thesis in Development Communication. UP, Los Banos.

Garforth, C. 1993. Communication models in extension research. Unpublished BAES seminar. University of Reading.

Gapasin, D.P. 1990. Decentralizing agricultural research management: The case of the regional consortia in the Philippines. ISNAR Working Paper No.34. The Hague: ISNAR.

Go, S. & A. Go. 1992. The construction and application of rural people's knowledge: Upland rice production in Leyte, Philippines. London: TIED/IDS (Paper for the Beyond Farmer First Conference.)

Goonasekera, A. 1990. Mass media campaigns for development: Some practical guidelines. The Journa1 of Development Communication, No. 1 ,Vol. 1.

Gundaya, E.A. 1991. Communication in the adoption of village-level root crop flour processing and utilisation technology: A case study. MSc thesis in Development Communication. UP, Los Banos.

Haverkort, B. et al. (eds.). 1991. Joining farmers' experiments: Experiences in participatory technology development. London: IT Publications.

Hechanova, R.S. & E.C. Macabiog. 1987. Technology delivery systems development for Region 02. Unpublished research report. Isabela State University & Department of Agriculture, Philippines.

Heinrich, G.M. et al. 1993. Local institutional linkages in farming systems research and extension. ODA/ODI Network Paper 39. London: ODI.

Heron, J. 1989. The facilitator's handbook. London: Kogan Page.

Hiemstra, W. et al. (eds). 1992. Let farmers judqe: Experiences in assessing the sustainability of agriculture. London: IT Publications.

Hossain, S.M.A. et al. 1993. Informal agricultural communication patterns in a remote area of Bangladesh. Journal for Farmer Systems Research-Extension. Vol 3, No. 2: 39-58.

ISNAR. 1994. Farmer's organizations offer research institutes prospectives for partnership. ISNAR Newsletter. No. 24.

Kaimowitz, D. 1992. Motive forces: External pressure and the dynamics of technology systems. ISNAR Linkages Discussion Paper No. 11. The Hague: ISNAR.

Kaimowitz, D., M. Snyder, & P. Engel. 1990. A conceptual framework for studying links between agricultural research and technology transfer in developing countries. In: Kaimowitz, D. 1990. Making the link: Agricultural research and technology transfer in developing countries. London: Westview Press (ISNAR).

Lamb, R. 1993. Designs on life. New Scientist, 30 October, 1993: 37-40.

Librero, F.1990. Development communication strategies: Some experiences in the Philippines. The Journal of Development Communication, No. 1 ,Vol. 1.

Lightfoot, C., P. Pingali & L. Harrington. 1993. Beyond romance and rhetoric: Sustainable agriculture and farming systems research. NAGA, The ICLARM Quarterly Jan 1993: 1 7-18.

Lightfoot, C., S. Feldman & M. Zainul Abedin. 1991. Households agroecosystems and rural resource management Manila: BARI/ICLARM.

Lightfoot, C. & D. Minnick. 1991. Farmer-based methods: Farmers' diagrammes for improving methods of experimental design in integrated farming systems. In Haverkort et al. (eds.) Joining farmers' experiments: Experiences in particpatory technology development. London: IT Publications.

McKee, N. 1992. Social mobilization and social marketing: Lessons for communicators. Penang: Southbound.

Merrill-Sands, D. & M.H. Collion. 1993. Making the farmer's voice count in agricultural research. Q.J. International Agriculture. July-September, 1993: 260-279.

Merrill-Sands, D., D. Kannowitz, K. Sayce & S. Chater. 1989. The technology triangle: Linking farmers, technology transfer agents, and agricultural researchers. The Hague: ISNAR.

Oepen, M. 1990. Development support communication in Indonesia. Old and new paradigm in Indonesia.

Ortiz, R. et al. 1991. A new model for technology transfer in Guatemela: Closing the gap between research and extension. The Hague: ISNAR.

PCARRD. 1990. Applied Communication Division Info. Bulletin No. 22.

PCARRD. 1989. National management information system. Proceedings of the workshop on national management information system. Los Banos: PCARRD, IDRC & ISNAR.

PCARRD. 1991. Observations and analysis of the PCARRD organization and management system. Review and Evaluation Committee. Los Banos: PCARRD.

PCARRD. 1988. Research management in agriculture and natural resources in the Philippines. Proceedings of the workshop on research management in agriculture and natural resources in the Philippines. Los Banos: PCARRD & ISNAR.

Pretty, J.N. and R. Chambers. 1992. Turning the new leaf: New professionalism, institutions and policies for agriculture. London: IIED/IDS (Overview Paper for the Beyond Farmer First Conference.)

Quebral, N.C. 1988. Communication in the National Azolla Action Programme: A case study. DCC-UPLB College of Agriculture, Los Banos: UPLB.

Quebral, N.C. 1982. The C72E study: Piloting a distance reaming system for small farmers. Manila: Ministry of Education and Culture.

Rerkasem, K. et al. 1988. Roles of village information network in technological changes in northern Thailand. pp: 145-159. In K. Rerkasem and A.T. Rambo (eds) Agroecosystem research for rural development. Selected papers presented at the third SUAN Regional Symposium, Chiang Mail 22-24 October, 1986. Chiang Mai, Multiple Cropping Centre of Chiang Mai University and Suan.

Rivera, F.T. 1992. A review of the state-of-the-art in extension science for rice. (preliminary report) PRRI, Munoz, Nueva Ecija, Philippines.

Rogers, E. 1983. Diffusion of innovations. third ed. New York: Free Press.

Roling, N. 1988. Extension science: Information systems in agricultural development. Cambridge University Press.

Roling, N. 1990. The agricultural research-technology transfer interface: A knowledge systems perspective. In Kaimowitz, D. (ed.). Making the link: Agricultural research and technology transfer in developing countries. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.

Roling, N. 1993a. Kaleidoscopie voor Voorlichters: op zoek naar bevrydende perspectieven. Lecture notes. Wageningen, The Netherlands.

Roling, N. 1993b. Communication support for sustainable natural resource management. Preliminary version for the IDS Bulletin.

Roling, N. (unpublished). Platforms for decision making about ecosystems. Draft chapter to appear in: L.O. Fresco et al. (1994).The future of land: Mobilizing and integrating knowledge for land use options. Proceedings of a conference held in Wageningen, the Netherlands, August, 1993.

Salk Yoon, C. 1992. Evaluation report on Project for Broadcasting in Development. CIDA/AIB/RIDC.

Santiago, T.C. 1982. Factors that affect distance learning: The case of the Matangtubig utilisation site. UP, Los Banos.



A person, group (formal or informal), organization, or institution involved in demanding, supplying or exchanging information.


A village with legal standing, represented by a barangay captain.


The process of information exchange through messages which enables information linkages to exist over space and time. Communication is manifested through message exchange.


Measurements on perceived components of reality.


A set of data organised according to patterns of interpretation.

Information linkage

An exchange of information between two actors which persists over a period of time and space.


A property of the mind; knowledge processes take place at the individual level and may be enhanced by group learning.

Knowledge management

The activities people perform to facilitate collective learning, and local knowledge processes amongst individuals and organizations.

Level of analysis

The level of authority and organization (e.g. barangay, municipality, etc.) for which the interaction and information exchange are assessed.


Information which is coded through a given medium with the purpose of exchange.


The congregation of information linkages.


A subdivision of a village, the smallest settlement with legal standing, tends to include at least 100.

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