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Annex 1 Provisional agenda


1. Opening of the Meeting

2. Adoption of the Agenda

3. Current Information on Street Foods

4. Role of Municipal/National Authorities in City Management vis-à-vis Street Foods

5. Advance in Regulatory Aspects of Street Foods

6. Development of Appropriate Technologies for Street Foods

7. Consumer Perceptions on Street Foods

8. Role of Women and Children on Street Foods

9. Education Approaches in Improved Street Food Management and Role of NGOs

10. Proposal for a Guideline Plan of Action on Street Foods

11. Adoption of the Report of the Meeting

12. Closing of the Meeting

Annex 2 List of participants



Li Tairan


Institute of Food Safety Control and Inspection



Jairo Romero Torres


Romero Tobar SCA



Michel Chauliac


Centre International de l'Enfance



Ms. I. Chakravarty Dean

All India Institute for Hygiene and Public Health



F.G. Winarno


Food Technology Development Centre

Bogor Agricultural University



Ms. K. Kane-Devautour





Jose Palomino Huaman

Consultant on street foods



Ms. M.P. De Guzman

Deputy Director

Food and Nutrition Research Institute



Suang Liamrangsi

Director, Food Hygiene Division

Ministry of Health



Georges Ayivi-Houedo

Consultant on food quality assurance





Sebastian Kelbling

Food Programme

Carl Duisberg Gesellschaft (CDG)



Martin Dietz


Association for Appropriate




Anthony Hazzard

Food Safety Officer

World Health Organization

Regional Office for Asia


FAO Secretariat

Obaidullah Khan

Assistant Director-General and FAO

Representative for Asia

FAO Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific


R.J. Dawson

Chief, Food Quality and Standards Service

FAO Headquarters


P. Rosenegger

FAO Representative

New Delhi

B.K. Nandi

Regional Food and Nutrition Officer

FAO Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific


Cheikh N'Diaye

Regional Food and Nutrition Officer

FAO Regional Office for Africa


Ms. C. Canet

Nutrition Officer

Food Control and Consumer Protection Group

Food Quality and Standards Service

FAO Headquarters


F. Boccas

Associate Professional Officer

FAO Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific


R.K. Malik

FAO Consultant

Indian Organizing Committee and Observers

B.R. Roy


Central Food Laboratory


S. Dey

Calcutta Municipal Corporation

R.P. Bhattacharya

Disaster Management Cell

All India Institute of Hygiene and Public Health


R.K. Sinha

All India Institute of Hygiene and Public Health


D. Chaudhuri

All India Institute of Hygiene and Public Health


P. Nandi

All India Institute of Hygiene and Public Health


B.K. Roy

All India Institute of Hygiene and Public Health


Ms. Sutapa Saha

All India Institute of Hygiene and Public Health


Annex 3 References

Working Papers

G. Ayivi-Houedo, Street food hygiene and sanitation: a case study in Africa, FAO/Rome, 1995.

D. Baris, The informal street food sector: its place in the urban area, FAO/Rome, 1995.

I. Chakravarty, Street foods in India, FAO/Rome, 1995.

M. Chauliac, Implications of street foods for children, FAO/Rome, 1995.

M. P. de Guzman, Street food training programmes: the Philippines experience, FAO/Rome, 1995.

Li Tairan, Street foods in China, FAO/Rome, 1995.

R.K. Malik, Background document on street foods, FAO/Rome, 1995.

G. Moy, T. Hazzard, F. Kaferstein, W. Motagema, Improving the safety of street vended food., WHO, Geneva, 1995

J. Romero Torres, Appropriate technologies applied to street foods, FAO/Rome, 1995. Suang Liamrangsi, Development of model street food areas, FAO/Rome, 1995.

F.G. Winarno, The regulatory and control aspects of street foods, FAO/Rome, 1995.

Other Documents

Codex Alimentarius Commission, ALINORM 93/13-A; ALINORM 93/15-2; ALINORM 93/28-4; ALINORM 93136; ALINORM 95/28. Draft Codes of Practices on Street Foods in Asia, Africa and Latin America.

Food and Nutrition Paper 46, Report of an Expert Consultation on Street Foods, Yogyakarta, Indonesia, December 1988, FAO/Rome 1989.

ILSI/Academy of Preventive Medecine/FAO/WHO, Abstracts from the Conference on Street Foods: epidemiology management, practicals approaches, October 1992, Beijing, China.

National Institute for Nutrition, Reports on studies in Hyderabad and Secundarabad, 1991, 1993, Hyderabad, India

Reports of FAO Regional Meetings on Street Foods in Asia, Yogyakarta, Indonesia, 1986; Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, 1992.

Reports of FAO Regional Meetings on Street Foods in Africa, Accra, Ghana, 1992; Cotonou, Benin, 1994.

Reports of Meetings in Latin America: Taller FAO/OPS sobre yenta callejera, Lima, Peru, 1985; Taller international sobre yenta callejera de alimentos, Ciudad de Guatemala, Guatemala, 1990; Reunion del cono sur sobre yenta de alimentos en la via pública, Sao Paula, Brazil, 1991; Seminario Taller Latinoamericano FAO/OPS sobre control de alimentos que se vendee en las calles, Montevideo, Uruguay, 1994.

Reports of FAO studies on the socio-economic, regulatory and quality aspects of street foods: India (Pune, Bombay), Indonesia (Bogor), Malaysia (Penang), Morocco (Rabat-Sale), Nigeria (Lagos, Kaduna, Ibadan), Pakistan (Rawalpindi), Thailand (Bangkok), Uganda (Kampala).

Terminal Statement and/or Technical Reports from various FAO projects: GHA/94/01; TCP/BOL/2251; TCP/CAM/0159; TCP/COL/0152; TCP/ECU/0155; TCP/IND/0155; TCP/IVC/2353; TCP/MEX/2251; TCP/NEP/6153; TCP/PER/0155; TCP/PHI/2254; TCP/ZAI/2355.

WHO/FNU/FOS/95.5, Street Vended Foods: A HACCP-based Food Safety Strategy for Governments, WHO, Geneva, 1985

WHO/FNU/FOS/93.1, Application of the hazard analysis critical control point system for the improvement of food safety - Case studies on food prepared in homes, at street vending operations and in cottage industries, WHO, 1993.

WHO/HPP/FOS/92.3, Essential safety requirements for street-vended foods, WHO, 1992.

Annex 4 Guideline action plan on street foods


1. The purpose of the action plan is not to propose a world-wide project on street foods, but rather to determine certain essential elements, in a sequential order, which could be applied as such or with modifications, in different parts of the world. Application of various elements would need to be carried out in an integrated manner, with a judgement being taken as to the appropriateness of each depending upon the socio-economic and political environment of the particular country or region.


2. It is recognized that street foods play an important socio-economic role in terms of employment potential, particularly for women, and in serving the food and nutritional requirements of consumers at prices affordable to the lower and middle income groups. It is estimated that in several major cities of the world the equivalent of millions of US dollars changes hands every day through the sale of street foods. The economic significance of street foods is therefore immense. Street foods have become a big part of the present day urban scenario of many countries, even though they may not always be formally recognized or acknowledged.

3. While there are many positive aspects of street foods, there are also several negative aspects. Hence any plan or initiative taken to improve the street food situation will succeed only when both the positive and negative aspects are fully taken into consideration. The negative aspects include encroachment on roadsides and pavements, creation of problems of hygiene and sanitation, potential disturbance in the lives of other citizens, and a possible contribution to the deterioration of the law and order situation within the city. It must be recognized that the enlightened citizen's concerns in these matters are genuine. Thus, while local bodies must deal with the potential health hazards of street foods, at the same time they should also be equally concerned about the total environment in which the citizenry of the city has to live and function. Basically it is a matter of cognizance of the issues and problems involved. This calls for long term planning of the city infrastructure, provision of adequate civic amenities, and efficient overall management of the same.


4. The first step in the guideline action plan would therefore be to recognize that the informal street food sector has a legitimate place in a city. However, this should not be at the cost of the normal civic life, and need not be detrimental to the interests of the more formal food service sector. In turn, it means that city infrastructure and facilities have to be so developed and managed that street foods and the orderly life of the city can co-exist, and even support each other. How this is to be achieved is a decision that each government must make, at the local level, keeping in mind its own particular circumstances. There are problems that need to be faced and decisions that must be made. Otherwise, street food vending can become a problem in terms of degradation of the environment, deterioration of law and order, and jeopardy to the health of the consumer from food sold under unregulated conditions. It is anticipated that in most situations, and on cost effectiveness considerations, the logical decision would be to permit a street food industry but control the conditions under which it operates and ensure improved management and control of the sector.

5. There are a range of options that are available. One is the relocation of vendors into "food centres" located at strategic sites where people congregate in the city. In such centres they would operate under one roof and have facilities such as water, electricity and a garbage disposal service. Some cities may consider following this approach in highly-congested city centres or other similar locations, and license vendors to operate only from these centres. In the peripheral areas vendors may be allowed to operate as before but within a regulatory system. Another approach is that of "special areas" for street food vending where again the necessary facilities are provided by the local body. Yet another option might be to allow street food vending within specified time periods. There might yet be still other options that have not been reviewed or tried. Any provision of basic facilities such as water, electricity, waste disposal and toilets by the local bodies is bound to require capital investment and additional recurring maintenance costs. Active participation by representatives of street food vendors in the development of such options is therefore crucial. Their cooperation will also be necessary in the day-to-day operations. This may help in recovering a part of the additional costs incurred by the government or the local body.

6. Once the street food sector is officially recognized, street food vendors should be issued with licences to operate and these may specify the food or foods for which the licence is valid and the location in which it is to be prepared or sold. It is desirable that the issuance of licences is done through a single designated agency or office within the local body. The duration of the licence should be a minimum of one year, renewable, unless the vendor has been found guilty of a sufficiently serious offence. An element of transparency is necessary in all decisions relating to the issue or non-issue of licences and the participation of street food vendors or their representatives in this process is essential.

7. Health hazards are present in a wide range of foods and assessing the health risk associated with food is not an easy task. As the variety of foods sold on the street are numerous it may be desirable to develop priorities utilizing the risk analysis approach (an approach which includes risk assessment, risk management and risk communication), and categorizing street foods on a health risk basis into "high risk foods" and "lower risk foods". The bulk of food borne illness is associated with microbiological contamination of foods. Food that can support multiplication of pathogens, namely foods with high water-activity that have been kept at ambient temperature (above 15°C) for several hours, are particularly dangerous. This categorization will help in reducing the task of licensing to manageable proportions. It needs to be noted that such categorization need not have a permanent status and that as additional data from monitoring of foods and the environment becomes available, the priorities for action should change accordingly. It also does not mean that food hazards from chemical contamination or other sources can be ignored altogether. Thus, it might be proposed that:

8. To ensure that street food management is carried out in an integrated manner, it is essential that there be good coordination between the public health authorities, police and local body administration right up to the political level of the mayor or deputy mayor. This coordination can be in the nature of a formal letter of agreement between the various agencies or the setting up of a special task force on street foods. In addition, a city level mechanism would need to be developed which would enable active participation of street food vendors' representatives. The authorities may in fact encourage the formation of vendors' associations or cooperatives and involve them and representatives of consumers in all the decision making processes concerning street foods. Such a special task force set up by the municipality can interact with the vendors and can bring about attitudinal changes in their behaviour over a period of time.

9. The authority responsible for street food would need to set up a special cell or unit to deal with this informal sector. It is often the case that regulations cover all food and there are no regulations specific to street foods. Food regulations concerning street foods, where they exist, should be reviewed. The national food control authorities should take steps to prepare codes of practice for street foods that might apply to the whole country or on a regional basis within large countries with regional ethnic variations. Such codes can be further modified to suit the local city situation. Food inspectors at the local body level would need specialized training so that they can adequately monitor the safety of street foods and to ensure proper implementation of the codes of practice. Street foods consumed by children should receive special attention.

10. In the monitoring and inspection of street foods, it is important that decision-makers give priority attention to high risk operations. A limited number of problems occur repeatedly and cause the greatest harm. Examples are holding food at room temperature for several hours, having an inordinate period of time between preparing and serving food, inadequate time-temperature exposure during cooking or reheating of food, storing food in bulk in large pots in refrigerator, insufficiently high temperatures during hot storage, and cross contamination between raw and cooked food. Such critical problem areas should receive the most attention by inspectors compared to those problems which occur either less frequently or rarely.

11. An integrated action plan on street foods should have a strong educational and training component. Food handlers need to be trained in food hygiene and good food handling practices and also in small business management. They should be knowledgeable about regulatory aspects of preparing and selling street foods. It is desirable that such training be imparted within an overall programme for street food improvement. As far as possible, such qualified vendors should be asked to wear something distinctive, such as an apron or a badge, which may also give them recognition and an enhanced sense of pride in their work. NGOs can play an important role in educational and training programmes, in motivating vendors towards better performance and in raising financial and other resources.

12. Among the very basic facilities to be provided by the local authority are space, water, electricity, lavatories, and garbage disposal services. Depending upon the local situation, serious consideration should also be given to the provision of community or collaborative cooking, promoting community cleaning and sanitation of utensils, provision of tableware and the likes. The logistics of such common services would need to be worked out carefully and in consultation with vendors. This may help in the recovery of day-to-day running costs from the vendors on a "cost recovery only" basis.

13. As there are several technological aspects to street food vending, it would be useful to involve appropriate technical institutions in the subject. This will enable further scientific and technical inputs appropriate to the needs of both vendors and consumers. These might include improved water storage and dispensing equipment, improvements in preparation of foods to achieve more nutritious meals, improvements in maintaining food at the correct temperature and innovative designs for food stalls and push carts. Weaning foods prepared and sold by street vendors in certain countries is another important area which may call for attention from technical institutions. National authorities could sponsor work on these matters. The impact of such improvements on the ultimate cost of the food and on vendor's income should be carefully considered so that they are not burdened with unrecoverable costs.


14. It is recognised that the issue of street foods is quite complex in terms of its political, economic and health implications. It may therefore be advisable under certain circumstances to commence with a limited project and subsequently expand the work based on the initial experience. Keeping this approach in view, it is suggested that governments identify and select one city in each state or region which they might develop as a model for a street food programme. In each of the cities selected, a beginning could be made with certain selected areas which should either have, or be provided with, the necessary infrastructure and facilities. These should include provision of potable water and garbage disposal services and street food vendors operating within the regulatory framework of the local body. This pilot operation should involve:

15. Based on the success of the above model it should be possible to replicate the operations in other places. Technical Cooperation Among Developing Countries (TCDC) to share each others experience and knowledge should be undertaken.


16. City authorities in most developing countries are confronted with multi-faceted problems of rapid urbanization. Street food is just one of these problems. Realizing the importance of this informal food sector to several city population sectors, as well as its potential to provide employment, international organizations such as FAO, WHO, ILO, etc., should continue to cooperate with national and local bodies in:

17. As street food vending has distinct local, national or regional characteristics, steps should be taken to initiate and support the establishment of regional "Centres of Excellence" for street foods. These could provide training for trainers, managerial staff from street food control agencies, local bodies, police, public health department and others. They could also help in collaboration between countries and sharing of experiences on street foods on a TCDC basis. Through a system of networking with other institutions, such centres could be precursors to development of actions in areas related to street food requiring attention. Special consideration should be given to the development of electronic information and library exchange network.

18. Several studies have been undertaken to determine the nutritional content of street foods. To obtain a better profile of the nutritional aspects of street foods, an additional limited number of studies may be necessary to determine the type of street foods eaten and their contribution to the diet of different groups of the population, particularly the children and women. This would assist the estimation of the percentage of the daily nutrients requirements met from these sources. Such information could then be used in developing educational programmes for the consumers and also for training of vendors to promote preparation of more nutritious foods. In any such survey, special attention should be paid to the collection of data on micronutrients.

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