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Technical report of the fifth world forestry congress

Silviculture and forest management
Genetics and tree improvement
Forest protection
Forest economics and policy
Forest products
Forest and range watersheds
Forest recreation and wildlife
Logging and forest operations
Tropical forestry

Silviculture and forest management

FIGURE 1. - Gay with flags of all participating nations hanging from its horse-shoe shaped balcony and filled nearly to capacity, Meany Hall on the University of Washington campus, was the scene of the opening ceremonies of the Fifth World Forestry Congress. - Courtesy: U.S. Forest Service

IN the field of silviculture and forest management, the Congress considered inventories of forest resources, semi-arid and arid land forestry, modern concepts and advances in silviculture and forest management, and forest ecology and soils.

The Congress recommended intensification of research in the adaptation of aerial photography to the peculiar problems of tropical inventories and in the development of more efficient techniques for collecting and analyzing the precise data required in intensive forest management.

The need of developing co-ordinated inventory procedures in the measurement of multiple forest values was advanced.

The marked recent progress made in the application of machine processing of forest-survey data was noted, including the shift toward electronic computers which permit processing data within days, or hours, as compared with earlier much slower and more costly methods. Further research was recommended to develop more efficient techniques for application to inventories of extensive forest areas and to varying levels of survey intensity.

The discussion of semi-arid and arid land forestry revealed the difficult problems encountered in the integration of forestry and grazing, in the restoration of vegetative cover in regions subject to heavy grazing, and especially in the establishment of needed wood production forests for local populations. Views favoring the establishment and intensive management of forest areas on good soils were expressed. Such " forest tree orchards " are planned to produce a given product or products necessary in the region.

The improvement of the grass or tree cover on areas of poor land now supporting shrubby growth was also suggested. Tree planting on such areas should be considered after viewing the probable adverse water balance caused by tree vegetation.

In recognition of the pressing needs for forestry measures in many dry regions of the world, the Congress recognized the need for intensified studies of the diverse and difficult problems involved.

FIGURE 2. - Egon Glesinger, left, Director of the Forestry and Forest Products Division, FAO, confers with B.R. Sen, Director-General of FAO. - Courtesy: The Timberman

The topic of "forest tree orchards" versus " naturalistic " silviculture brought out differing opinions relative to how far foresters can safely depart from Cc natural " forest conditions. Studies should be made over a long period on the same site. Appropriate roles for both concepts in forest management were recognized. Foresters need to understand the biogeocenotic relations of the forest and apply silvicultural concepts and procedures based on the knowledge of natural laws. The traditional silvicultural methods can be consonant with multiple use.

In the planning and control of managed forests, attention was given to the most advanced procedures followed in Europe and North America, including the large-scale application of permanent sample plot systems as a method of inventory control. Discussions of the influence on silviculture of delivered prices of forest products explored present and expectable limitations on the intensity and costs of silvicultural treatment imposed by market factors. New methods in controlling stand composition were discussed, particularly those pertaining to control of undesired species.

In the field of forest ecology and soils, the Congress reviewed recent progress in classification and mapping of sites, intensive soil management for increased wood production, and the relation of tree diseases to soil management. Intensified research was recommended on forest productivity rating systems. The increasingly important role of soil improvement practices was recognized. The concept of the forest as a dynamic ecosystem received much support. The nutrient cycle and its modification through silvicultural practices were discussed. The importance of the ecosystem concept was stressed in reviewing progress on indirect estimation of forest site productivity from measurements of ecological factors. The significance of understanding the underlying relationships between site productivity and all of the factors of the ecosystem which influence it were recognized. Such knowledge permits prediction of the potential site for different species and provides a basis for estimates of the potential productivity of different forest regions of the world and their future role in meeting world needs for forest products.

The Congress recommended the following with respect to expansion of the forest typology activities of the International Union of Forest Research Organizations:

1. That the working group program in forest typology of IUFRO be expanded to include other methods of forest typology, the majority of which were discussed at the ecosystem symposium of the Ninth International Botanical Congress, in order to reach practical conclusions on how these methods can be made comparable and usable for forestry.

2. That this working group present methods of evaluating the multiple uses of forest land using combinations of forest, soil and climatic features which may be readily applied by practicing foresters.

Other recommendations adopted by the Congress were:

1. Establishment by FAO of uniform procedures for recording and registering essential data on experimental forest plantations.

2. FAO should investigate the possibility of obtaining preferential rates for air transport of forest seeds and plant material intended for experimental use.

3. Promotion by FAO of a campaign of " Forests for the Year 2000 " to assist in the reservation or creation of forests in countries where forestry is not well developed.

4. Governments should control goat grazing on forest lands.

5. Study should be made of the creation and treatment of forests of proper biogeocenotic condition in different Countries.

6. Special research to be undertaken to make clear how far we may deviate from nature in our forest cultivation.

7. Studies in " forest tree orchards " should be undertaken to give guidance on how long-term repeated plantations on the same land can be made efficiently.

Genetics and tree improvement

The Congress reviewed progress in tree improvement and discussed proposals for international co-operation in genetics research and related activities. General agreement was reached on the need for strong co-operation in the exchange of breeding materials and in seed certification. Several alternatives were discussed which varied from a system of voluntary co-operation to a rigidly enforced international code endorsed by member nations.

The Congress recommended that FAO take action to develop an international agreement to facilitate exchanges of breeding material, especially for experimental purposes.

The Congress recognized the need for action to utilize fully forest tree improvement to strengthen afforestation and regeneration programs and to further the diverse objectives of multiple use. It, therefore, recommended that a worldwide technical conference be organized by FAO, with the support and endorsement of the International Union of Forest Research Organisations and similar bodies, to coordinate and promote at an early date the development of forest tree improvement techniques, the mass production of improved planting stocks, and the adaptation of such techniques and materials to afforestation and regeneration programs on a scientific and rational economic basis.

The Congress supported efforts to standardize the naming of plants and recommended, in the interest of international cooperation, the use for forestry of the International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants.

Delineation of the objectives of forest tree improvement and the discussion of attainment of these objectives brought out the importance to genetics of basic research in supporting sciences. The Congress recognized that tree improvement through selection, hybridization, through polyploidy and mutagenesis and influence of environmental factors offers exciting opportunities.

Forest protection

The Congress reviewed recent progress in reduction of losses from forest insects, diseases, and fire. There is a definite and direct relationship between weather and climatic variations and the occurrence of destructive insect and disease epidemics and disastrous fires, making it possible to predict dangerous periods and to plan for extra precautionary procedures. Progress was reported on the possibility of reducing lightning occurrence, a major cause of serious forest fires.

New approaches to improved chemical, biological, and cultural control of forest insects were discussed. The need was stressed for more basic information on the life histories of forest insects and other forest fauna, for more selective insecticides, and for more effective methods of application. The success of past explorations for and introductions of parasites and predators of forest insects has demonstrated the value of biological control, particularly for species introduced into North America. Continuing research on insect pathogens indicates the increasing usefulness of virus, fungus, and bacterial diseases for control of certain groups of forest insects. Some degree of protection from harmful forest insects can be secured by maintaining natural forest species mixtures, by removing susceptible trees, and by thinning or other cultural treatments to promote tree and stand vigor and to favor protective biotic agents. The most effective forest insect control can be obtained by integrating chemical, cultural, and biological practices.

The need for better knowledge of how to protect forests against fire is receiving increased attention because of the increase in world demand for forest products. One critical problem in meeting fire control objectives is to maintain flexibility in the fire fighting organization. It must be economical, yet capable of meeting critical emergencies. This is accomplished in Australia through a nucleus of fire fighting specialists augmented as needed by local residents and forest workers. Another way of meeting this need is through mechanization and the development of new and improved chemicals. Aircraft are now used widely in the United States and Canada both for quick movement of men and for direct fire attack. The Congress considered the role of research in the development of better fire control. Special needs for data on forest fire behavior were given recognition, and recent studies in this area were reported.

Catastrophic losses have been caused on all continents by diseases introduced from other continents. To prevent similar occurrences in the future, there is need for more information on the diseases of all continents, on how they may be recognized, on the susceptibility to them of important tree species of other continents, and for improved quarantine procedures.

Protective and eradicative toxicants long used in agriculture are now available for control of diseases in forest nurseries, plantations, and managed stands. They include organic fungicides, selective phytocides, soil fumigants, and systemic antibiotics. These chemicals offer a promising new approach to the direct control of forest disease. Root rots of forest trees may be characterized as " management diseases " because their occurrence is directly related to the intensity of forest management. Control may be secured either through changes in silvicultural practices or through special direct action programs.

The Congress strongly recommended that more research should be undertaken to determine the fundamental factors responsible for pest outbreaks and catastrophic fires and to improve preventive and control measures.

Forest economics and policy

Forest economics and policy discussions at the Congress dealt with subjects of broad general interest involving situations and problems common to most countries represented; namely, policy and economic problems in the conversion of old-growth stands to managed forests; significance of supply, demand, and marketing analysis in formulating forest policy; institutional arrangements for forestry; and how to achieve better management of small woodlands.

The discussion brought out that the problem underlying forestry advancement in most countries is basically one of inadequate local markets. In many areas of the world, particularly the so-called underdeveloped countries, timber for fuel is the principal local use, with the accessible old-growth being " creamed " for quality export material. Often these countries have a great wealth of timber, yet they import most of the timber, pulp, and other primary forest products they so desperately need and could readily supply from their own resources. Indeed, forestry progress may languish unless substantial local markets for a variety of needed products are developed in these timber-rich countries. The heavy inroads made by competing materials is another major handicap.

Studies of supply, demand, and marketing of forest products are essential to forward planning in all countries in order that the necessary steps are taken to foster forest development and to satisfy the probable long-range timber requirements and to maintain wood and wood derived materials in a competitive market.

Private forests play an important role in the timber economy of many regions. Some countries have decided they cannot afford to leave the future of private forests solely to the devices of the owners unless the private landowner has accepted appropriate land proprietorship. Generally, large private, owners do a good job of managing their timber holdings. But with the exception of certain regions this, unfortunately, is not the case with all small forest ownerships which hold a large percentage of forest land the world over. In a large part, these small forest holdings are owned by farmers and others not associated with any forest industry. Growing timber is not, generally, their main productive activity.

The Congress reviewed various approaches to getting better management applied to small forests. It strongly recommended that the most acceptable approach entails such measures as intensive education and various forms of public support and assistance.


The problems and needs in forestry education for countries with newly developed forestry programs were examined in terms of the type and scope of institutions needed, and the manner in which public support for such institutions might be effectively achieved.

FIGURE 3. - Dr. Sen (center of the group) walking across the campus to attend the Congress opening ceremony.

The great need for trained men at both the technical and professional levels, especially in tropical countries, was repeatedly emphasized. The Congress was greatly concerned about the capacity of existing schools to meet these demands.

Countries should intensify their efforts to secure professional training for their most competent men. The Congress recognized that for some countries the beat course may be to send their men to well-established forestry schools in other lands. However, the Congress recommended that strong regional centers for education and research be set up in areas of emerging forestry activity, while ranger schools and similar institutions for training technicians should be the concern of each country. The Congress recommended that FAO and other appropriate agencies should consider favorably requests for assistance in financing and staffing for both types Of institutions. Further, that all countries in these areas should set as an early goal the development of a strong nucleus of men trained at institutions with full university status. Such a nucleus was deemed to be essential as a prerequisite to the establishment of ranger schools and professional schools within a country. Also, forestry must attain the prestige which only a highly competent, professionally trained cadre of men can give. Such prestige and respect are required in order to exert the necessary influence to elevate forestry to a high level in the eyes of people and their governments.

The Congress expressed the need for more professional foresters trained in the economic aspect,; of forestry. There was no question that scientific experts are essential to the development of modern technologies. But countries also have need for men capable of making broad appraisals of various economic factors that will influence decisions in the orderly, planned development of a forestry program. The Congress recommended that special effort be made by international organizations and other agencies to train such men.

The Congress also recognized the need for training more teachers capable of organizing and directing curricula in forestry education at all levels. It was also emphasized that in most cases it is inadvisable to attempt to train specialists in the undergraduate years. What is more important is to provide a solid foundation of basic sciences and forestry principles. Specialization can best be accomplished by graduate study. The sentiment of the Congress was that graduate schools should usually not be established in newly developing countries.

Existing schools with well-established faculties and facilities can absorb additional numbers of students. These, together with the new tropical educational and research centers recommended, can serve for the immediate future. As a special device to supplement advanced training, the Congress recommended that FAO should organize anti conduct regional seminars for exchange of information among foresters from ecologically similar regions.

The Congress recommended that some forestry schools or special institutions should give instruction in world forestry to prepare teachers and technologists to staff missions abroad sponsored by FAO and other agencies.

The Congress recognized that advancement of forestry depends on broad public understanding and support. Substantial success has been achieved in enlisting support in a number of countries, using a variety of methods. The Congress recommended that these methods be studied and adapted to local conditions by countries needing to strengthen their public education programs.

Forest products

The role of forest products research in promoting the economy of undeveloped forest regions, in making forest supplies go further, and in making intensive silviculture practicable was emphasized in the diverse subject matter relating to forest products dealt with by the Congress.

The latest findings on the intimate structure of wood, as revealed by the electron microscope, and the relation of structure to physical and mechanical properties were considered. Progress in the chemical characterization of wood was reviewed, with emphasis on the characteristics of cellulose and lignin and their relationship to molecular structure, and on the diversification of products from chemical conversion. Included also were discussions on the importance of wood quality and factors that affect it; progress and automation in wood processing; the potential of integrated utilization; the significance of wood preservation and protection; and progress in the development of increased pulp yields and new pulp sources, especially in improved utilization from broadleaved trees.

The Congress, in recognizing the diverse contributions of research in forest products to improved utilization and its impact on forestry, viewed as a salutary factor the interest in establishing forest products research laboratories in additional countries. The Congress recommended a widening of forest products research effort by governments, educational institutions, and private agencies.

The multiple use concept of the forest has as a counterpart the diverse use of forest products. This, in turn, results from the great variation in species characteristics and a wide range of wood quality within species. The Congress recognized the importance and the potential of improvement in wood quality from the utilization standpoint through improved genetics and silviculture, which was a strong argument for continued and expanded research effort in this field.

The review of progress made in the efficiency of wood use through integrated utilization has reaffirmed the importance of that approach. The Congress recommended that continued effort and co-operation among industries should be encouraged to further the potential of integrated utilization, and that research be continued to facilitate its further development.

The substantial increase in the use of many forms of wood residues as a means of effecting more complete utilization was recognized by the Congress. It was emphasized that sawdust in its present form and shape presents perhaps the greatest problem in achieving satisfactory utilization. Research on the utilization of wood residues should be continued, and the Congress recommended that increased effort be given to the redesign of saws that will afford longer fibered sawdust chips of more usable form, without adversely affecting the cutting rate and production costs.

In the pulp and paper field, great progress has been made in recent years in appreciably increasing yields of certain pulps by the development of the semichemical, chemi-groundwood, and cold caustic soda processes, and research has shown the potential of broadening the species base by the pulping of hardwood species.

The Congress recognized the need for increasing pulp and paper utilization in many regions, and recommended increase in the research effort to improve pulping methods for broadleaved species, particularly mixed hardwoods, to meet the challenge for development of new pulp sources.

The Congress recognized the enormous drain on the forest resource and the reduction in serviceability of wood and wood products through decay organisms, and the importance of wood preservation and protection in decreasing this drain and in increasing the serviceable life of wood products by preservation. The Congress recommended that every effort be made to disseminate available information on wood preservation and protection, and that vigorous research be continued to develop new toxic preservatives and improved methods of treatment that will assure adequate penetration with a minimum adverse effect on mechanical properties.

The Congress took cognizance of the great increase in the production of fibreboards and particle boards throughout the world, and the significant effect of this development on improved utilization, particularly of wood residues. The Congress recognized that these developments have resulted from extensive research further to broaden the utilization of residues, develop improved products, and reduce costs.

The current research findings on the chemical composition of wood and its constituents re-emphasized the complicated nature of wood, the great variety of component derivatives that can be segregated, and the broad potential for chemical conversion of wood residues into diverse and useful products to increase the efficiency of wood utilization. The Congress recommended the extension of basic chemical research to broaden the knowledge of the chemical constituents, particularly cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin, and extractives.

The Congress recommended further that plans should be made, to arrange, at appropriate intervals, meetings of directors and other research leaders of the, various government and other forest products research laboratories and organizations, to review research progress and to co-ordinate, as far as possible, their diverse research programs.

Forest and range watersheds

The Congress dealt with four broad general subjects. During the discussion on protection forests, the participants were impressed by the similarity of problems of avalanches, floods, and sedimentation as represented by reports from Japan, India, and the Alps. But it was also revealed from papers and discussions that there were considerable differences in the methods used to correct or alleviate torrential erosion, floods, and sedimentation in sectors around the Mediterranean. While forests play an important part in stabilizing soils and reducing flood runoff, it was demonstrated that in certain critical situations reforestation must be supplemented with structural measures such as contour terraces, channel barriers, levees, diversions, and similar devices.

The discussion on shelterbelts showed that such plantings have proved very effective in reducing wind erosion, evaporation, and damage to crops from blowing soil, and in ameliorating local climate. There appears to be some conflicting evidence as to the most effective pattern and design of shelterbelts. It was pointed out that the most effective design as found from long experience varies greatly from one locality to another.

The session on management for water production produced much interesting discussion as to the effect of forests on water yield and streamflow regimen. The character and condition of the forest plays an important part in influencing the amount and timing of water flow. Where a particular watershed constitutes the primary source of water for a municipality, special management techniques and objectives may be required, and in some situations multiple use should be approached with care to avoid damage to water quality. The amount and timing of water yields may be appreciably altered by changes in density, pattern, or composition of the vegetative cover.

Such activities as logging and grazing must be carried out with due consideration of their possible effects upon storm runoff and erosion. On steep unstable mountain areas, special measures to remove logs, such as overhead cables, may be required to prevent excessive soil disturbance. Grazing should be guided by proper distribution of animals, a system and timing of use so as to maintain a good cover of desirable forage species.

The Congress recommended that the primary division for land we planning purposes should be one that best promotes water conservation, water control, and local climate modification; this would indicate the watershed, drainage basin, or catchment as the most desirable planning unit. It was again recommended, as had been done by previous World Forestry Congresses, that foresters should actively participate in all such planning activities.

FIGURE 4. - Rex Wakefield, center, of the Siuslaw National Forest, Corvallis, explains watershed management. With him are Sir Henry Beresford-Peirse (left), Deputy Director, FAO Forestry and Forest Products Division, and F. Harald Ebeling, Sweden. - Courtesy: The Timberman

Forest recreation and wildlife

The Fifth World Forestry Congress was the first to include the subject of recreation and wildlife on its agenda. The decision to do so rounded out the consideration of the multiple use of forest lands. In view of the keen interest shown on this subject, the hope was expressed that this topic would be a feature also of future congresses.

The subject of forest recreation and wildlife was developed in three sessions, emphasizing recreation, wildlife and reserves, respectively. Although each session was complete in itself, there were common elements that applied to the others.

The public use of forest areas for recreation is expanding at an unexpected rate in many countries. Although regarded as a desirable form of public enjoyment of the outdoor values of forests, the increased numbers of people in the forests has emphasized several management problems. These include such matters as fire, damage to flora, and how to manage great numbers of people.

Some nations are faced with the problem of overuse of national parks by people, whereas in some other regions the need is to establish parks and place them under administration. Discussions brought out that the primary reasons for parks and reserves will vary with the special values to be safeguarded. In much of Africa at the present time, attention is focused on reserves for wildlife. In several places in the world, the desirability of international parks and reserves on the boundaries of neighboring countries was mentioned.

A number of countries, notably in Western Europe, have nature protection laws that set the national policy and program. Some of these laws provide for zoning of private lands to maintain a pleasing landscape.

Forest wildlife was recognized as an integral part of the forest. Papers and discussions brought out that from a recreational and ecological point of view, all animals may be of importance. It was pointed out that many animals are far from neutral elements of the forest complex, since big game, rodents and seed-eating birds may interfere with forest regeneration. The management directives on forest game animals differ from place to place, and while there are, on the one hand, forest areas in both hemispheres where increased harvest of game animals is warranted, there are others where total disappearance of some species of wildlife over large tracts can only be averted by careful conservation. The Congress made the following recommendations:

1. Forest recreation and managed wildlife should be recognized by governments as acceptable forms of multiple use management of forest lands.

2. Since, all forms of animal life aged or are affected by the forest, understanding of their roles in the forest should be made more widespread.

3. Research in forest recreation and wildlife should be provided to furnish additional information to cope with the growing problem of public use, site damage and wildlife management.

4. Public information media should be used to encourage the appreciation and protection of outdoor values, and the understanding that wildlife may wed to be utilized in some areas and protected in others.

5. International co-operation should be established in the preservation of nature and wildlife reserves in contiguous border areas.

6. To assist in new programs of reserves and wildlife management, technical assistance should be made available to the new nations of Africa and to other nations through international agencies.

FIGURE 5. - The Emmons glacier, at the center of Mount Rainier National Park, was visited by delegates during one of the Congress tours. Mount Rainier is one of the chain of massive extinct volcanoes that circles the Pacific Ocean, of which perhaps the beet known is Mount Fujiyama in Japan. - Courtesy: A. Métro

Logging and forest operations

Many aspects of planning and management of operations for a wide range of size of enterprise in many forest regions were discussed by the Congress. While it was quite evident that the methods of one region can seldom be successfully transposed to other regions with differing forest, social, and economic conditions, the exchange of experiences on how operating problems have been solved for various specific conditions does develop basic principles which are helpful to those concerned with management of operations of every size in any country. The necessity in every circumstance for advance planning, based on an adequate inventory of timber resources, of the expected costs and returns of the operation, and the silvicultural and protection requirements to maintain a high rate of productivity for the forest property was a common theme of the discussions on various phases of logging, logging road construction, and use of cable-ways in every part of the globe.

The Congress was deeply concerned with the recruitment, training, safety, and welfare of forest workers. The numerous factors which make for more and greater obstacles to social progress in forestry than in most other industries were developed, but the evident consensus was that foresters are responsible for the social progress of forest workers.

The development of working techniques and the training of forest workers through the co-ordinated efforts of the Food and Agriculture Organization's European Forestry Commission, the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe, and the International Labour Organisation were discussed at some length. The sentiment of the Congress was that the accomplishments of the joint committee fostered by these three agencies has been excellent and that this type of activity should be intensified and expanded to other forest regions, particularly in underdeveloped countries.

The Congress recognized that training and safety are so closely related as to be virtually inseparable for systematic consideration. Accordingly, the Congress, recognizing that forestry work, including the various phases of timber extraction, ranks among the most hazardous of occupations, recommended:

1. Greater efforts on the part of governments, employers' organizations, and workers' groups in the prevention of accidents.

2. Activities connected with safety programs now in operation in the various countries and the work in this field at the international level should be continued and expanded, particularly in the exchange of experience between countries on the human factor, safety instructions in vocational training, forest accident statistics, and safety equipment.

The Congress also recommended that international training courses, fellowships for personnel desiring to study abroad, publications on training, manuals on work techniques and equipment, development of testing procedures for forest machinery, and encouragement of research in improvement of work efficiency should also be continued and expanded, and that appropriate international organizations give attention to co-ordination of such matters.

Tropical forestry

In regard to tropical forestry the Congress considered four major topics: regeneration and establishment, obstacles, intensive versus extensive management, and shifting agriculture.

Natural regeneration and planting were the subjects of spirited discussion in which the views of the delegates reflected the abundance or lack of forest resources in the areas with which they were most familiar. It was recognized that both types of regeneration are needed in many areas and that they are not mutually exclusive.

A somewhat gloomy picture of declining resources, lack of responsible management of large areas of lands, and high production costs was described. This picture, apparently not accepted as realistic by all present, prompted discussion from the floor describing forestry progress in several areas as a partially counteracting development.

It was concluded that the most satisfactory system of forest land tenure in many developing countries is a combination of government control and the delegation to private interests over long-term periods of some or most of the responsibilities of ownership. In forest concessions, it was suggested that the major yield control decisions should remain the responsibilities of the state, that royalties be revisable in accordance with the changing volume of money, and that the concession be conditional upon the establishment of a manufacturing plant of appropriate capacity which cannot be disposed of separately from the concession itself.

In considering intensive versus extensive tropical forest management, it was apparent that policies should be influenced by a number of factors, some of which are only indirectly related to the timber resource itself or the need therefor.

Shifting cultivation was highlighted as a serious threat to remaining forests in many parts of the tropics. Whereas it was accepted that under some circumstances the practice may not be entirely destructive, the problem of saving tropical forests from encroachment by the shifting cultivator was seen as a tropical forestry problem of the first order. Techniques described to meet this problem were local in their applicability. It was agreed that intensive permanent agriculture must replace shifting cultivation, not only as a better land use but also to meet more satisfactorily the crop requirements of growing populations. The foresters' task in the meantime is seen as a combination of the following:

1. obtain reservation of areas of forest lands where possible;
2. increase the productivity of forest lands;
3. develop more effective forestry practices compatible with shifting cultivation and adapted to the character of lands abandoned by the shifting cultivator.

The Congress therefore recommended that:

1. Governments take immediate steps to identify those areas within their national boundaries which should remain forested and to this end seek the assistance of international or bilateral agencies.

2. Countries faced with serious problems of shifting cultivation and deforestation should seek financial and technical assistance from appropriate United Nations and other organizations.

3. Permanent working groups be set up, possibly in the Regional Forestry Commissions of FAO, for the world-wide study of the problem of shifting cultivation and with the responsibility to report progress to the next World Forestry Congress.

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