Olive by-products for animal feed


Review by
René Sansoucy (FAO, Rome)
based on studies made by:
X. Alibes and Ph. Berge, in Spain
F. Martilotti, in Italy
A. Nefzaoui, in Tunisia
P. Zoïopoulos, in Greece

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ISBN 92-5-101488-4

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CHAPTER I - Importance of olive production and olive tree by-products
1.1 Olive production
1.2 Olive composition
1.3 Oil manufacture
1.4 Main by-products
1.4.1 Definitions
1.4.2 Estimated quantities of olive by-products
CHAPTER II - Olive cake
2.1 Physical characteristics
2.2 Conditions of olive cake preservation
2.3 Chemical characteristics
2.3.1 Chemical composition of olives
2.3.2 Chemical composition of olive cake
2.4 Factors capable of affecting digestive utilization of olive cake
2.4.1 Influence of fat content
2.4.2 Inhibiting factors
2.4.3 Influence of lignin
2.5 Nutritive value of olive cake
2.5.1 Digestibility
2.5.2 Intake
2.5.3 Degradability
2.5.4 Biochemical characteristics in the rumen
2.5.5 Feeding behaviour
2.6 Possibilities of improving nutritive value of olive cake
2.6.1 Soda treatment
2.6.2 Ensilage with alkalis
2.6.3 Ammonia treatment
2.6.4 Ensilage of screened olive cake with poultry manure
2.6.5 Treatment with Na2 CO3
2.6.6 Mechanical treatment
2.6.7 Biological treatment
2.7 Use of olive cake in animal feeding
2.7.1 Crude olive cake
2.7.2 Partly destoned fatty olive cake
2.7.3 Partly destoned exhausted olive cake
2.7.4 Alkali-treated partlydestoned exhausted olive cake
2.7.5 Other prospects
2.8 Conclusions
CHAPTER III - Olive leaves and branches
3.1 Physical characteristics
3.2 Preservation
3.3 Chemical composition
3.4 Nutritive value of leaves and branches
3.4.1 Digestibility
3.4.2 Intake
3.5 Treatment to improve nutritive value of leaves and branches
3.5.1 Mechanical treatment
3.5.2 Alkali treatment
3.6 Use of leaves and branches in animal feeding
3.7 Conclusions
CHAPTER IV - Vegetation waters
4.1 Physical characteristics
4.2 Chemical composition
4.3 Possible use in animal feeding
4.4 Conclusions
CHAPTER V - General conclusions, prospects and recommendations
A Practical recommendations
B Recommendations for research


This document is a review of present information on possibilities of using harvest residues and olive oil industry by-products in animal feeding. This review is based mainly on the reports made by four experts in animal feeding for the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Those reports are available in limited quantity from the Animal Production and Health Division of the Organization for specialists who wish to have more detailed information on the work done in one of the four countries which were the subject of those studies. They were published in the language of the original document and have not been translated:

-Valorización de los subproductos del olivarby X. Alibes and Ph. Berge
 como alimentos para los rumiantes en EspañaAnimal Production and Health Division,
  FAO, Rome, 1983
-Use of olive by-products in animal feedingby Fernanda Martilotti
 in ItalyAnimal Production and Health Division,
  FAO, Rome, 1983
-Etude de l'utilisation des sous-produits enby A. Nefzaoui
 alimentation animale en TunisieAnimal Production and Health Division,
  FAO, Rome, 1983
-Study on the use of olive by-products inby P.E. Zoiopoulos
 animal feeding in GreeceAnimal Production and Health Division,
  FAO, Rome, 1983

When considered useful, some information from other countries which does not appear in these reports has been added to complete this review.

After describing all the research conducted and the information acquired until now, practical recommendations and research subjects to be pursued have been suggested.

The authors wish to stress the benefits they received from the collaboration offered them by the Regional Project RAB/79/027 on Olive Production Development, the FAO/UNDP, the International Olive Oil Council, and the different institutions and specialists who helped to supply the information which made this study possible.

It is hoped that this document will be useful to researchers on animal feeding, agricultural advisers responsible for transmitting new techniques, the farmers and stock-raisers who should be the beneficiaries of these studies and to managers of the olive industry who wish to valorize their by-products to greatest advantage.

  René Sansoucy
Specialist in Animal Production (Feed Resources)
Animal Production and Health Divison
FAO - Rome