RAP publication 2004/10

RAP publication 2004/10

Introductions and movement of Penaeus vannamei and Penaeus stylirostris in Asia and the Pacific

Matthew Briggs, Simon Funge-Smith, Rohana Subasinghe and Michael Phillips


Bangkok, 2004


Table of Contents

The designation and presentation of material in this publication do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers and boundaries.

All rights reserved. Reproduction and dissemination of material in this information product for educational or other non-commercial purposes are authorized without any prior written permission from the copyright holders provided the source is fully acknowledged. Reproduction of material in this information product for sale or other commercial purposes is prohibited without written permission of the copyright holders. Applications for such permission should be addressed to the Aquaculture Officer, FAO Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific, Maliwan Mansion, 39 Phra Athit Road, Bangkok 10200, Thailand or by e-mail to [email protected].

© FAO 2004

For copies please write to:

Simon Funge-Smith
Aquaculture Officer
FAO Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific
Maliwan Mansion, 39 Phra Athit Road
Bangkok 10200
Tel: (+66) 2 697 4000
Fax: (+66) 2 697 4445
E-mail: [email protected]

Table of contents


Abbreviations and acronyms

1. Executive summary

2. Background

3. History of introductions of Penaeid shrimp

3.1 Natural range of Penaeus vannamei and Penaeus stylirostris
3.2 Early movements for experimental culture
3.3 Movement for commercial production

Pacific Islands

4. Advantages and disadvantages of P. vannamei and P. stylirostris

4.1 Growth rate
4.2 Stocking density
4.3 Salinity tolerance
4.4 Temperature tolerance
4.5 Dietary protein requirement
4.6 Ease of breeding and domestication
4.7 Larval rearing
4.8 Disease resistance
4.9 Specific Pathogen Free (SPF) shrimp
4.10 Specific Pathogen Resistant (SPR) shrimp
4.11 Post-harvest characteristics

5. Shrimp trade, marketing and economics

5.1 Current and potential world shrimp production levels
5.2 Marketing advantages
5.3 Market value and market competition of Asia and the Pacific with Latin America

USA shrimp market
Japanese market
European market

5.4 Trade advantages and disadvantages with P. vannamei and P. stylirostris

6. Threats and risks of introducing alien shrimp species

6.1 Procedures and precautions for introductions
6.2 Biodiversity
6.3 Environmental effects
6.4 Viral diseases

Taura Syndrome Virus (TSV)
Infectious Hypodermal and Haematopoietic Necrosis Virus (IHHNV)
White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV)
Yellow Head Virus (YHV)
Lymphoid Organ Vacuolization Virus (LOVV)
Other viruses

6.5 Other diseases

Necrotizing hepatopancreatitis (NHP)

6.6 Known and suspected impacts of viral disease

Endemic viruses affecting shrimp culture and capture fisheries
Introduced shrimp affected by native viruses
Native cultured shrimp affected by alien viruses
Wild shrimp populations affected by alien viruses
Socio-economic costs of shrimp viral diseases

7. International and national efforts in controlling alien species movement

7.1 International and regional organizations and their relevance to shrimp trade

World Trade Organization (WTO)
World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE)
International Council for the Exploration of the Sea (ICES)
Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO)
Asian Regional Initiatives (FAO/NACA/SEAFDEC/ASEAN)

7.2 Selected national initiatives relevant to movement of shrimp species

United States of America
Ecuador and Mexico
Pacific Islands
The Philippines
Viet Nam
Sri Lanka
Mainland China and Taiwan Province of China

7.3 Constraints to effective control of shrimp movements in the Asia-Pacific region

Producer driven importations
Perceived benefits of introduced species
Limitations on law enforcement
Inadequate testing facilities and protocols for viral pathogens
Lack of understanding of viral pathogen transfer pathways
Incomplete inventory of potential pathogens
Mistaken perceptions of SPF and SPR shrimp

8. Summary and recommendations

8.1 Recommendations for controlling the introduction and culture of P. vannamei and P. stylirostris in Asia

Legislation, policy and planning
Disease management issues
Environmental and biodiversity concerns
Codes of conduct, practice, guidelines and management of impacts
Markets and price trends
Other issues
Regional and international cooperation

8.2 Recent guidelines, code of practice and other instruments

9. References

Annex I - Recommendations on shrimp health management

Legislation, policy and planning
Regional and international cooperation
Certification, best practice and codes of conduct
Disease management issues
Research and development
Infrastructure, capacity building and training
Recent guidelines, code of practice and other instruments

Annex II - Hatchery guidelines for health management

Annex III - Farm guidelines for health management