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2. Terms of reference for survey team

Consultancy on agroforestry tree seed curriculum modules, with focus on agricultural colleges in eastern and southern Africa

Agricultural education consultant


1. Changing trends in germplasm production

There are many documents saying how important the availability of tree seed is in the quality, quantity and timeliness, to the successful scaling-up of agroforestry programmes.

Over the last 15 years or so seedling production has shifted from government-run nurseries (of mostly plantation species) to community nurseries of a slightly wider range of species, the seeds of which often continue to be supplied from central depots to farmers' nurseries, local seed stands, seed collection groups, farmer to farmer seed exchange, self-employed seed collectors and handlers. This latter type of seed production, handling and distribution requires very different skills from extension staff and community facilitators than those of producing seedlings in centralized government nurseries. Recognition of the role of trees in the landscape and their contribution to the maintenance of sustainable ecology and agrobiodiversity has also been gaining momentum. A balance of indigenous, naturalized and exotic trees that serve a wide range of products, services, aesthetic, cultural and religious values is sought.

The majority of staff currently working in extension has had no training in community and farmer-based seed production, collection or handling. Few forest and agricultural college (tree seed/germplasm) curricula modules have kept pace with trends in relation to community seed production or on farm biological diversity. Forest curricula are likely to be weak on the community aspects of seed production and handling. Agricultural colleges, which produce the majority of extension staff, are more likely to have courses on community tree nurseries and seedling production (e.g. in soil conservation courses), but these courses are unlikely to include aspects of the establishment of community seed stands, seed storage and handling. Landscape biodiversity and the role of community level germplasm identification, collection and production, in contributing to the maintenance or enhancement of that biodiversity, are only just gaining ground.

2. Use and applicability of existing extension materials

There is no lack of technical information with regard to tree seed collection, handling, storage and quality control. Almost every field project has developed its own nursery or tree seed handling and collection manual; these manuals cover the range of options from centralized to community to farm-based germplasm production. FAO currently has a consultant compiling a global database of existing extension materials with regard to the technical issues of seed production, collection, sourcing, processing, storage, distribution and documentation. There is no lack of materials. There is, however, a lack of use and application of those existing materials. Staff trained in forestry and forest seed are often not those staff that are in extension services and interface with farmers directly. On the other hand the majority of staff interfacing with farmers are either agriculture or NGO staff, who are unlikely to have had any formal instruction or in-service training with regard to tree seed, and may not be aware such materials exist nor indeed where to locate them.

The materials being compiled by the FAO consultant will be posted on the web. However, it is also desirable to ascertain:

Consultant's assignment

Tanzania: MATI Tengeru; Olmotonyi Forestry College

Malawi: Bunda College of Agriculture; Malawi College of Forestry

Zambia: Zambia College of Agriculture at Monze; Zambia Forestry College, Kitwe

Zimbabwe: Chibero Agricultural College; Zimbabwe Forestry College

Botswana: Botswana College of Agriculture

Kenya: Bukura Agricultural College; Kenya Forestry College Londiani

Uganda: Bukalasa Agricultural College; Nyabyeya Forestry College

Ethiopia: Jimma College of Agriculture; Wondo Genet College of Forestry


Outputs of the consultancy

The consultant is responsible for the education and pedagogical component of this assignment, and should work in close liaison with the other consultant working on this assignment, who is responsible for the technical tree seed/germplasm component of the work.

Consultant qualifications

The consultant should preferably be a national of eastern or southern Africa with over seven years of experience in education and pedagogy in agricultural colleges, with substantial exposure to: tree seed and germplasm issues pertaining to agroforestry or in-service training programmes on agroforestry.

FAO and ICRAF Technical Officers

Itinerary and work schedule

A: Colleges visited




3. Introductory letter to colleges in the region engaged in this assignment by correspondence

Dear Colleagues,

Greetings from ANAFE.

As you are well aware, the overriding objective of ANAFE is to strengthen multidisciplinary approaches to sustainable land use education especially by incorporating tree seed education into teaching programmes.

In pursuance of this objective, ANAFE has procured funding from the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) to enhance development of tree seed education in both agricultural and forestry institutions, which are members of ANAFE.

Seeds and tree seeds, in this particular case, form an essential component in our struggle to ensure sustainable land use and natural resources management by ensuring continuity of species. The successful scaling-up of agroforestry will depend on the availability of tree seed, quality, quantity and timeliness in planting.

It has been recognized by the two organizations (ANAFE and FAO), among others, that the communities are now actively involved in the production tree seedlings. This suggests that extension officers should be equipped with good skills in terms of tree seed and seedling production, handling and distribution. In this context, the objective of the present exercise is to carry out a survey through a questionnaire and discussions where possible, to find out areas of intervention in order to enhance tree seed education in our colleges.

The ultimate goal of this exercise is to come up with `Tree Seed Modules' for these colleges at both certificate and diploma levels.

Being a member of ANAFE, you are, therefore, kindly requested to fill in the questionnaire and return it by the quickest means to ANAFE as soon as possible. Please attach all requested materials as indicated at the end of the questionnaire.

Certainly, this is a positive development for our institutions.

Looking forward to your response,

Yours sincerely,

Prof. A.B. Temu

ANAFE Coordinator

Colleges not visited by consultant team, but engaged in this assignment by correspondence


Bunda College of Agriculture. Tel. 265 - 277222/277306

Fax: 265 -2277364/277420 ; e-mail: [email protected]

[email protected] Contact: Dr Moses Kwapata.

Malawi College of Forestry. Tel: 265 - 740 - 209; Fax: 265 - 740 - 209

e-mail: [email protected]


Zambia Forestry College, Kitwe. Telfax: 260 - 2-230532

Cell: + 260 2 780085 Contact: Dr K. Mkowani (Principal)

Zambia College of Agriculture, Monze, Tel. 260 - 032 - 505226/50544

Fax: 260 - 032 - 50388. Contact: A.K. Siyambano (Principal)


Chibero College of Agriculture (Norton); Tel. 263 - 062 - 22309/8

Fax: 263 - 062 - 2233; e-mail: [email protected]

Zimbabwe Forestry College, Mutare. Tel. 263 20 64328/5

Fax: 263 20 60158 e-mail: [email protected]


Botswana College of Agriculture (Munthali). Tel; 267 - 3650139


Jimma University College of Agriculture (Jimma)

Tel: 251 07 110019; e-mail: [email protected]

Contact: Mr Kaba Urejesssa (Principal)

Wondo Genet College of Forestry. Tel. (251) 06 201579, 101145

Fax: (251) 06 201490, 201479. Contact: Kassahum Embaye (Acting Deputy Dean)

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