A system of economic accounts for food and agriculture


The designations employed and the presentation of material in this publication do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries.

ISBN 92-5-103807-4

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FAO 1996



Chapter 1 - Introduction

Why a separate system?
The role of the system
The arrangements of the handbook

Chapter 2 - The system of economic accounts for food and agriculture

What are the requirements?
The contents of SEAFA

(a) The coverage of economic activity
(b) Units used in SEAFA
(c) The system of accounts of SEAFA

The relationship of SEAFA to SNA
The agricultural household sub-sector
The sequence of accounts for the agricultural household sub-sector

1. The production account
2. The generation of income account
3. The allocation of primary income account
4. Other (income) accounts
5. Capital account

Accounts for the other sub-sectors
The accounts for agriculture as a productive activity
Agricultural activity accounts

1. Establishments cross-classified by sector of owner and type of productive activity
2. Other data for agricultural establishments

Goods and services accounts
Satellite accounts and supplementary tabulations relating to food (food balances)

1. Forestry and fisheries
2. Other tabulations

Chapter 3 - The basic national accounting concepts

The UN System of National accounts
The institutional unit
Enterprise, establishment and industry
Households as producers
The principal, secondary and ancillary productive activities
The concept of production
The production boundary
Measurement of output
Basic, producers' and purchasers' prices
The output of agriculture, forestry and fishing
The value of output
Intermediate consumption
Consumption of fixed capital
Gross and net value added at current and constant prices
Compensation of employees
Taxes on production and on imports
Operating surplus and mixed income
Gross fixed capital formation
Changes in inventories
Property income

Chapter 4 - Uses of economic accounts for agriculture

Structural analysis and economic indicators

(a) The SEAFA's set of accounts
(b) Supporting statements
(c) The System as the basis for quantity and price index numbers

Use of simulation and modelling

(a) Input-output
(b) Social Accounting Matrices (SAMs)
(c) Micro-macro linkages
(d) Simulation
(e) General equilibrium models


Chapter 5 Sources of data and methods of estimation

Sources of Data
Agricultural and livestock censuses
Crop production surveys
Cost of production surveys/farm management studies
General surveys and administrative records
Methods of estimation
Period of compilation

(a) Crop output
(b) Production of animals
(c) Animals sold for slaughter and animal products
(d) Agricultural services

Valuation of output
Intermediate consumption
Compensation of employees
Taxes on production
Gross fixed capital formation
Changes in inventories
Consumption of fixed capital
The goods and service account
Organization of the compilation of SEAFA

Chapter 6 - Classification of available data and techniques of imputing missing data

Planning for the compilation of SEAFA
Classification of basic data
Techniques for estimation of missing data
Commodity flow approach
Some remarks on the use of statistical tools


Annex 1.1 - Improvements/changes incorporated in the 1993 revision of the system of national accounts
Annex 2.1 - The historical developments
Annex 2.2 coverage of agricultural activity in SEAFA
Annex 2.3 Sub-division of the households sector
Annex 2.4 Entrepreneurial income
Annex 2.5 Food balance sheets
Annex 2.6 Framework for satellite accounts for food balances
Annex 2.7 Reflecting the full value of forests in SEAFA
Annex 2.8 Fisheries in SEAFA
Annex 2.9 List of supporting statements
Annex 4.1 An overview of sector models appearing in the FAO's publication agricultural sector analysis and models in developing countries
Annex 5.1 List of important FAO publications