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The procedures used in the production of frankfurters are typical for all fine cut emulsion-type sausages. The term “meat emulsion” has been used as a general term to describe frankurter-type sausages. As the mixture of protein, fat and water, is not a true emulsion the term meat “batter” instead of meat “emulsion” might be better.

Emulsion-type sausages originated in Europe, where they were mainly produced from hot (prerigor) meat. Emulsion-type sausages may be subdivided into small diameter and large diameter sausages. Frankfurters and wieners are examples of small diameter emulsion-type sausages. Originally, wieners were stuffed in sheep casings and frankfurters in pig casings. Bologna or mortadella are similar products but filled into large casings (beef middles. bungs or rounds, or synthetic casings).

Emulsion-type sausages are basically made from a mixture of finely chopped meat, fatty tissue and water or ice. They are usually smoked. The formulation for this type of sausage not only contains meats of high water binding properties but also includes meats characterized by intermediate binding properties. In the lower grade type sausage, filler meats such as weasands or giblets, or other meats of inferior binding capacity (tongues, snouts, lips etc.), may be added but it is generally accepted that these components should not exceed 15–20 percent of sausage formulation. Emulsion-type sausages do not normally contain typical variety meats.

Meat formulae of these products vary widely and surprising differences are often noticed. The main constituents are beef and pork. Wieners traditionally contain some veal. All beef products are made with a mixture of beef and veal, or only of beef. Non-fat milk powder, cereals, starch and other nonmeat ingredients may also be used to the extent regulated by local or state standards.

Generally speaking, emulsion-type sausages are technologically mainly dependent upon the state of beef proteins and their water binding and emulsifying properties. Although they often contain pork, water binding and emulsifying properties of this type of meat are utilized to a lower extent due to its usual high fat content.

Emulsion-type sausages are ready-to-serve products. Small diameter sausages are usually eaten after immersion in hot water for several minutes; only rarely, they are grilled prior to consumption.


Choice of meat.

The meat ingredients must be absolutely fresh and derived from veterinary-inspected animals. Both frozen or chilled beef is used successfully. The lean meat should be well trimmed to a level of less than 10 percent of nontrimmable fat and connective tissue, the trimmed lean meat thus being practically free from sinews and gristle and entirely free from ligament, bone and cartilage particles.

The selection of meat should be such that most meat ingredients are of a good water binding capacity. Except for the binder and filler meats mentioned earlier, pork and veal rinds are also employed by some sausage makers in formulating low cost frankfurter products. Rinds provide an economical source of protein and may be employed in varying proportions depending on the legally permitted amount for that product. Raw rinds may be used but because of their high bacterial count they are normally heat processed in order to arrive at a count suitable for inclusion into comminuted products. The fresh rinds have to be stored under refrigeration.


Precuring of meat in pieces is no longer practised by meat processors. This operation is replaced today by adding curing salts at the time of chopping.


The grinding of meat and fat ingredients has largely been practised for many years and is still done today mainly by small processors, particularly in the manufacture of speciality products.

The fist-size chunks of lean meats are first grinded by running them through a 3–6 mm grinder plate while fat trimmings or fatty tissues are reduced through a 6–9 mm grinder plate. The tripe and the filler meats are preferably grinded twice: first, through a 3–4 mm and then through a finer grinder plate. Grinding through a coarser plate increases the capacity of the machine and heats the meat less. Particularly for bull meat, grinding through a finer plate is considered to give a product with better binding and emulsifying properties.

The curing salts are then added and the batch is mixed in a mechanical mixer to ensure that the ingredients are well dispersed. The curing process may take place either overnight in a chiller at 1–4°C (this practice is being increasingly abandoned) or after final chopping in the cutter with other ingredients and stuffing, i.e. prior to or during smoking.

In many emulsion-type sausage procedures, a precomminution in the grinder is followed by chopping because it contributes to a better and more uniform size reduction in the cutter. In many cases comminution is not too finely done.


The grinding of meat has by large been replaced by cutter chopping which renders a fine meat-fat mixture, usually known as an “emulsion”. However, in small-scale sausage manufacture, the meat is still often previously ground and then transferred to the cutter for chopping. During the chopping process the meat is cut to a very fine particle size which encourages protein extraction. Proteins have the function of binding the water surrounding fat droplets and keeping them dispersed.

Preparation of sausage emulsion is basically in two phases. First, the lean meat, either previously ground or not, is placed in the cutter and chopped. This is done by the simultaneous addition of all the curing salts (kitchen salt, nitrite), phosphate and/or citrate for the total batch and one-third of the total amount of finely crushed ice or water. Increased salt concentration in the water phase of the mixture will result in a greater extraction of the meat protein and is of paramount importance in forming a stable emulsion. The extraction of protein is most effective when the meat is near freezing point but the emulsification process is adversely affected by low temperature. Since protein extraction is increased with the time of chopping, the lean meat should be chopped for a sufficient period, normally not less than 6–8 minutes. After this time, fat trimmings, pork jowls and other fat meats, then sweeteners, spices and the remaining two-thirds of the total water are added. Chopping is then continued until the batch is thoroughly chopped or the temperature of the meat mass reaches not more than 18°C (second phase). In the course of this time, all water is taken up by the disintegrated and homogenized meats. If sodium ascorbate is used, it is also added toward the very end of the chopping operation.

Fig. 33


Fig. 34

(Photo courtesy of Kraemer und Grebe, GmbH & Co KG. D-3650 Biedenkopf-Wallau, W. Germany)

Preparation procedures which provide for one-phase simultaneous meat and fat cutter treatment are increasingly popular.

The polyphosphate and curing ingredients should be dissolved in a small quantity of warm water before being added early enough to enable the effect of polyphosphate on actomyosin and the action of salt and nitrite on water binding properties and colour of meat. With the higher salt content and the longer cutter process, more salt soluble proteins are extracted and the binding quality of the finished product is improved. If hot boned meat is used, the addition of phosphates is not necessary.

Impact of the chopping operation on emulsion-type sausage quality.

Two types of emulsion-type meat products are generally produced. One type includes the all-meat products and the other type contains non-meat binders. Frankfurters and other emulsion-type sausages of higher quality are produced with a very low concentration of nonmeat additives. When nonmeat binders are not used, the natural proteins are relied upon to impart a suitable texture to the comminuted product. It should be emphasized that consideration must be given to the amount of lean meat to provide the protein: when the formulation contains a large amount of variety meats and other low bind materials, maximum extraction of skeletal lean meat is necessary.

There are many variables and parameters that influence the formation of meat emulsions. Moisture and fat binding depend chiefly on the condition of the raw materials and on the comminution and mixing process in the cutter, the decisive factor in the success of frankfurter manufacture being the heating of the mixture during grinding in the cutter. The emulsifying capacity of salt soluble proteins is an important attribute of meats to be used in sausage preparation. This property is not static since several factors, such as pH, protein concentration, ionic strength and nature of neutral salts have been found to have a profound effect on the emulsifying capacity of proteins. Some of these factors are, in turn, affected by postmortem handling and processing conditions.

Rapid postmortem glycolysis results in a reduction in myofibrillar and sarcoplasmic protein extractability. Use of off-condition meats with a high bacterial load also can seriously reduce emulsification.

Adequate mechanical comminution of the lean meat is an essential factor in the binding of an emulsion but it can be a disadvantage to comminute too intensively because the comminuted connective tissue could cause structural deterioration of the product. Furthermore, if the finished sausage mixture is comminuted too finely after adding the fat, this regularly results in faulty products. This is because too long a process and/or high temperatures cause the already finely divided fat particles to come together again, forming large islands of fat, and then to separate during subsequent heat treatment. On the other hand, if the emulsion is overchopped, the fat globules become too small having a very large surface area so that there may not be enough protein to emulsify all the fat. Such emulsion breaks down and yields a poor product.

The cutter time is preferably determined by an end-point temperature. In modern emulsion-type sausage manufacture, meats chilled at 0–4°C and frozen meats are interchangeably used. The temperature of the mixture during the cutter process is recommended not to exceed 12–14°C. Beyond 18°C further cutter operations may contribute to poor stability with release of the fat and/or juices during smoking and chopping operations. It is assumed that at a mixture temperature of 18°C, the temperature in the area around the knives will be up to 60°C and 70°C. These high temperatures cause coagulation or denaturation of proteins. When phosphates are used, the firmness of the product fails at a temperature above 20°C.

Frequently, sausage manufacturers experience greater difficulty in emulsion destabilization with all-beef or mutton frankfurters, the main reason being that beef and mutton fats melt at a higher temperature than pork fat. To form a stable emulsion, these fats must be chopped to a somewhat higher temperature, especially if the raw materials are derived from older buffalo or zebu cattle. This is because the meats of older animals have less salt soluble proteins but their emulsifying capacity is more efficient.

To produce a finer texture, the mixture can be passed through an emulsifying mill. As this operation is accompanied by a rise in temperature of 2.5–4.5°C, the initial temperature of the mixture prior to the emulsifying process should be below 10°C. On the contrary, an increased temperature can reduce the stability of the emulsion.

During or following cutter operations, the emulsion may also be vacuumized; the removal of air contributes to the stabilization of cured colour and enables better stuffing.

Emulsion destabilization is rare in a routine meat packing operation. Nevertheless, emulsion destabilization still remains one of the concerns in the meat processing industry, especially when new sources of protein and ingredients are incorporated or when inevitable changes in the processing system occur.

Hot meat processing.

Deboning and processing of hot meat largely avoid weight loss from evaporation which occurs in chilled meats. There are, however, possible disadvantages with hot deboning. The sticky nature of hot meat may increase bacterial contamination but this belief has not been fully confirmed. On the coutrary, there is some evidence that viable counts of prerigor ground meats are similar to those of postrigor meat; their shelf-lives are also comparable both at the time of fabrication and after storage. Nevertheless, it should be emphasized that higher temperatures associated with possible delay in processing may have considerable adverse effects on the product's microbiological quality and this fact requires great attention. Immediate and well-organized processing operations and a high level of hygiene and cleanliness of machines and tools help to avoid this problem.

A serious risk in using prerigor meat is the possible delay in its deboning and chopping/salting. In any case, if the emulsion is prepared three or more hours after animal slaughter, the original meat phosphates can be exhausted and an actomyosin complex formed. The amount of extracted myosin may then be highly reduced and an imbalance of myosin to water may result. The reduced amount of protein solution cannot bind all the water and coat of the fat globules and the finished product will be shrunken and covered with grease. Overchopping or a low content of lean meat usually unites in producing this effect.

If prerigor meat processing is accepted, chillers no longer have to be able to cool whole beef sides and can be replaced by relatively small purpose-built units which provide quicker and more economical chilling of other meats.

Preblending of prerigor meat.

Preblending of ground prerigor beef with ice and curing salts 10 to 20 hours before further processing has successfully been practised for many years. In the time interval between preblending and further processing, the finely homogenized mass was kept under refrigeration (2 to 6°C) in shallow pans about 15 cm deep. A modification of this method includes the direct addition of pork components and spices in the emulsified meat mass followed by stuffing, with a rest period in the chiller for not more than 8 to 10 hours to cure before smoking. This practice is no longer fully justified since, with the use of ascorbate, the heat of the smokehouse can be relied upon to develop curing.

Emulsified fat batters.

A sausage emulsion may be considered as an emulsion in which fat is dispersed more or less uniformly in a continuous highly hydrated protein matrix. The fat droplets do not necessarily remain globular and they may coalesce with each other, but they cannot escape from the matrix to produce a single phase.

The desirable properties of emulsion-type sausages are largely determined by the stability of moisture and fat binding in the highly hydrated gelable protein matrix. Fat is an essential component of formulated meat products because it improves tenderness, juiciness and overall palatability. Thus, in a two-component system of fat and lean meat, fat is nearly equally as important as lean meat for desirable properties. For example, when the sausages are made with a very low fat content (less than 15 percent), they are usually tough unless enough moisture is added to compensate for the desired degree of tenderness. On the contrary, in order to compensate for unsatisfactory amounts of extracted salt-soluble proteins and improve binding and emulsifying properties of low lean/high fat content sausages, milk or soy proteins may be added. Finally, lower quality sausages (luncheon meat style products), with a high content of nonmeat filler ingredients and moderate amounts of fat, usually contain starch to impart the necessary binding quality and elasticity.

In sausage manufacture, animal fats are sometimes separately emulsified in water by using sodium caseinate or by vegetable proteins (Tables 8, 9 and 10). These emulsified fat batters may be directly incorporated into finely comminuted sausages such as frankfurters or they may be chilled and diced into discrete particle sizes to create a desired visual effect in, for instance, mortadella sausages.

OperationSequence of placing ingredients into the cutter bowl
beginning of chopping8 parts of water at 65–70°C7 parts of water at 65–70°C
during chopping1 part of caseinate and chopped until a homogenized mass is obtained1 part isolate (soy) and chopped until a homogenized mass is obtained
6 parts of vegetable oils at 80°C7 parts of animal fat at 80°C
at the end of chopping2 percent of salt
storage2–4°C in pans

OperationOrder of placing ingredients into the cutter bowl
beginning of chopping7 parts of fatty tissue preheated at 65–70°C9 parts of fatty tissue preheated at 80°C
during chopping1 part of caseinate (of high viscosity)5 parts of water at 80°C
 7 parts of water at 90–95°C1 part of isolate (soy)
at the end of choppinguntil finely homogenized 2 percent of salt
storage0–4°C/3–4°C in pans
incorporation in sausage mixafter 24 hours (after protein hydration)

OperationOrder of placing ingredients into the cutter bowl
beginning of chopping5 parts of cold water5 parts of fatty tissue
 1 part of caseinate or isolate and chopped until a homogenized mass is obtained5 parts of water at 80°C
during chopping5 parts of fatty tissue1 part of isolate (soy)
 until finely homogenized
at the end of chopping2 percent of salt
storage0–4°C/3–4 days
incorporation in sausage mixafter 24 hours (after protein hydration)

Methods of extending animal fats are of primary interest for small-scale sausage manufacture in tropical and subtropical areas of the world. Fat batters can have a basis of pork backfat, zebu boss, beef fat trimmings, etc.


Raw sausage emulsion is encased either in artificial (cellulose or collagen) or in natural casings derived from slaughtered animals. Casings should be thoroughly selected in relation to the size and type. Frankfurters in natural casings appeal to some consumers because of their appearance. The stuffing horn, which should have a diameter as large as possible to avoid smearing of the emulsion on the working table, must be absolutely clean. If cellulose casings are used, the surface of the table should be quite dry throughout the whole operation. Sheep and pig casings are flushed with water prior to being stuffed.

Fig. 35


Filling must be to maximum capacity. Uniform stuffing of frankfurters and wieners is particularly important because they are often sold by piece and thus sausages of equal weight should be produced. A skilled operator should be capable of providing sausages that are substantially uniform in density and diameter.


Sausages are tied or linked manually or by machine in fixed lengths. The use of machines for small diameter sausages is justified only when the size of operation is sufficiently large. In small-scale plants, the small sausages are divided by braiding, i.e. by twisting at desired intervals. The linking machines automatically divide multiple strands of stuffed sausages into links of predetermined length. The lengths are dependent upon market demand but often sausages for ordinary packs are 10 cm and for hot dog catering packs, 14 cm long.

The linked sausages are placed on smoke rods so that they do not touch each other and allowed to dry before smoking at room temperature for a period of one to two hours. This tempering period is especially important in the absence of an added reducing agent, such as ascorbic acid. If ascorbic acid is used in sausage formulation, heat processing may follow immediately after stuffing. Before entering the smokehouse, the sausages are washed with cold water. The use of properly shaped metal or wooden rods reduces the amount of surface coming into contact with the rods and prevents touch marks and spotting due to contact with adjacently hanging products thus contributing to a longer shelf life and better appearance of the final product.

In large sausages, such as bologna, stuffed casings are tied with thread or fastened with metal clips and suspended from a smoke rod so the entire sausage is not in contact with the rod.


The sausages on the smoke rods are transferred to the smokehouse. For smoking of emulsion-type sausages, so-called “hot smoking” is practised. It is well known that the composition of smoke volatiles is undoubtedly changed at different processing temperatures. At higher temperatures the smoke carries over more of the tar-like substances and large carbon molecules as well as different phenol compounds into the smokehouse atmosphere. Lower temperatures condense out these substances. High humidity or wet sawdust contributes to a dark coloured sausage.

Smoke composition also depends upon other factors such as the type and quality of the wood, temperature of combustion, relative humidity, air flow, etc. Resinous woods impart an unpleasant flavour to meat. Soft woods produce a large amount of soot that colours the product. Soft woods are only used if special flavour effects are desired. Because of their low resin content, hardwoods (oak, beech, maple, birch, walnut, cedar, hickory, etc.) are most commonly used to generate smoke. However, different woods give forth different amounts and density of smoke. Mixtures of hardwood sawdusts are generally considered to give the best smoke composition. Sawdust, especially if green, is often wetted down, and forced air circulation and damp are necessary to control the burning process and composition of smoke.

Each major category of smoke compounds (acids, aldehydes, and phenols) is active in a particular phase of the hot smoking process. Acids coagulate muscle proteins. Aldehydes interact with protein molecules, linking them together to form a strong net. Smoke, high in aldehydes, contributes to stabilization of the sausage surface. Numerous studies have indicated that phenols are mainly responsible for the smoke aroma and taste of smoked meat. These reactions, each contributing to product quality in varying degrees, are speeded up at higher temperatures and are delayed at lower ones thus being predominantly brought into play during the hot smoking process. Acids and other smoke components are also beneficial in causing skin formation on the surface of sausages by penetrating the cellulose casing long before heat coagulation occurs. Smoke penetration may be somewhat greater when natural casings are used.

The bacteriostatic and fungistatic effects of smoke depend on the level of the smoke production temperature which is usually varied between 300 and 400°C.

Smoke imparts flavour-sustaining properties to sausages. The higher the level of smoke density, the more pronounced the flavour, even after weeks of storage.

During the tempering period which precedes hot smoking, the curing process is often initiated. If this is not the case, the initiation of curing may be hastened by mild heating, with or without smoke, at approximately 40–45°C. This preliminary heating may be omitted if the curing process is already sufficiently advanced. The duration of smoking depends on many factors. In the next phase, smoking continues at a slowly increasing temperature (65°C) until curing has progressed, i.e. until the inside colour is fully developed. In the following phase of the smoking process, the sausages are heavily smoked at a temperature of about 70–75°C, resulting in the desired surface colour of the commercial product. At the same time, the coagulation of proteins begins and their binding and setting come into play contributing to the required qualities of the final product. If sausages are artificially coloured, lighter smoking may be preferred.

During the hot smoking process, the relative humidity should be maintained at about 80 percent. A too low humidity causes the formation of a dehydrated protein shell on the sausage surface as well as excessive weight loss and shrivelled appearance of the product. It happens basically during the first phase of smoking. At the same time, it should be emphasized that as the relative humidity in the smokehouse increases, smoke tends to dilute which contributes to a lightly smoked product. This can be overcome by increasing smoke density but the best solution is to determine the optimum density of smoke desired for a specific product at the highest level of relative humidity, not adversely affecting the surface colour.

High temperature smoking normally shortens the time of smoking providing the sausage manufacturer with the opportunity to increase his smokehouse throughput. However, processing in a too hot smokehouse induces weight loss and rupture of cellulose casings, while too cold smoking hardens the casings.

Liquid smoke.

Liquid smoke is a water soluble chemical solution containing smoke flavour which can be sprayed on the sausages while they are in the smokehouse. Liquid smoke is produced by the condensation and fractional distillation of hardwood smoke. Liquid smokes are free of carcinogenic compounds. They offer complete uniformity, resulting in less maintenance and cleaning.

Many meat processors feel that they cannot obtain the same flavour with liquid smoke as they can using smoke generators. This is the reason why this preparation has only limited application in today's meat processing industry.


Cooking or scalding follows immediately after smoking. There are many methods of cooking: by immersing in the cooking vat, hot showering that is conducted in a smokehouse equipped with shower nozzles, hot showering in separate hot water spray cabinets to which sausages are moved immediately after smoking, cooking by dry heat by raising the smokehouse temperature and giving only a final brief hot water shower, cooking in tight boxes into which live steam is injected, etc.

Cooking schedules vary markedly. If water sprays are used the temperature is about 80–82°C. The temperature of water in cooking vats may be about 73–76°C. A final internal sausage temperature of 65°C is considered as minimum but a temperature of 68°C is an optimum end-point temperature providing a sufficient shelf life of the product and desired organoleptic characteristics. This requires usually about 15–20 minutes. The right cooking schedule should be developed by carefully studying the yield and quality of the sausage. After cooking in vats, sausages are hot showered to remove any adhering grease.

The total smoking and cooking time is dependent on the progress of the curing process in the product: if conditions for its full development are optimum, the smoking and heating period may take no more than 1–2 hours but it can be as long as 2–3 hours.

Fig. 36



Chilling by cold water spray (16°C) is applied at the end of the thermal processing schedule to cool frankfurters to slightly above room temperature before placing them in a 1–4°C cooler for final chilling.


The most popular sausages are frankfurters. They are either pork and beef or all-beef products. The frankfurter formulations often contain different filler meats such as hearts, giblet and weasand meats, tripes, tongues, snouts, lips, etc. It is generally agreed that filler meats should not exceed 20 percent of the meat formulation. Nonmeat binders are also added in low cost formulations.

Traditional meat precuring has nowadays been abandoned and generally replaced by stuffed sausage curing.

Frankfurters prepared from prerigor raw materials are more acceptable in appearance, flavour and juiciness and more desirable than sausages prepared from postrigor meat. Desirable sausage-making qualities of prerigor beef can be maintained by preblending raw material with 3 percent of curing nitrite salt (or 3 percent of salt plus 60 ppm nitrite), minimizing exposure to air and storing at 2°C for up to 2–8 days.

Hot beef wiener production has its roots in at least two centuries of history. Although there is no exact documentation of where the first emulsion-type sausage was produced, there are some indications that it was done by the Vienna sausage producer, Johann Georg Lahner, in 1805. According to other sources, it is more likely that the production of frankfurters began much earlier in the 18th century and that this history continued in an unbroken line to several decades ago.


As a rule every successful sausage manufacturer has his own formula or recipe for frankfurters. The following formulae may be used as a starting point and varied to suit the desires of the market. Binders which may be used, if permitted by regulations, are 1.2 percent of soy or milk protein, 0.3–0.5 percent phosphate, 3 percent wheat flour, 3 percent potato starch, etc. Frankfurter formulations with 1.5 percent wheat flour and 1.5 percent potato starch give a product which is more tender than those made only with starch or flour.

Prepared fat batters can also be used in frankfurter formulations.

Basic ingredients for 100 kg

  1. 35–50 kg beef
    35–50 kg fat beef or pork trimmings
    15 kg ice

  2. 33 kg beef
    52 kg fat beef or pork trimmings, pork jowls, etc.
    15 kg ice

  3. 50 kg pork trimmings
    25 kg tripe
    25 kg beef head meats

  4. 75 kg beef 10 kg beef 15 kg ice or cold water

  5. 40 kg lean beef trimmings
    45 kg pork trimmings
    15 kg crushed ice

  6. 30 kg bull meat
    25 kg lean pork
    25 kg porkjowl
    20 kg crushed ice

Cereals, nonfat milk solids, corn syrup solids and other nonmeat ingredients may be used to the extent permitted by local regulations. Partial replacement of meat with soy or other plant proteins in frankfurter mixture systems is being increasingly accepted. Soybean proteins especially are a logical and economical substitute for meat because their amino acid patterns are similar to beef except for slightly higher phenylalanine and lower methionine.

Characteristic seasoning formule per 1 kg (see Table 4)

  1. 20.0 g curing nitrite salt
    0.2 g sodium glutamate
    2.1 g white pepper
    0.6 g red pepper
    0.3 g dextrose
    0.5 g mace
    0.3 g cardamom
    0.3 g ginger
    0.3 g allspice
    0.1 g ascorbic acid

  2. 23.0 g curing nitrite salt
    0.5 g corn syrup
    0.5 g sugar
    0.3 g lemon bark
    2.5 g pepper
    0.5 g nutmeg
    0.2 g sodium erythorbate

  3. 23.0 g curing nitrite salt
    0.4 g sodium nitrite
    2.3 g white pepper
    0.2 g coriander
    0.1 g chili
    0.1 g sage
    0.4 g nutmeg
    0.3 g garlic
    1.0 g mace
    3.0 g sugar
    0.4 g sodium ascorbate

  4. 18.0 g curing nitrite salt
    2.0 g white pepper
    0.5 g red pepper, sweet
    0.6 g mace
    0.4 g caraway seed
    0.3 g cardamom
    0.4 g allspice
    0.2 g monosodium glutamate
    0.1 g sodium ascorbate (erythorbate)

Instead of the above-mentioned spice combinations, commercial ready-mixed spice formulations from specialized suppliers may be used. Similarly, in lieu of the prepared curing mixture specified above, nitrite and salt in the same appropriate ratio may be added (see “Nonmeat ingredients”).


Artificial or natural

Processing and handling

In preparing frankfurter emulsions, the beef components are usually ground or chopped first with the dissolved curing ingredients, seasonings and water. This is followed by the pork and fat additions and the mixture is reduced to the desired degree of fineness. If ascorbate or erythorbate is used, the required amount is added in solution approximately one minute before the end of the chopping process. End-point chopping temperature depends on the raw material used, the type of the cutter and other factors. The finished emulsion is often passed through an emulsion mill to improve fineness.

The most successful wieners are manufactured from prerigor beef chopped in the cutter with curing nitrite salt. The emulsion is then placed in shallow pans for 1–2 days for curing. After curing, the emulsion is remixed together with pork and other ingredients and filled into narrow sheep casings (22 mm in diameter).

The stuffed frankfurters or wieners are either linked or simply looped over smoke rods. Frankfurters may be successfully smoked in a number of different cooking schedules. Normally, they require a total continuous processing time in excess of three hours. The starting smoking temperature is generally about 43°C, at the end of a one-hour period it may be increased to 55°C, and then it is raised to 78–82°C and maintained for the balance of the smoking period, i.e. until desired internal temperature is achieved. If the frankfurters are cooked in a controlled atmosphere smokehouse, it should be done according to a schedule designed to reach the prescribed final internal temperature of 71°C. An alternative frankfurter thermal processing schedule may consist of a one-hour period at 55–60°C and then a period of 45 minutes at 70°C, followed by a smoking period of 80–85°C until the internal temperature of the product reaches the desired level.

After the frankfurters acquire a brown smoked colour and a finished appearance, they are precooked either in a cooking vat or in a water spray. An internal temperature of 68°C should be considered a minimum end-point temperature in warm climatic regions. An internal temperature of 70–71°C will provide better keeping qualities.

Immediately after precooking, the sausages are coled with cold water and maintained firm, dry and in a good condition. The frankfurters can be kept in a chillroom or held at - 18°C until used. If they are produced in cellulose casings, the frankfurters should be peeled. The yield of frankfurters after precooking should not be more than 110–115 percent of the weight of the beef and fat incorporated in the mixture.

Peeling. Peeling of the skin is one additional step required for frankfurters processed in cellulose casings. A number of factors influence the peeling characteristics of the product. Processing conditions must be regulated to give proper drying and coagulation of the sausage surface in order to provide a firm skin which is not easily ruptured. Understuffing may be the cause of improper skin formation and overstuffing results in good skin formation but presents other handling difficulties and may cause breakage.

For proper peeling some moisture is required between the sausage and casing. Moving chilled sausages to a somewhat warmer room for peeling causes some condensation of moisture and frequently improves peeling characteristics. A fine water mist on the product prior to peeling serves the same purpose.


Like frankfurters, bologna is also an emulsion-type product that is stuffed in a large casing. Beef bologna is made with a mixture of beef, mutton and veal or it is 100 percent beef; buffalo meat can also be successfully used. Beef and pork bologna is usually formulated using a 60:50 or 50:50 ratio of beef to pork containing about 30 percent total fat.

An amount of 1.5–2.0 percent of approved sausage binder may be added in the cutter with beneficial results.


Basic ingredients for 100 kg

  1. pork-beef bologna
    45 kg pork
    37 kg beef
    18 kg ice
    2 kg milk (or soy) protein

  2. all-beef bologna
    20 kg beef weasand, hearts or giblets
    30 kg beef trimming
    25 kg beef
    10 kg beef fat
    15 kg ice
    2 kg soy (or milk) protein

  3. low cost bologna
    30 kg beef trimmings
    20 kg beef hearts, tripe
    10 kg pork stomachs
    20 kg pork fat
    15 kg ice
    5 kg wheat flour

Characteristic seasoning formulae per 1 kg (see Table 5)

  1. 20.0 g curing nitrite salt
    0.8 g mace
    0.5 g caraway seed
    0.5 g red pepper
    2.0 g pepper
    0.3 g marjoram
    0.5 g ginger
    0.4 g coriander

  2. 20.0 g curing nitrite salt
    2.0 g sugar
    0.3 g sage
    2.5 g white pepper
    0.5 g mace
    0.2 g coriander
    0.2 g sodium glutamate
    0.1 g sodium ascorbate

  3. 22.0 g curing nitrite salt
    3.0 g dry corn syrup
    3.0 g pepper
    0.2 g cardamom
    0.5 g fresh garlic
    1.5 g red pepper
    0.3 g sodium glutamate

  4. in all-beef products the use of garlic, thyme and sweet bay is considered typical


Natural (beef middles, bungs or rounds) or artificial (fibrous and other) casings in corresponding sizes, usually 4.5–5.0 cm in diameter, are used.

Processing and handling

The emulsion is prepared in the cutter as described in the instructions for emulsion-type sausages'. The stuffed product is placed in the smokehouse for 6–8 hours starting with a temperature of 55°C (damper open) for about 30 minutes which is slowly increased to 80°C or until the internal temperature reaches 69–71°C. The product should be immediately chilled with a cold water spray for at least 45 minutes and kept under refrigeration.

Fig. 37



The meat formulations for mortadellas vary widely. Often commercial mortadella sausages are formulated with a lean mix of not less than 65 percent of beef and 33 percent of pork.

The seasoning used in mortadellas plays a very important role in the final product quality. The high quality mortadellas are usually flavoured, among other spices, with coriander seeds, allspice and pistachios; white wines are also often added in the mixture prior to stuffing.


Basic ingredients for 100 kg

  1. 40 kg lean pork
    30 kg pork bellies
    15 kg pork jowls
    10 kg backfat cubes immersed in hot water
    5 kg crushed ice

  2. 32 kg lean beef
    25 kg pork belly
    15 kg tripe, weasand and giblet meats
    10 kg pork jowls
    10 kg protein extended fat batters
    5 kg crushed ice
    3 kg protein binder

Characteristic seasoning formula per 1 kg

20.00 g curing nitrite salt
2.0 g red pepper, sweet
0.6 g nutmeg
0.4 g ginger
0.3 g cardamom
0.2 g glutamate
0.4 g coriander
0.2 g sodium ascorbate


Wide beef bungs or bladders or artificially made casings in corresponding sizes.

Processing and handling

The lean mixture is produced in the manner described in the previous instructions. The point which should be noted is that protein extended fat batter cubes are added in the cutter, when the chopped mixture is nearly fine. The same is done if diced pork backfat is used and the composite is then mixed by hand or in a mixer.

After stuffing, sausages are smoked for 6–8 hours, first in hot smoke between 40 and 50°C and then in a dense smoke until a golden yellow colour develops on the surface of the product. Mortadellas are then cooked at 80–84° or until an internal product temperature of 69°C is reached. After removal from the smokehouse, mortadellas are cold-showered for not less than 30 minutes and chilled overnight in a 0–4°C chiller.


In recent years significant advances have been made by the poultry processing industry in the development of additional processed items including products such as frankfurters or bologna. Chicken and turkey frankfurters are today popular poultry meat products. They are made from meat which should be free from bones, tendons and often skin.

The methods of processing are essentially the same as for other emulsion-type products.


Basic ingredients for 100 kg

80 kg chicken or turkey meat
10 kg chicken fat
8 kg ice
3 kg nonfat dry milk or soy protein or wheat flour or rice flour, etc.

Characteristic seasoning formula per 1 kg

18.0 kg nitrite salt
1.2 g red pepper
2.0 g dextrose
1.5 g black pepper
0.5 g coriander
0.2 g monosodium glutamate
0.5 g thyme
0.4 g phosphate


Cellulose fibrous casings and many types of plastic casings but sometimes natural casings are also used.

Processing and handling

Chicken or turkey meats are first placed in the cutter bowl followed by phosphates dissolved in a small amount of water. Other ingredients are then added in selected proportions to obtain the desired fat level. The stuffed sausages are heat processed in the same way as other frankfurters. The optimum internal temperature at the end of processing should be about 68°C. After cold showering, frankfurters are kept under refrigeration temperatures.

Fig. 38



Formulations for some other emulsion-type sausages are given in Table 11.

Sausage Beef % Fat % Ice % Spices1
caraway 30 plus 30 pork fat 15 caraway (1.0), mace,
sausage 10 lungs 15 beef fat   coriander, ginger, glutamate
garlic sausage 65 15 beef fat 20 coriander, rosemary, garlic (1.2 g), caraway etc.
cheese sausage 95 all-beef emulsion plus 5 low fat cheese + as for frankfurters
heart sausage 80–85 all-beef emulsion 15–20 cured pork or lamb or veal hearts   as for bologna plus pistachios
red pepper sausage 50 all-beef emulsion plus 50 pork belly   3.5 red pepper, 1.0 allspice, 0.2 chili, 0.3 garlic

1 addition of 1–3 g/kg is practised in all formulations

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