Table of contents


Some Basic Facts about Aquaculture

History, Definition, and Purposes

Systems, Production, and Trends

Aquaculture and Farming Systems Development

Attributes of Smallholder Farming Systems

Why Integrate Aquaculture into Smallholder Farming Systems?

How will Integration be Sustained? Lessons Learnt

Introducing Aquaculture into Farming Systems:
What to Look Out For

Selected Further Reading

The designations employed and the presentation of material in this publication do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries. The opinions expressed in this document are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the position of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.

All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying or otherwise, without the prior permission of the copyright owner. Applications for such permission, with a statement of the purpose and extent of the reproduction, should be addressed to the Director, Information Division, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Viale delle Terme di Caracalla, 00100 Rome, Italy.

THIS BOOK AIMS TO RAISE awareness about the many potential contributions of aquaculture to household food security and income generation. Although aquaculture encompasses a wide range of aquatic organisms and intensities of production, the main focus of this document is on extensive to semi-intensive pond aquaculture. The various challenges and multiple advantages of integrating aquaculture into smallholder farming systems are pointed out, and key considerations which are crucial for aquaculture and farming systems development in different parts of the world are highlighted.


This book is the outcome of a long-standing working relation between Messrs Matthias Halwart and Manuel Martinez of the Inland Water Resources and Aquaculture Service (FIRI) and Ms Angelika Schckler of the Farm Management and Production Economics Service (AGSP). The officers developed the concept and orientation of the document, contracted its preparation to Mr Uli Schmidt of COFAD, and provided the final inputs and revisions including editorial services.

Graphic design by Maxtudio, Roma|New York.
Cover illustration by Roberto Magini.
Photo contributions by M. Halwart, D. Bartley, F. Botts, COFAD and M. Martinez.
Various line drawings by E.V. Circa with kind permission of Margraf Verlag, Weikersheim.

FAO 2000