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Mr. Mustafa KIZMAZ
Division Director of Researching and Planning, ANKARA


(No translation in French & Russian available)

Turkey, lying between about 42 N and 36 N latitudes, is the only country in the world having three different climates, namely, Mediterranean, continental and oceanic. The land mass of Turkey lies between sea level and over 5500 m in altitude.

Due to different climatic and geographic conditions in Turkey, many trees, shrubs, herbaceous plant species naturally grow in the country. The non-wood products derived from those plants are generally exported as raw or semi-raw materials while some of the products are consumed in domestic markets as medicine, culinary and aromatic substances and usually the chemical substances extracted from those products are imported for medicine and chemistry sectors in Turkey.

Turkish Constitution and Forest Law have the provisions about the improvement life standards of forest villagers through employment in the forestry activities.

Some essential non-wood products found in Turkey, are resin, resinous wood, storax of Liqudambar orientalis, leaves of Laurus nobilis L, Eucalyptus spp, Thymus spp, etc, fruits of Quercus ithaburensis Decne, Rhus L., Cerasus mahalep L, Pistacia terebintus L, Pinus pinea L etc, bark of Pinus brutia Ten, Betulus spp, corms of Galanthus and others bulbus plants, oak gull, mushrooms, wildlife, fodder, honey.

Keywords: Medical, aromatic plants, non-wood production, mushrooms, bulbs, breeding.


Balsamic substances derived from roots and stems of trees, shrubs and herbaceous plants and leaves, flowers, seeds, roots and corms. Those plants grown in pastures, forests and gaps in forests and from which the provided substances of non-wood forest products used in medicine, pharmacy and cosmetics, perfumery and food industries.

The flora of Turkey is well documented in the 10-volume work of late Prof. P. H. Davis from the University of Edinburg. According to this monumental work and several subsequent publications: The flora of Turkey contains over 10 423 native infrageneric taxa, of which 34.2% are endemic. If the alien and cultivated taxa are included, the number of taxa occurring in Turkey rises to 10 660. The rate of endemism among the 8709 species is 32%. The flora of Turkey thus contains over 3500 endemic taxa which is quite a high rate.

In Turkey non-wood forest products provided from 20.7 million ha forest area, non cultivated agricultural area and other natural resources are mainly as follows:

Aromatic plants
Bay leaves
Colourant / Dye plants
Eteric oil plants
Food plants
Medical plants
Ornamental plants
Pine Nut
Storax / Incense

Wild Food Plants

Seasonal vegetables and fruits derived from wild plants are sold in markets or by street vendors in cities and towns in Anatolia. In villages, peasants collect wild plants for their personal or home consumption, and any surplus finds its way to city markets. There is no well-established distribution channel for wild food plants in Turkey.

Wild Medicinal Plants

A recent study of wild medicinal plants identifies 346 taxa of commercially traded wild native plants both internally and through export (Ozahatay et al 1997)

The principle markets for medicinal plants within Turkey are bazaars, market stalls and herbalists (‘Aktar’), and pharmaceutical companies purchasing raw materials to process them into drugs. Based on a study of 96 aktars in 40 towns and cities, 179 taxa are sold through aktar shops (Baser et al, 1996). However, it is likely that this underestimates the range of the species traded, given the fact that Istanbul alone has 400 aktar shops. Due to the wide-ranging nature of collection and marketing, it is extremely difficult to estimate the quantities of each species traded.

Aromatic Plants

Turkey is rich in aromatic plants. It is estimated that a third of the flora of Turkey consists of aromatic plants. Aromatic, here, means fragrant, flavouring or containing essential oil.

Dye Plants

Dying carpets, kilims, garments and other materials such as Easter eggs with dye plants has been practised in Anatolia for 6000 years. Dyeing with wild plants is still practised in several parts of Turkey, and such carpets and kilims are highly regarded (Enes 1987).

Bulbous Plants

The main geophytes that are collected from the wild or cultivated in situ for export are described by Ekim et al. 1991. The ‘Red Data Book’ of Turkey published in 1989 includes mainly the geophytes (Ekim et al. 1989). An important book on the bulbous plants of Turkey was published in 1984 (Baytop and Mathew 1984). Bulbous plants have cultural importance and they increase the quality of landscape, they are also very important in medicine and cosmetic industries. Recently these bulbs are exported to different countries for ornamental purposes.


Wild mushrooms are among the most widely used wild food plants in Turkey, Although the fungal flora of Turkey has not been fully documented, a recent estimate puts the number of mushroom species at 5000 with at least ca. 2000 being edible (Baytop 1994, Oder 1990).

Some of them are not able to be cultivated such as Morchella spp., Boletus edulis, cantherellus cibarus, lactarius songuifluis and Amenita coesdria. Some such as shirtake mushrooms that have significant importance can be cultivated. Waste materials used to produce saprophytic mushrooms are very profitable in the villages.


Honey production is very important for domestic consumption and export. “Anzer Honey”, for example, is very valuable and made by the bees from thymus sp around Artvin and Erzurum Regions. Also “pine honey” or honeydew is obtained by worker bees at the end of the Marchallina hellenica Genn secretion. This locally produced honey is called “Basira” in Turkey. Pine Honey production is about 7500 (3500–12000) tonnes at Fethiye and Marmaris (Muðla region) (Yilmaz 1991 unpublished).

Other Useful NWFP

Several other wild plants are used for various purposes such as insecticides, rodenticides, molluscicides, detergents, or in making musical instruments, furniture, boxes or chests, cigarette holders, beads, necklaces, etc.


Forest fodder resources represent a valuable free resource for forest communities. While the precise number of animals grazed on forest land is unknown, according to the Seventh Five Year Development Plan Special Expert's Commission, the number of animals existing in forest villages and considered to be generally grazed in forest areas are: cattle -5.6 million; sheep - 10.7 million; goats -11.8 million; and horses - 1.6 million.

MOF is responsible for the management of an estimated 1.5 million ha of Alpine Meadow (grazing lands) existing within forest areas and yielding about one million tonnes of fodder.

Around 2.3 million tonnes of fodder are annually obtained from forest pastures and range lands of 5.8 million ha (FSR Draft Report 1998)


Turkey's rich fauna comprises 452 birds, 120 mammals, 130 reptiles and 345 fish species. A total of 119 wildlife reserves covering over 1.8 million ha have been established since 1966 (14 of these are located in wetlands). These areas are reserved to protect game and wild animals threatened by habitat loss and degradation and over hunting. There are also 40 wildlife breeding stations where wild animals under threat are bred. Populations from breeding stations are released to 32 wildlife placement areas.

Within forest areas there are 52 000 ha of rivers, natural and dammed lakes, and 20 fish production and breeding stations.

Freshwater fishing is undertaken in 69 lakes and ponds in the forest areas. Freshwater fish production in 1996 was around 37 500 tonnes.

Game hunting is a traditional activity in Turkey. Species taken include game birds and rabbits associated with steppe, arable and forest ecosystems; migratory waterfowl associated with wetlands; and several large game species occurring primarily in forest lands (e.g., bear, wolf, wild pig and ibex). Especially fox is hunted for fur and rabbit for fur and meat. About 20 000 pieces of animal fur or leather are sold per year.

Over 40 forest tree species naturally grow in forest ecosystems. Many endemic tree species are found in The Taurus Mountains (North of Adana) and in the Ide Mountains (South of Çanakkale).

The MOF (Ministry of Forestry) has established 2.5 million ha of protected areas. In addition 27 000 ha of natural forest area are reserved to conserve biological and genetic diversity at two different sites.

Present Legislation

Turkish Constitution and Forest Law have provisions about the improvement of life standards of forest villagers. Article 170, for example, necessitates measures to improve living conditions of forest villagers through various means.

Forests are managed with the principles set by management plans, their protection, multifunctional use and development are carried out through these plans (Article 26). Harvesting also should be done under the management plans by forest enterprises or contracted out to third parties according to Article 40.

The permission for the collection of all kinds of NWFP and harvest remains are given to forest villagers, these products are only subject to tariff prices. Article 37 reads as: “Other all kind of forest products and remains which is harvested and transported from state forests are included in annual production program, as well as stick, resin, resinous wood, boxwood, storax, are allowed to be collected and transported in determined locations and periods, by being noticed and provided with the payment of tariff prices, giving priority to forest villages development cooperatives or to neighbouring villagers or workers at the production site as stated in Article 40”

According to the Forest Law forest villagers have priority in working or employment. Article 40 reads as: “The forest administration gives the working priority to forest villagers development cooperatives and the local forest villagers living especially in or at the vicinity of forest working place, taking the distance and manpower into account, and without considering the boundaries and forest site of the working place, in state forestry activities such as reforestation, forest maintenance, rehabilitation, road construction, cutting, collection, transport and production”.

The Forest Law (articles 37 and 40) allows GDF to regulate and control the protection of native wild plant species in the state lands, through the system of licensing.

Hunting is regulated in the Hunting Law; according to the Hunting Law; hunting without permission of the forestry organization is banned in forest land. Forestry Organization is in charge of management of hunting activities. Game animals could be hunted during all seasons, or hunted during certain periods or fully prohibited.

The Central Hunting Commission is the decision-making authority for hunting issues. It is established under the chairmanship of the Ministry of Forestry and composed of General Director of National Parks and Wild Life-Hunting, representative of General Directorate of Protection and Control, and two representatives from Hunting Associations.

Central Hunting Commission determines, among others, hunting periods, animal species that can be hunted during all seasons, animal species that can be hunted during certain periods, animal species that their hunting is fully prohibited, hunting types and prohibited hunting areas.

Other Legal Arrangements

Both national and international regulations guide the management of, and afford some protection to NWFP.

  1. The Regulation on Harvesting and Selling Principles of NWFP (1995);
  2. The Regulation on Giving Permission of Getting Benefit from Forest Products;
  3. Regulation of Collection, Production and Export of Natural Flower Bulbs (1989).

Also, Turkey is a signatory to a number of international conventions and commitments related to the environment including:

  1. The International Convention on Protection of Birds (1966);
  2. The Convention for the Protection of the Mediterranean Sea against Pollution (1980);
  3. Treaty on the Conservation of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage (approved 1983);
  4. The Bern Convention on the Conservation of European Wildlife and Natural Habitats (approved 1984);
  5. Protocol on Specially Protected Areas in the Mediterranean/Geneva Protocol (approved 1986);
  6. First Ministerial Conference on the Protection of Forests in Europe (Strasbourg 1991);
  7. Agenda 21 (Rio 1992);
  8. Rio Declaration on Environment and Development (Rio 1992);
  9. Second Ministerial Conference on the Protection of European Forests (Helsinki 1993)
  10. Convention on Internationally Important Wetlands as the Living Environment for Water Birds/RAMSAR Convention (1994);
  11. CITES (Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora) (approved 1996);
  12. Biodiversity Convention (approved 1997); and
  13. The EU Council Directive 92/43 EEC, 1992, on the Conservation of Natural Habitats and Wild Fauna and Flora regulates trade between Member States. Five listed medicinal plants occur in Turkey;
  14. Third Ministerial Conference on the Protection of European Forests (Lisbon 1998).

Production Activities

The General Directorate of Forestry (GDF) is responsible for the management of NWFP in the forest areas. There are two production schemes, programmed and non-programmed.

Some important NWFP (e.g. resin, bayleaves, liquidambar oil (storax) are regulated by GDF under annual production programs through management plans. These programs are prepared according to the targets set in the Five-Year Development Plans. Local forest co-operatives and villagers are typically employed by GDF to harvest these products.

The other type is the production of those not taken into the annual production program. The production is executed in accordance with available management plans. If there is not a management plan, an annual or periodical production plan is prepared through inventories of every woody, herbaceous and tuberous plant in the area.

The production plans contain; production area, amount of yield and productivity, harvesting time, harvesting techniques, production periods, drying and storage systems, the base of biological special features and ecological conditions. The aim of these plans is sustainable use of non-wood products.

The periods of plans change according to the characteristics of species and ecological conditions for example, for rosmarinus officialis, ceratonia ciliciqua and thymus spp the period is two years, for laurus nobilis it is three.

Five-Year Development Plans of Turkey requests the inventory of NWFP to uncover the potentials of some products, drawing attention also to the trend of demand in domestic and foreign markets. However, inventories have only been completed for 38 plant species in 24 regional directorates.

Collection, utilisation and marketing rights for some NWFP (e.g., pine nut, chestnut, acorn, thyme, herb tea, snow drop, prunes, natural mushrooms and various bulbs plants) are given to local villagers by GDF at modest tariff prices. The production of NWFP is given in Annex I.

Most of the NWFP are produced for export purposes. Uses of NWFP are not found enough in domestic market, but we witness a considerable increase in domestic demand lately.

The current economic value of NWFP, based on available sources of information, has been under estimated ($102 million in 1996 and about $87 million in 1997).

According to estimates, GDF has 3% share in total NWFP revenue and the share of villagers amounts to 30% while the collectors, middleman and exporters get 67% (ISS). These figures suggest that GDF and forest villagers get a very small portion of the gross income from the NWFP.

Many of Turkey's NWFP are exported as raw or semi-raw materials. Medicinal products are of particular importance to Turkey, the third largest exporter of medicinal plants of wild origin after China and India. Gross revenues from NWFP exports in 1996 were over $ 102 million (SSI) and $87 million in 1997 (SSI). Furthermore, imprecise monitoring suggests that the exact quantities of materials harvested for export is unknown and is likely to be underestimated (FSR 1998 Draft Report). The exportation of NWFP is given in Annex II.

If we look at the production and export figures, the former is less than the later. At the first look, it is thought that there was over harvesting and illegal harvesting. Some might be, but most of it comes from outside the forest areas, from the agriculture fields and private lands.

When a demanded NWFP is found, a middleman applies to the Forest District. If it is found appropriate the permission is given. The middleman make agreements with villagers on the conditions including harvesting cost. Forest districts rangers control the production.

In the light of inventory information, production plans of some plant species are prepared and forest villagers do the production of those NWFP indicated in the plan. The products are sold at a tariff price to villagers, then villagers sell these products to middlemen, the middlemen sell them to companies (processor or exporter) or to other agencies.

The case for natural flower and bulb collection is different. Due to high demand of bulbous plants from abroad, the bulbous plants are picked up regardless of size, resulting in economical loss or danger of extinction in the country. Regulation of Collection, Production and Export of Natural Flower Bulbs (1989) enforced by the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs is to prevent over collecting and to regulate export of bulbs. The export of permitted species is regulated through the setting of an annual quota determined by the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs. Each season accredited export companies are permitted to export certain quantities of bulbs (based on the size of the company and the quality of its drying equipment etc.).

According to the Regulation of Collection, Production and Export of Natural Flower Bulbs; CITES Advisory Board and CITES Technical Committee are established from representatives of various related Ministries, Universities and NGOs. The Technical Committee observes and determines the production area and amount of collection every year. In the light of this determination, CITES Advisory Board decides the quota and restrictions on some plant species or prohibits collections of some species.

Natural Plant Species Not Permitted To Be Collected

Natural flower bulb species of which collection and exportation is forbidden in 2000 are as follows; All Orchis spp, all Crocus spp, Fritillaria spp (except F. persica), Lilium spp (except L.candidum), all Muscari spp, Sternbergia spp (except Sternbergia lutea), all Tulipa spp, all Eminium spp, all Biarum spp, all Nympheaceae spp, all Orchdaceae spp, Arum creticum, Pancratium maritimum, Hyacinthus orientalis, Centiana lutea, Cyclamen spp (except C.coum, C.cilicium, C.hederefolium), Galanthus spp (G.elwesii, G woronowi), Iris spp (except I.tuberosum) and other tubers and bulb plants.


The value of Turkey's forests in the past has been based largely on timber values. In general the priorities have been given to timber both in management and inventory terms. But the trend is changing now, environmental and social functions as well as economic ones including NWFP are on the top of the agenda. Particularly the 1992 Summit in Rio has led to considerable change in world forestry policy.

Although distribution of NWFP species have been known, inventory information has not been completed for all the species. Production plans have been prepared for a limited number of NWFP species (e.g. bayleaves). Most of the species production plans have not been prepared yet because of the lack of inventory information.

Most of the NWFP are harvested from forest and natural resources and sold at the market. There is not any information about where and how they are produced (forest or agricultural and range area or cultivated). Forest sub-district chiefs do protection and production. Most of the forest sub-district chiefs do not identify these species. Recognition of these species depends on experience and knowledge. Also forest sub-district chiefs have such burden that they can not spare enough time to deal with NWFP management. For this reason it is necessary to establish a NWFP unit in every Forest Regional Directorate and in some of the forest districts, which have potential of NWFP, to deal with identifying, doing inventory, preparing production plans, harvesting and controlling and protecting activities.

In- service training programmes prepared by GDF are mainly based on administrative and routine problems. GDF does not have enough experts on NWFP. It is necessary to train the staff of GDF and GFVR (The General Directorate of Forest and Village Relations) and forest villagers about NWFP. Technical forestry education programmes at University level are classic and based on traditional forestry. Education programmes on NWFP is not sufficient at Forestry and others Faculties.

Also there is no extension unit in the MOF to deal with introducing knowledge and training of forest villagers on forest activities including NWFP. The active participation of those villagers in forestry activities and the creation of trust between forestry staff and the people are necessary.

As for other difficulties, there is no responsible authority that covers all production areas, especially medicinal and aromatic plants (except Natural Flower Bulbs). As mentioned above, these products are harvested from forest areas and outside forest areas, which are agricultural and range lands.

There are 20 175 ‘forest villages’ in Turkey located in or near forest areas. These villages accommodate over 9 million people. The income level of forest villagers is below the national average and they are largely depend economically on forest resources, in particular on fuelwood for heating and cooking, and forest range land and fodder resources for livestock.

Many of Turkey's NWFP are exported as raw or semi-raw materials or sold in domestic markets. In addition, NWFP are of significant economic value to forest communities providing an important contribution to family diet and cash income. Fodder provided by free grazing in forest areas and by cutting for winter feeding is an important NWFP for forest communities for whom livestock is a primary source of income especially in remote mountainous areas.

Imprecise monitoring of exported products means that the exact quantities of materials harvested for export is unknown and is likely to be underestimated. While some data is available for exported products, the domestic trade and traditional (subsistence) use of NWFP is largely unrecorded. For example, while the domestic trade in a wide range of medicinal plants is evident from observations and records such as salesmen's catalogues, there are no estimates of the scale of this trade. For these reasons the gross value of NWFP expressed in export revenues can be taken as a minimum estimates of the value Turkey's NWFP.

Many NWFP in Turkey are under priced and some of them over harvested. Villagers generally sell products as raw material resulting in a significant leakage of production benefits away from local sources. This is due to limited experience in, and facilities for processing and marketing. Also especially NWFP are harvested or collected by women and children because of the low price. So sometimes NWFP might be harvested early and some quality and economic loss and resource degradation occurs because of the early collection.

Current arrangements therefore mean that middlemen and exporters gain most of the money from the production of NWFP. Low producer prices encourage over harvesting. This causes degradation of NWFP plants. Higher producer price would likely encourage more sustainable management by local communities. (as higher prices would ensure constant or higher revenues from lower harvesting levels and giving higher importance to production and protection to receive benefits). Where resources are undervalued then some type of price related market or policy correction would have an immediate beneficial effect (FSR 1998).

Plant and animal species are being collected in ever increasing numbers. While limited data means that it is difficult to determine the exact status and potential of forest flora and fauna, the evidence suggests that many species are being harvested unsustainably. Some important export products such as Laurus nobilis (bayleaves used for medicinal purposes, soap manufacture and as an oil extract) and ornamental bulbs are known to be over harvested, and many of Turkey's important endemic plant species are endangered (e.g., Gentiana lutea, which is collected illegally (Ozhatay et al, 1997). Species whose genetic resources have been adversely affected by excessive utilisation include walnut, Taurus cedar, sweet gum, Arceuthos drupacea, juniperus oxycedrus.

Overgrazing is an important factor contributing to forest degradation, subsequent soil erosion and biodiversity loss. The production area for forage crops in Turkey is small, covering only 2.5 percent of the total agricultural area and total feed production is insufficient. This increases the pressure on forest areas which are commonly utilised for livestock grazing. (NEAP, 1997).

In terms of wildlife, the Anatolia lion, tiger, beaver and darter are now extinct, while endangered species include leopard, lynx, hyena and the Monk seal. In addition, populations of 45 species are estimated to have greatly declined including deer (cervus elaphus maral), roe deer (capreolus capreolus), fallow deer (dama dama), wild sheep (Ovis amon anatolica) and gazelle (gazella subgutturosa).

Management of hunting activities is also inadequate. Arrangements for monitoring and management of both game populations and harvest levels are set nationally rather than for ecoregions or specific hunting areas. In practice, the number of most species taken is limited by hunting effort or scarcity.

Tenure security is an important factor in the sustainable management of natural resources. Landowners with secure and long-term tenure have an obvious incentive to look after their land and invest in it. Having the right to use land provides much less incentive to manage the resources.


NWFP are an important income source for many forest villagers. Successful management of NWFP requires management structures that offer incentives to local resource users to adopt sustainable harvesting practices, reversing the current trend towards overuse and degradation. Solutions include tenure reforms for some forest products, proper resource pricing, development of cultivation, proper harvesting, storage techniques and marketing of some important NWFP species. Extension services, demonstration projects and training of forest villagers should follow together with the provision of low interest rate credits to the producers.

Land Tenure

In Turkey, 99 percent of the forest area is state forest. According to the Turkish Constitution; the ownership of State forest area cannot be transferred to others and the management and exploitation of the forest area is under the responsibility of the state.

Secure land tenure provides a strong incentive for sustainable resource management. Inappropriate tenure arrangements cause unsustainable NWFP harvesting practices. Although villagers have harvesting rights, they have no legal ownership to land. Lack of secure tenure means that damaging practices continue. Secure tenure should be appropriate for long term harvesting and land use rights should be given to forest villagers or collectors.

Capturing NWFP Values

Current arrangements mean that middlemen and exporters gain most of the money from the production of NWFP. Villagers generally sell products as raw material resulting in a significant leakage of production benefits away from local sources. Forest villages and their co-operatives should be supported through low rate credits to establish small scale processing facilities. Particularly in potential non-wood forest product areas these facilities would provide employment and added value (semi-processed products instead of raw products) to local economies. Co-operation with the private sector on processing and marketing issues would also increase forest village revenues from non-wood forest products.

Producer Prices

Low producer prices encourage over harvesting. If villagers sustain higher revenues from NWFP they would care and protect the sources. Higher producer prices would likely encourage more sustainable management by local communities.

Multi-functional Planning

Typically forest management plans do not consider NWFP resources. Even for the few cases where such plans exist, inadequate inventory information (e.g., biological productivity and species distribution) for the vast majority of products means that optimal (sustainable) harvesting levels are not attained. There is considerable scope for improving existing plans and extending the inventory process to cover other NWFP. Site specific inventories of NWFP as part of the forest management process are required for the development of these plans.

Market Analysis

NWFP market analyses have not been done yet. But many kinds of products are sold at the market. Market fluctuation is very high. Market analysis is also necessary to understand likely effects of market expansion, shifts in demand and international price fluctuations. Many kinds of products and derivatives are seen at the market especially at aktars shops. Production in some cases is based on poor market research. Market research should be done to determine NWFP demands.

Legal Reforms

Current regulations on monitoring are not sufficient to protect NWFP. The vast bulk of species are traded under a ‘miscellaneous’ category, reflecting the relatively minor role that they play in international trade. Such species may nevertheless be very localised in the wild, and seriously threatened by trade people. Trade regulation therefore needs to be tightened. Regulations for the use of NWFP are not collected in a single legislation. There are different and scattered rules under different legislation.

Review of laws and regulations related to forest and range land is needed. Turkey's forest are almost entirely State owned. There is no clear definition of the roles of responsible agencies and institutions. In addition there are overlaps in the legal framework and national legislation sometimes contradicts international laws. Also there is some lack in legislation, enforcement is therefore difficult. A through review and revision of present legislation is needed to eliminate existing conflicts and shortcomings.

To ensure the sustainable use of NWFP; collaboration should be done between the firms and companies dealing with the trade of these plants. Contributions should be made for research and rehabilitation of ecosystems including NWFP plants.

There is a need for a more participatory approach towards forestry development and management This is seen as a way to reduce the negative human impact on forest resources in the forms of over exploitation. Particularly when the rural communities have been given more responsibility in the management of forest resources the results are by far positive towards sustainability. In fact, to reach improved and sustainable generation of profits on one side and assumption of responsibilities for resource preservation on the other, participation of local population is needed at all stages of resource management.

A fund should be set up from the contributions of dealing firms and companies and it should be used for achieving sustainability objectives. Funds should be allocated from the national budget, Reforestation Fund, Village (ORKÖY) Fund and firms and companies. These funds would support and encourage the development of new techniques to protect, control and conserve NWFP.

Forest villagers should be encouraged to cultivate wild plant species by providing materials (seeds, seedling, grafting or cutting), financial assistance (low interest rate credits) and training.

NWFP Units should be established in every Forest Regional Directorate and in some of the Forest Districts in potentially rich NWFP areas. Experts (Forest engineer, Agriculture engineer, botanist, chemist) in NWFP should be employed in these units to deal with carrying out inventories, preparing annual production plans and programs, controlling harvesting areas and harvesting activities, giving extension services to the forest villagers and other producers.

One of the research institutes should be converted to a NWFP research institute and training centre (on harvesting, utilising, drying, storing, marketing, cultivating, propagating and protecting).

Some NWFP species grow naturally in unproductive forest area and in maquis land. These kinds of areas should be rehabilitated by improvement cuttings, seeding or planting which in turn would increase the production and price.

Promote opportunities for NWFP using Agro-forestry systems in young forests plantation mixed with Castanea sativa, Pistacia terebintus, Laurus nobilis, Capparis sp, Origanum sp, Thymus sp, Salvia sp, Robinia pseudoacacia, etc. Surrounding forest villages, then, would get more benefits and protect the forests as it is in the case of Pinus Pinea plantations.

The conservation of gene resources and biodiversity should be taken into account in production, conservation and breeding plans. Highly demanded valuable species are generally cultivated or grown in their natural habitats.

After completing the inventory and management plans of NWFP species, care should be taken to keep the ecological balance by taking account of direct and indirect use value, option value and non-use values.

Sustainable production and uses:

  1. Complete inventories;
  2. Prepare production plans;
  3. Research and training (Forest staff, local people, villagers, communities or others);
  4. Reserve the gene conservation areas (in situ);
  5. Organise production and harvesting activities;
  6. Market analyses;
  7. Appropriate land use right;
  8. Multi functional planning;
  9. Improve producer prices and capturing NWFP values;
  10. Participation.

Prepare and apply implementation projects to overcome the above mentioned problems in the short term

For the achievement of the above items, it is necessary to prepare implementation projects on completing inventory of NWFP of high economic values and develop cultivation techniques. Establishment of pilot demonstration sites will help in the introduction of suitable techniques and training of stakeholders. The General Directorate of Forest and Village Relations should review its crediting policy, which is a very important tool to complement the projects.


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Products NameLatin Name of speciesUnit1990199119921993199419951996199719981999
ResinsP. BrutiaTon13387203220--124223391495
Resinous WoodP. Brutia and P. NigraTon-----42335551311317521983
Chips of ResionuswoodP. Brutia and P. NigraTon20323549534575346294177515107
Sweetgum oilLiqudambar orientalisTon3.
Laurel leavesLaurus nobilisTon 36023962653239331256764600452293965
InsenceLqudambar orientalisTon0.80.81.610.8-0.9-0.92
Sage leavesSalvia sppTon195240243266403411451684338416
Thyme LeavesThymus and origanumsTon1165157626102700481427282235315724403772
Cone of Semen PiniP. PineaTon10226271143267426418231541903
Linden blossomTilia tomentosaTon1727733528673
Rosemary leavesRosmarinus officinalisTon81195270297434398450365170226
Sumaci LeavesRuhus coriaraTon991131360452519934862
Cherry Laurel leavesPrunus lauruscerasusTon124475941106773503831
Rockrose leavesCistus creticusTon---41253415238214251288
Carob fruitCeratonia siliquaTon----6745306441161215
ChesnutCastanea sativaTon358317117425916035088283318
Myrtle leavesMyrtus communisTon45544202216153
Jew's Myrtle rootsRuscis aculatusTon1361677424312013421490197330
Oak CuppulaQ. ithaburensisTon1--15941-144631210
HeathErica arboreaTon41782217362-1305-10
BrakenDryopteris filix-masTon1357-57-80.43273
Eastern blueAnemone blandaTon311621511125412
SawbreadC. cilicium, C. Coum, C. hederefoliumTon8536327293742706778
WinteraconiteEranthis hyemalisTon556214865112
MushroomsMorchella esculanta, Cantherallus cibarius, Boletus edulis and othersTon191015833965301129
Others (Moss, Cons, Vicum album and Beech leaves, branch) Ton2276454122111457688510778536275142154688
Other tuberus Ton214-9015-15118483



Quantity1000 US $Quantity1000 US $Quantity1000 US $Quantity1000 US $Quantity1000 US $Quantity1000 US $Quantity1000 US $
Natural flowers blubs And tuberious Ton2781846273262032219353612285344237466236343772880
Leaves, moss, branches For ornamental and bouqetTon826804102410189851498486346154661445592414806
Wild MushroomsTon137516081725652442565319529201575756165710494146411865
Seeds of semen pini with Coat or without coatTon791103334468399278469826225582031617456564987411586
The fructus of Juniperus sp, Coriander, Cumin, CinnamoTon100675790483385072293560879569188711210041--
Laurel leavesTon18894131245356862453568633505921287060253202700537637637
Thyme and origanum leavesTon39768078474410786474410776633516103560113686647515152603813237
Fructus of MahalepTon4671303361113036111302488619954829515631691178
Linden blossomTon287149112959675299349163345317163361529--
Sage leavesTon509109656411195761368400838564114367114507211604
Carob fruitTon85591860114453882114174181745029058467356912537553755963591
Roots of Glyorrhiza glabraTon304022591685134613539991140854155710721765126921631607
Derivaties of NWFPTon41565--69355594814661174916151013236231
All kind resinTon0.090.1890.3180.6654102250122425402356130113331301
TOTAL 23007.0951604.1924753.3243939.67351654867032101.144870.06455945153862611.011021774588886982

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