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Dr. H. Hulusi ACAR1, Dr. Önder BARLI1, Dr. Tetsuhiko YOSHIMURA2
1 Karadeniz Technical University, Forestry Faculty, TRABZON, Turkey
2 Kyoto University, KYOTO, Japan


In order to access quality and productivity of the gum resin which is an important non-wood forest products, application of the property tapping, transportation and stockpiling techniques should be applied in Turkey.

In Turkey, gum resin has been tapped from only calabrian pine forests (Pinus brutia Ten.) by the forest peasants. According to Forestry General Administration, It is estimated that the capacity of the gum resin tapping in Turkey about 20000 – 25000 ton/Per year. At the same time, on occasion of using of the gum resin in the paper, paint and the other industries, it is a very important industrial product, as well.

The production processes in forest, stockpiling and transportation of gum resin are vital theme. It is said that the transportation and stockpiling failures of the gum resin are important deteriorating factors on the gum resin quality. Furthermore, the failure transportation methods cause the missing in the gum resin production processes. Albeit, that opening the mouth of barrels arranged on the edge of forest roads and awaiting the filled pot corrupts pureness rate of the resin.

About 1–4 kg/year is tapped from a pine tree. In the process of resin manufacturing from tree to the manipulation, the resin productivity is reported to decrease about 18.3 %. Generally, this problem is attributed to the evaporation of turpentine and leaking of resin from the pots. But, this can be solved by putting more emphasis on the working conditions of the employees and their education.

Key Words: Resin tapping, resin quality, resin productivity, resin transportation and stockpiling.


In forestry, the harvesting, transporting and stockpiling of wood are known main production activities, the same activities for gum resin are important subjects, as well. Especially in Turkey, being one of the precious non-wood forest products, gum resin has increased its importance day by day. It is desirable to increase the gum resin yield and quality. Suitable tapping techniques should be used and transportation of the gum resin to the manufacturing processes with proper means should be applied.

On the other hand; today, U.S.A. is a leading country for resin yield, tapping about 500 000t/year, Greece is tapping about 20 000 t / year and Turkey about 5 000 t / year. However, it is estimated that the potential gum resin yield of Turkey can be increased to about 25 000 t / year. Germany and Japan have been known as the top countries for substantial imports of gum resin. Whereas, resin yield per tree is about 3 kg/year in the world, this ratio is 1 kg/year in Turkey (Tek and Özkan, 1998).

Gum Resin Tapping and the Situation of Turkey

The beginning time of gum resin tapping changes with district and altitude. Tapping should be done before vegetation season. If the tapping is applied on a tree for the first time, the tapping application must be applied on the south part of the tree. In general, tapping activities begin at the 18°C temperature (Anşin, Eminağaoğlu, 2000).

As for the gum resin tapping area, it should be selected from the district in high temperature and moisture. The resin tapping should be done on the quality trees with experienced employees and by suitable tools. On the other hand, the tapping area must not be oversloped, overaltitute and windy. Generally, the diameter of tree is prefered to be about 26 cm and over for tapping application. Weed shouldn't be in the production area or weed control should be applied there. In order to perform a desirable production, education and control mechanizm should be applied (Anşin, Eminağaoğlu, 2000).

The maximum resin yield from calabrian pine trees has been obtained with American bark chipping method with 50 % sulfuric acid solution. However, because of the use of the body of tree for long time, easy workmanship, time conservation and the resin quality, American bark chipping method with 60 % sulfuric acid paste is a more advantageous technique (Önal, 1995).

Resin production; from injured trees by some tools is realized either by the wood chips with resin treatment with water evaporation or some solvent and distillation or using sulfide terebentine and tall oil. In the mean time, about 1–4 kg gum resin is tapped from an average pine tree (Acar, 1998).

There are two important resin tapping techniques.

Instead of the mazek method, if acid-paste method is applied, the resin yield can increase and the deformation of technological features of trees can decrease. Besides, the education of laborers can provide substantial advantages for yield and quality in the resin production.

Resin production is made from calabrian pine (Pinus burutia Ten.) stand in Turkey and there is 3 million ha calabrian pine forest in total. Today, the forest area resin tapping is 100.000 ha in Turkey. According to this case, if a well work planning is organized an average laborer can tap resin from about 4.000 trees in one season. In order to retain seed trees in the calabrian forest, 6–8 trees/ha shouldn't be tapped. (Anşin, Eminağaoğlu, 2000).

The Calabrian forests occupy about 15% (3 million ha) of the total forest areas in Turkey. The most important part of the total Calabrian forest area is found in Mediterranean and Aegean districts (Huş and Kantarci, 1998). In general resin is consumed in the pulp, paper, paint, food, flower, medical and perfume industries. Also, it is used as an adhesive substance and rubber. Instead of fully closed forest and thin trees, it is determined that less canopy closure ratio of the forest, diameter level of c-d and young forests are suitable for gum resin production (Acar, Gül ve Örtel, 1996).

In Turkey gum resin production methods are mazek-fiella method and bark chipping with acid solution method. In practice, the most suitable resin production method should be applied according to the productivity, tree species and cost.

After that, the education of employees related to the determined method is necessary and application of controlling or monitoring activities are important. Firstly, by application of the applied education, maximum resin yield, minimum destruction in the physical and mechanical features of tree, better quality gum resin and constructions of the better work safety can be performed.

As it is stated, in the resin manufacturing process from the tree to the manifacture, the resin productivity has decreased about 18.3%. About 14% of this is caused by the evaporation of the terebentin and 4.3% by leaking of the gum resin from the pots. But, this can be solved by putting more emphasis on the working conditions of the employees and their education(Gürsu). Beside of the resin production techniques, the selection of production tools and pots are also important.

Transportation, Employing and Stockpiling in Resin Production

In Turkey, it has been observed that the transportation and stockpiling failures of the Pinus brutia Ten. gum resin change the physico-chemical properties of the resin (Hafizoğlu, 1998). On the other hand, failures in transportation methods can cause the loss of the resin yield. Besides, keeping the resin barrels uncovered and filled pots waiting can cause deterioration in the pureness of the resin. (Deniz, 1989).

Following the TS 1048 standards including the rules and methods of the gum resin stockpiling and transportation will decrease the losses mentioned above. That the increasing of the resin stockpiling time can cause little terebentine rate but high acid number. Besides, unsuitable stockpiling factors with hot climate and some reactions can cause Oxidation and low acid number. As a result of unsuitable stockpiling, evaporation of the terebentine cause important amount of losses. At the same time, weathering the gum resin results oxidized resin acid which decreased resin quality. Thus, firstly to prevent the evaporation of the terebentine, necessary measurement should be taken. Besides, stockpiling of the resin should be done in the galvanized sheet iron barrels not in the pool.

In order to tap maximum gum resin, the trees should not be damaged. The crop should be suitable to the specifications of the method. At the same time brazes of the crop should not be set up deeper than they are supposed to be. And, fixing the aprons and income resin pots should make the least damages on the tree. On the other hand, the resin tapping method should be economic and simple. The resin pots should be clear and cold, as well.

In the application of acid paste method, lack of work force is among important difficulties in Turkey. Besides, deterioration and changing of the physico-chemical properties of trees can be decreased by using qualified employees (Göker, 1998).

Employing qualified laborers outside of the gum resin production season protect the turnover of laborers. At the same time anthrophometric suitability of tools used in the resin production processes and physicological suitability of the working methods and body activities in the processes are important for the quality of work life. Moreover, if the area tapped gum resin is considered in the planning of the forest road network, it will promote advantages for stockpiling and transportation activities.


As resin is one important non-wood forest product in Turkey and world, the process from production to marketing including employing, transportation, stockpiling and the others should be focused again. It is known that non-wood forest products are of significant importance for sustainable forest management. Turkey has got a high potential of non-wood forest products and thus; both non-governmental organizations and governmental organizations, by considering some application models and samples in the development countries, should focus on these matters mentioned above from different angels and beside traditional approaches.

It is known that generally, in the production of non-wood forest products, traditional and primitive methods have been used and there is unclarity in the non-wood forest products market in Turkey. On the other hand, in order to apply new and modern techniques, employees and the other persons relating the processes should be educated. And, instantly, the potential of non-wood forest products of Turkey by application of the participation management, should be prompted.

As a result; In the resin production without deteriorating the ecosystem, the most suitable tapping, transportation and stockpiling activities should be used. Especially, education of the employees, carefully selection of the tolls used for the production of the resin, some substructure services as a construction and maintenance of the forest road network will effect productivity and quality.


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HAFIZOILU, H.,1998:Behaviour of Resin Acids During Storage and Technical Processes, 3. Çam Reçinesi Sempozyumu Tebliğleri, Tebliğ 16, s43., 20–21 Kasim 1998, İzmir.

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M. H. Hulusi ACAR1, M. Önder BARLI1 et M. Tetsuhiko YOSHIMURA2
1Université technique de Karadeniz, faculté de foresterie, TRABZON, Turquie
2Université de Kyoto, KYOTO, Japon


Pour assurer un niveau élevé de qualité et un bon rendement dans la production de la résine, produit forestier autre que le bois important, il faut appliquer des méthodes appropriées de gemmage, de transport et d'entreposage.

En Turquie, la résine n'est recueillie que dans les forêts de pin de Calabre (Pinus brutia Ten.) par des paysans. D'après l'Administration générale de la foresterie, la capacité de production est estimée à environ 20 000 à 25 000 tonnes de résine par an. La résine, qui peut être utilisée par l'industrie du papier, des peintures et d'autres, est un produit industriel très important.

Les méthodes utilisées pour récolter la résine en forêt, l'entreposer et la transporter sont déterminantes. On peut dire que de mauvaises conditions de transport et d'entreposage sont des facteurs importants de la dégradation de la qualité de la résine. De plus, de mauvaises méthodes de transport entraînent des pertes dans les volumes de résine. Les barils laissés ouverts au bord des routes forestières en attendant que la résine soit versée dans les conteneurs puis enlevée altèrent la pureté du produit.

Un pin donne environ de 1 à 4 kg de résine par an. Depuis le gemmage jusqu'à l'utilisation en usine de la résine, le volume baisse d'environ 18,3 %. Le phénomène est généralement dû à l'évaporation de la térébenthine et aux coulures de résine des pots. Toutefois, le soin apporté par les employés à la manipulation et leur formation peuvent atténuer les pertes.

Mots clefs : Gemmage, qualité de la résine, productivité, transport et entreposage.

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