## 5.4 Energy requirements and dietary energy recommendations

5.4.1 Calculation of energy requirements

Energy requirements were calculated from the factorial estimates of PAL described in the preceding sections. They were converted into energy units (i.e. joules and calories) by multiplying the PAL value by the BMR. In order to express requirements as energy units per kilogram of body weight, they were divided by the weight used in the equations to predict BMR. The following example to calculate the average energy requirement of a female population 20 to 30 years of age with a moderately active lifestyle and a mean body weight of 55 kg illustrates these calculations:

BMR (calculated with the predictive equation in Table 5.2): 5.45 MJ/day (1 302 kcal/day).
PAL (mid-point of the moderately active lifestyle in Table 5.3): 1.85.
Energy requirement: 5.45 × 1.85 = 10.08 MJ/day (2 410 kcal/day), or 10.08/55 = 183 kJ/kg/day (44 kcal/kg/day).

The variation in requirements around the mid-point of the PAL ranges in each lifestyle category in Table 5.3 is between ± 8 percent and ± 10 percent (e.g. PAL for moderately active lifestyle = 1.70 to 1.99 = 1.85 ± 8 percent). However, there are individuals with BMR or PAL values at the extremes of a normal distribution around the population mean. Consequently, within each lifestyle category there are people whose individual energy requirement is beyond the limits shown in Table 5.3. This reiterates the fact that the energy requirements and dietary energy recommendations in this report are to be applied to population groups and not to individuals. Requirements of a specific individual must be based on that person’s actual TEE or BMR, or on estimates that take into account the individual’s habitual physical activity and lifestyle characteristics.

Tables 5.4 to 5.9 show the average energy requirements of populations with various levels of habitual physical activity and various mean body weights. Requirements for groups with other weights and/or mean PAL can be calculated easily, as in the following example for men 20 to 25 years of age with an average weight of 68 kg and an estimated PAL of 1.80:

a) Use Table 5.4 for men aged 18 to 30 years.

b) Calculate the 24-hour BMR by interpolating between body weights of 65 and 70 kg and multiply the interpolated BMR/kg by the population’s average weight of 68 kg: mean of 108 and 104 = 106 kJ/kg × 68 kg = 7 208 kJ/day.

c) Multiply the 24-hour BMR by the estimated average PAL of the population: average daily requirement = 7 208 kJ/day × 1.80 = 12.97 MJ/day (3 100 kcal/day).

Another option for calculations is:

a) Use Table 5.4 for men aged 18 to 30 years.

b) Calculate the approximate energy requirement by interpolating between the daily requirements of men weighing 65 and 70 kg, and with a PAL level near that of the population (in this example, 1.75): mean of 12.2 and 12.8 MJ/day = 12.5 MJ/day.

c) Multiply the approximate requirement by the ratio between the population’s PAL and the PAL of the column used in Table 5.5: 12.5 × (1.80/1.75) = 12.86 MJ/day (3 074 kcal/day).

5.4.2 Recommendation for daily energy intake

Dietary energy intake of a healthy, well-nourished population should allow for maintaining an adequate BMI at the population’s usual level of energy expenditure. At the individual level, a normal range of 18.5 to 24.9 kg/m2 BMI is generally accepted (WHO 1995 and 2000). At a population level, a median BMI of 21.0 was recently suggested by the joint WHO/FAO Expert Consultation on Diet, Nutrition and the Prevention of Chronic Diseases (WHO/FAO, 2002).

As BMI is a function of weight and height, heights corresponding to a BMI of 18.5, 21.0 and 24.9 were included in Tables 5.4 to 5.9 for each mean weight shown in the first column of each table. This facilitates recommendations for dietary energy intakes aimed at maintaining those values or range of BMI. For example, in the case of a male population 18 to 30 years old with an average height of 1.70 m and an activity lifestyle with a mean PAL of 1.75, the recommended energy intake would be around 11.7 MJ/day or 195 kJ/kg/day, which corresponds to the average requirement of men with a height of 1.69 m and a BMI of 21.0 who have a PAL of 1.75 × BMR (Table 5.4).

In the same example, a range of approximately 11.1 to 12.8 MJ/day or 185 to 200 kJ/kg/day would allow the maintenance of a BMI between 18.5 and 24.9 kg/m2. These figures were obtained from the PAL column of 1.75 × BMR in Table 5.4, between the lowest row with height ³ 1.70 m in the column of 18.5 BMI (in this example, the second row with a height of 1.72 m) and the highest row with height £ 1.70 m in the column of 24.9 BMI (in this example, the fifth row with a height of 1.68 m).

TABLE 5.4
Daily average energy requirement for men aged 18 to 29.9 years*

 Mean weight BMR/kga Daily energy requirement according to BMR factor (or PAL) and body weight indicated Height (m) for BMI values:b 1.45 × BMR 1.60 × BMR 1.75 × BMR 1.90 × BMR 2.05 × BMR 2.20 × BMR kg kJ kcal MJ kJ/kg kcal kcal/kg MJ kJ/kg kcal kcal/kg MJ kJ/kg kcal kcal/kg MJ kJ/kg kcal kcal/kg MJ kJ/kg kcal kcal/kg MJ kJ/kg kcal kcal/kg 24.9 21.0 18.5 50 121 29 8.8 175 2 100 42 9.7 195 2 300 46 10.6 210 2 550 51 11.5 230 2 750 55 12.4 250 2 950 59 13.3 265 3 200 64 1.42 1.54 1.64 55 116 28 9.2 170 2 200 40 10.2 185 2 450 44 11.1 200 2 650 48 12.1 220 2 900 53 13.0 235 3 100 57 14.0 255 3 350 61 1.49 1.62 1.72 60 111 27 9.7 160 2 300 39 10.7 180 2 550 43 11.7 195 2 800 47 12.7 210 3 050 51 13.7 230 3 250 55 14.7 245 3 500 59 1.55 1.69 1.80 65 108 26 10.1 155 2 400 37 11.2 170 2 650 41 12.2 190 2 900 45 13.3 205 3 150 49 14.3 220 3 450 53 15.4 235 3 700 57 1.62 1.76 1.87 70 104 25 10.6 150 2 550 36 11.7 165 2 800 40 12.8 185 3 050 44 13.9 200 3 300 47 15.0 215 3 600 51 16.1 230 3 850 55 1.68 1.83 1.95 75 102 24 11.1 145 2 650 35 12.2 165 2 900 39 13.3 180 3 200 42 14.5 195 3 450 46 15.6 210 3 750 50 16.8 225 4 000 53 1.74 1.89 2.01 80 99 24 11.5 145 2 750 34 12.7 160 3 050 38 13.9 175 3 300 41 15.1 190 3 600 45 16.3 205 3 900 49 17.5 220 4 150 52 1.79 1.95 2.08 85 97 23 12.0 140 2 850 34 13.2 155 3 150 37 14.4 170 3 450 41 15.7 185 3 750 44 16.9 200 4 050 48 18.2 215 4 350 51 1.85 2.01 2.14 90 95 23 12.4 140 2 950 33 13.7 150 3 300 36 15.0 165 3 600 40 16.3 180 3 900 43 17.6 195 4 200 47 18.8 210 4 500 50 1.90 2.07 2.21

* Values rounded to closest 0.1 MJ/d, 50 kcal/d, 5 kJ/kg/d, 1 kcal/kg/d.
a BMR calculated for each weight from the equations in Table 5.2. Values of BMR/kg are presented for ease of calculations for those who wish to use different PAL values or different weights.
b Height ranges are presented for each mean weight for ease of making dietary energy recommendations to maintain an adequate BMI based on a population's mean height and PAL. For example, the recommended mean energy intake for a male population of this age group with a mean height of 1.70 m and a lifestyle with a mean PAL of 1.75, is about 11.7 MJ (2 800 kcal)/day or 195 kJ (47 kcal)/kg/day to maintain an optimum population median BMI of 21.0 (WHO/FAO, 2002), with an individual range of about 11.1 to 12.8 MJ (2 650 to 3 050 kcal)/day or 185 to 200 kJ (44 to 48 kcal)/kg/day to maintain the individual BMI limits of 18.5 to 24.9 (WHO, 2000).

TABLE 5.5
Daily average energy requirement for men aged 30 to 59.9 years*

 Mean weight BMR/kga Daily energy requirement according to BMR factor (or PAL) and body weight indicated Height (m) for BMI values:b 1.45 × BMR 1.60 × BMR 1.75 × BMR 1.90 × BMR 2.05 × BMR 2.20 × BMR kg kJ kcal MJ kJ/kg kcal kcal/kg MJ kJ/kg kcal kcal/kg MJ kJ/kg kcal kcal/kg MJ kJ/kg kcal kcal/kg MJ kJ/kg kcal kcal/kg MJ kJ/kg kcal kcal/kg 24.9 21.0 18.5 50 121 29 8.8 175 2 100 42 9.7 195 2 300 46 10.6 210 2 550 51 11.5 230 2 750 55 12.4 250 2 950 59 13.3 265 3 200 64 1.42 1.54 1.64 55 114 27 9.1 165 2 200 40 10.1 185 2 400 44 11.0 200 2 650 48 12.0 215 2 850 52 12.9 235 3 100 56 13.8 250 3 300 60 1.49 1.62 1.72 60 109 26 9.5 160 2 250 38 10.5 175 2 500 42 11.4 190 2 750 46 12.4 205 2 950 49 13.4 225 3 200 53 14.4 240 3 450 57 1.55 1.69 1.80 65 104 25 9.8 150 2 350 36 10.8 165 2 600 40 11.9 180 2 850 44 12.9 200 3 100 47 13.9 215 3 300 51 14.9 230 3 550 55 1.62 1.76 1.87 70 100 24 10.2 145 2 450 35 11.2 160 2 700 38 12.3 175 2 950 42 13.3 190 3 200 45 14.4 205 3 450 49 15.4 220 3 700 53 1.68 1.83 1.95 75 97 23 10.5 140 2 500 34 11.6 155 2 750 37 12.7 170 3 050 40 13.8 185 3 300 44 14.9 200 3 550 47 16.0 215 3 800 51 1.74 1.89 2.01 80 94 22 10.9 135 2 600 32 12.0 150 2 850 36 13.1 165 3 150 39 14.2 180 3 400 43 15.4 190 3 650 46 16.5 205 3 950 49 1.79 1.95 2.08 85 91 22 11.2 130 2 700 32 12.4 145 2 950 35 13.5 160 3 250 38 14.7 175 3 500 41 15.9 185 3 800 45 17.0 200 4 050 48 1.85 2.01 2.14 90 89 21 11.6 130 2 750 31 12.8 140 3 050 34 14.0 155 3 350 37 15.1 170 3 600 40 16.3 180 3 900 43 17.5 195 4 200 47 1.90 2.07 2.21

* Values rounded to closest 0.1 MJ/d, 50 kcal/d, 5 kJ/kg/d, 1 kcal/kg/d.
a BMR calculated for each weight from the equations in Table 5.2. Values of BMR/kg are presented for ease of calculations for those who wish to use different PAL values or different weights.
b Height ranges are presented for each mean weight for ease of making dietary energy recommendations to maintain an adequate BMI based on a population's mean height and PAL. For example, the recommended mean energy intake for a male population of this age group with a mean height of 1.70 m and a lifestyle with a mean PAL of 1.75, is about 11.4 MJ (2 750 kcal)/day or 190 kJ (46 kcal)/kg/day to maintain an optimum population median BMI of 21.0 (WHO/FAO, 2002), with an individual range of about 11.0 to 12.3 MJ (2 650 to 2 950 kcal)/day or 175 to 200 kJ (42 to 48 kcal)/kg/day to maintain the individual BMI limits of 18.5 to 24.9 (WHO, 2000).

TABLE 5.6
Daily average energy requirement for men aged ³ 60 years*

 Mean weight BMR/kga Daily energy requirement according to BMR factor (or PAL) and body weight indicated Height (m) for BMI values:b 1.45 × BMR 1.60 × BMR 1.75 × BMR 1.90 × BMR 2.05 × BMR 2.20 × BMR kg kJ kcal MJ kJ/kg kcal kcal/kg MJ kJ/kg kcal kcal/kg MJ kJ/kg kcal kcal/kg MJ kJ/kg kcal kcal/kg MJ kJ/kg kcal kcal/kg MJ kJ/kg kcal kcal/kg 24.9 21.0 18.5 50 98 23 7.1 140 1 700 34 7.9 155 1 900 38 8.6 170 2 050 41 9.3 185 2 250 45 10.1 200 2 400 48 10.8 215 2 600 52 1.42 1.54 1.64 55 94 22 7.5 135 1 800 33 8.2 150 1 950 35 9.0 165 2 150 39 9.8 180 2 350 43 10.6 190 2 550 46 11.3 205 2 700 49 1.49 1.62 1.72 60 90 22 7.8 130 1 850 31 8.6 145 2 050 34 9.4 155 2 250 38 10.3 170 2 450 41 11.1 185 2 650 44 11.9 200 2 850 48 1.55 1.69 1.80 65 87 21 8.2 125 1 950 30 9.0 140 2 150 33 9.9 150 2 350 36 10.7 165 2 550 39 11.6 180 2 750 42 12.4 190 2 950 45 1.62 1.76 1.87 70 84 20 8.5 120 2 050 29 9.4 135 2 250 32 10.3 145 2 450 35 11.2 160 2 650 38 12.1 170 2 900 41 13.0 185 3 100 44 1.68 1.83 1.95 75 82 20 8.9 120 2 150 29 9.8 130 2 350 31 10.7 145 2 550 34 11.7 155 2 800 37 12.6 170 3 000 40 13.5 180 3 250 43 1.74 1.89 2.01 80 80 19 9.2 115 2 200 28 10.2 130 2 450 31 11.2 140 2 650 33 12.1 150 2 900 36 13.1 165 3 150 39 14.0 175 3 350 42 1.79 1.95 2.08 85 78 19 9.6 115 2 300 27 10.6 125 2 550 30 11.6 135 2 750 32 12.6 150 3 000 35 13.6 160 3 250 38 14.6 170 3 500 41 1.85 2.01 2.14 90 76 18 10.0 110 2 400 27 11.0 120 2 650 29 12.0 135 2 850 32 13.1 145 3 100 34 14.1 155 3 350 37 15.1 170 3 600 40 1.90 2.07 2.21

* Values rounded to closest 0.1 MJ/d, 50 kcal/d, 5 kJ/kg/d, 1 kcal/kg/d.
a BMR calculated for each weight from the equations in Table 5.2. Values of BMR/kg are presented for ease of calculations for those who wish to use different PAL values or different weights.
b Height ranges are presented for each mean weight for ease of making dietary energy recommendations to maintain an adequate BMI based on a population's mean height and PAL. For example, the recommended mean energy intake for a male population of this age group with a mean height of 1.70 m and a lifestyle with a mean PAL of 1.75, is about 9.4 MJ (2 250 kcal)/day or 155 kJ (38 kcal)/kg/day to maintain an optimum population median BMI of 21.0 (WHO/FAO, 2002), with an individual range of about 9.0 to 10.3 MJ (2 150 to 2 450 kcal)/day or 145 to 160 kJ (35 to 39 kcal)/kg/day to maintain the individual BMI limits of 18.5 to 24.9 (WHO, 2000).

TABLE 5.7
Daily average energy requirement for women aged 18 to 29.9 years*

 Mean weight BMR/kga Daily energy requirement according to BMR factor (or PAL) and body weight indicated Height (m) for BMI values:b 1.45 × BMR 1.60 × BMR 1.75 × BMR 1.90 × BMR 2.05 × BMR 2.20 × BMR kg kJ kcal MJ kJ/kg kcal kcal/kg MJ kJ/kg kcal kcal/kg MJ kJ/kg kcal kcal/kg MJ kJ/kg kcal kcal/kg MJ kJ/kg kcal kcal/kg MJ kJ/kg kcal kcal/kg 24.9 21.0 18.5 45 107 26 7.0 155 1 650 37 7.7 170 1 850 41 8.4 190 2 000 44 9.2 205 2 200 49 9.9 220 2 350 52 10.6 235 2 550 57 1.34 1.46 1.56 50 103 25 7.4 150 1 800 36 8.2 165 1 950 39 9.0 180 2 150 43 9.8 195 2 350 47 10.5 210 2 500 50 11.3 225 2 700 54 1.42 1.54 1.64 55 99 24 7.9 145 1 900 35 8.7 160 2 100 38 9.5 175 2 300 42 10.3 190 2 450 45 11.2 205 2 650 48 12.0 220 2 850 52 1.49 1.62 1.72 60 96 23 8.3 140 2 000 33 9.2 155 2 200 37 10.1 170 2 400 40 10.9 180 2 600 43 11.8 195 2 800 47 12.7 210 3 050 51 1.55 1.69 1.80 65 93 22 8.8 135 2 100 32 9.7 150 2 300 35 10.6 165 2 550 39 11.5 175 2 750 42 12.4 190 2 950 45 13.3 205 3 200 49 1.62 1.76 1.87 70 91 22 9.2 130 2 200 31 10.2 145 2 450 35 11.2 160 2 650 38 12.1 175 2 900 41 13.1 185 3 100 44 14.0 200 3 350 48 1.68 1.83 1.95 75 89 21 9.7 130 2 300 31 10.7 145 2 550 34 11.7 155 2 800 37 12.7 170 3 050 41 13.7 185 3 300 44 14.7 195 3 500 47 1.74 1.89 2.01 80 87 21 10.1 125 2 400 30 11.2 140 2 700 34 12.2 155 2 950 37 13.3 165 3 200 40 14.3 180 3 450 43 15.4 190 3 700 46 1.79 1.95 2.08 85 86 21 10.6 125 2 550 30 11.7 140 2 800 33 12.8 150 3 050 36 13.9 165 3 300 39 15.0 175 3 600 42 16.1 190 3 850 45 1.85 2.01 2.14

* Values rounded to closest 0.1 MJ/d, 50 kcal/d, 5 kJ/kg/d, 1 kcal/kg/d.
a BMR calculated for each weight from the equations in Table 5.2. Values of BMR/kg are presented for ease of calculations for those who wish to use different PAL values or different weights.
b Height ranges are presented for each mean weight for ease of making dietary energy recommendations to maintain an adequate BMI based on a population's mean height and PAL. For example, the recommended mean energy intake for a female population of this age group with a mean height of 1.70 m and a lifestyle with a mean PAL of 1.75, is about 10.1 MJ (2 400 kcal)/day or 170 kJ (40 kcal)/kg/day to maintain an optimum population median BMI of 21.0 (WHO/FAO, 2002), with an individual range of about 9.5 to 11.2 MJ (2 300 to 2 650 kcal)/day or 160 to 175 kJ (38 to 42 kcal)/kg/day to maintain the individual BMI limits of 18.5 to 24.9 (WHO, 2000).

TABLE 5.8
Daily average energy requirement for women aged 30 to 59.9 years*

 Mean weight BMR/kga Daily energy requirement according to BMR factor (or PAL) and body weight indicated Height (m) for BMI values:b 1.45 × BMR 1.60 × BMR 1.75 × BMR 1.90 × BMR 2.05 × BMR 2.20 × BMR kg kJ kcal MJ kJ/kg kcal kcal/kg MJ kJ/kg kcal kcal/kg MJ kJ/kg kcal kcal/kg MJ kJ/kg kcal kcal/kg MJ kJ/kg kcal kcal/kg MJ kJ/kg kcal kcal/kg 24.9 21.0 18.5 45 113 27 7.3 165 1 750 39 8.1 180 1 950 43 8.9 195 2 100 47 9.6 215 2 300 51 10.4 230 2 500 56 11.1 250 2 650 59 1.34 1.46 1.56 50 105 25 7.6 150 1 800 36 8.4 170 2 000 40 9.2 185 2 200 44 10.0 200 2 400 48 10.7 215 2 550 51 11.5 230 2 750 55 1.42 1.54 1.64 55 98 24 7.8 145 1 850 34 8.7 155 2 050 37 9.5 170 2 250 41 10.3 185 2 450 45 11.1 200 2 650 48 11.9 215 2 850 52 1.49 1.62 1.72 60 93 22 8.1 135 1 950 33 8.9 150 2 150 36 9.8 165 2 350 39 10.6 175 2 550 43 11.4 190 2 750 46 12.3 205 2 950 49 1.55 1.69 1.80 65 88 21 8.3 130 2 000 31 9.2 140 2 200 34 10.1 155 2 400 37 10.9 170 2 600 40 11.8 180 2 800 43 12.6 195 3 000 46 1.62 1.76 1.87 70 85 20 8.6 125 2 050 29 9.5 135 2 250 32 10.4 150 2 500 36 11.2 160 2 700 39 12.1 175 2 900 41 13.0 185 3 100 44 1.68 1.83 1.95 75 81 19 8.8 120 2 100 28 9.7 130 2 350 31 10.7 140 2 550 34 11.6 155 2 750 37 12.5 165 3 000 40 13.4 180 3 200 43 1.74 1.89 2.01 80 78 19 9.1 115 2 150 27 10.0 125 2 400 30 11.0 135 2 600 33 11.9 150 2 850 36 12.8 160 3 050 38 13.8 170 3 300 41 1.79 1.95 2.08 85 76 18 9.3 110 2 250 26 10.3 120 2 450 29 11.2 130 2 700 32 12.2 145 2 900 34 13.2 155 3 150 37 14.1 165 3 400 40 1.85 2.01 2.14

* Values rounded to closest 0.1 MJ/d, 50 kcal/d, 5 kJ/kg/d, 1 kcal/kg/d.
a BMR calculated for each weight from the equations in Table 5.2. Values of BMR/kg are presented for ease of calculations for those who wish to use different PAL values or different weights.
b Height ranges are presented for each mean weight for ease of making dietary energy recommendations to maintain an adequate BMI based on a population's mean height and PAL. For example, the recommended mean energy intake for a female population of this age group with a mean height of 1.70 m and a lifestyle with a mean PAL of 1.75, is about 9.8 MJ (2 350 kcal)/day or 165 kJ (39 kcal)/kg/day to maintain an optimum population median BMI of 21.0 (WHO/FAO, 2002), with an individual range of about 9.5 to 10.4 MJ (2 250 to 2 500 kcal)/day or 150 to 170 kJ (36 to 41 kcal)/kg/day to maintain the individual BMI limits of 18.5 to 24.9 (WHO, 2000).

TABLE 5.9
Daily average energy requirement for women aged ³ 60 years*

 Mean weight BMR/kga Daily energy requirement according to BMR factor (or PAL) and body weight indicated Height (m) for BMI values:b 1.45 × BMR 1.60 × BMR 1.75 × BMR 1.90 × BMR 2.05 × BMR 2.20 × BMR kg kJ kcal MJ kJ/kg kcal kcal/kg MJ kJ/kg kcal kcal/kg MJ kJ/kg kcal kcal/kg MJ kJ/kg kcal kcal/kg MJ kJ/kg kcal kcal/kg MJ kJ/kg kcal kcal/kg 24.9 21.0 18.5 45 99 24 6.5 145 1 550 34 7.1 160 1 700 38 7.8 175 1 850 41 8.5 190 2 050 45 9.2 205 2 200 49 9.8 220 2 350 52 1.34 1.46 1.56 50 93 22 6.7 135 1 600 32 7.4 150 1 800 36 8.1 165 1 950 39 8.8 175 2 100 42 9.5 190 2 300 46 10.2 205 2 450 49 1.42 1.54 1.64 55 88 21 7.0 130 1 700 31 7.8 140 1 850 34 8.5 155 2 050 37 9.2 165 2 200 40 9.9 180 2 350 43 10.7 195 2 550 46 1.49 1.62 1.72 60 84 20 7.3 120 1 750 29 8.1 135 1 950 32 8.8 145 2 100 35 9.6 160 2 300 38 10.3 170 2 450 41 11.1 185 2 650 44 1.55 1.69 1.80 65 80 19 7.6 115 1 800 28 8.4 130 2 000 31 9.1 140 2 200 34 9.9 155 2 350 37 10.7 165 2 550 39 11.5 175 2 750 42 1.62 1.76 1.87 70 77 18 7.9 110 1 900 27 8.7 125 2 050 30 9.5 135 2 250 32 10.3 145 2 450 35 11.1 160 2 650 38 11.9 170 2 850 41 1.68 1.83 1.95 75 75 18 8.1 110 1 950 26 9.0 120 2 150 29 9.8 130 2 350 31 10.6 140 2 550 34 11.5 155 2 750 37 12.3 165 2 950 39 1.74 1.89 2.01 80 72 17 8.4 105 2 000 25 9.3 115 2 200 28 10.1 125 2 400 30 11.0 140 2 650 33 11.9 150 2 850 35 12.7 160 3 050 38 1.79 1.95 2.08 85 70 17 8.7 100 2 050 24 9.6 115 2 300 27 10.5 125 2 500 29 11.4 135 2 700 32 12.3 145 2 950 34 13.2 155 3 150 37 1.85 2.01 2.14

* Values rounded to closest 0.1 MJ/d, 50 kcal/d, 5 kJ/kg/d, 1 kcal/kg/d.
a BMR calculated for each weight from the equations in Table 5.2. Values of BMR/kg are presented for ease of calculations for those who wish to use different PAL values or different weights.
b Height ranges are presented for each mean weight for ease of making dietary energy recommendations to maintain an adequate BMI based on a population's mean height and PAL. For example, the recommended mean energy intake for a female population of this age group with a mean height of 1.70 m and a lifestyle with a mean PAL of 1.75, is about 8.8 MJ (2 100 kcal)/day or 145 kJ (35 kcal)/kg/day to maintain an optimum population median BMI of 21.0 (WHO/FAO, 2002), with an individual range of about 8.5 to 9.5 MJ (2 050 to 2 250 kcal)/day or 135 to 155 kJ (32 to 37 kcal)/kg/day to maintain the individual BMI limits of 18.5 to 24.9 (WHO, 2000).