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Appendix 1
Useful references and sources of information

Name/Description of Source Internet Address

Avian nutrition site (Australia)

Bird food information (Portuguese)

Bird nutrition handbook

Birdcare Standards Association

Birdwatchers Digest

Commodity marketing company (United States of America)

Companion bird site with many links

Complete information source on companion birds

Cornell University

Laboratory of Ornithology

European Pet Food Industry Federation

FAO Grass and Pasture crops database

HACCP information

Information on racing pigeons

Information on wild bird feeding

Information resource on companion birds

Large Internet supplier in New York, United States of America.

National Agricultural Commodity Marketing Association Ltd. (Australia)

National Birdfeeding Society

P.O.Box 23, Northbrook, IL 60065, United States of America

National finches and softbill society (United States of America)

National Wildlife Federation (United States of America)

NewCrops database Purdue University (United States of America)

Overview of wild bird feeding by Dr. A. Geis

Pet Food Manufacturers Association

Pet Industry Information Service

Pet site in Spanish with articles on bird feeding

Petcare information (Website by Mars Inc)

PetCo Superstores (United States of America)

Petco Animal Supplies Inc, 9125 Rehco Road, San Diego, CA 92121, United States of America

Petfood Industry Distributors Association,

2105 Laurel Bush Rd, suite 200, Bel Air, MD 21015, United States of America

PetSmart Superstores (United States of America)

19601 N 27th Avenue, Phoenix, AZ 85027, United States of America.

Statistics and prices on small grains from Canada

Syndicat des Aliments préparés pour chiens, chats et oiseaux

46 Blvd de Magenta 75010 Paris, France

fax: 0033 140181543

The Electronic Zoo - lots of links

The Petfood Institute

Understanding Pet Bird Nutrition. University of Florida.

US Fish and Wildlife Services

Waltham Food

The Scientific arm of Mars Pet Foods

Wild Bird Feeding Industry

P.O. Box 763, Scottsbluff, NE 69631, United States of America, fax: (+1) 308-632-1590

[email protected]

Wild Bird Unlimited

(Operates 290 stores in the United States of America)

11711 N. College Av, Carmel, IN 46032, United States of America

Winged Wisdom (Birds N Ways)

Appendix 2
Major brokerage and packing firms in bird seed

Major Brokers

Broker Details

Pacific Northwest Ag Products (United States of America)

Has been trading in specialty agricultural and food products since 1966. Import millet and Niger seed for the United States of America domestic market and export to customers within North America and also to other continents.

Red river Commodities Inc. (United States of America)

Established in 1983, the company has processing plants in North Dakota, Texas and Kansas. Most bird food (with own brand Valley Splendour) is processed in a specialized processing facility in North Dakota. Imports commodities such as Niger seed.

Address: 501 42nd Street NW, Fargo, ND 58102, United States of America

web site:

Specialty Commodities Inc. (United States of America)

A broker and importer of specialty food and bird food items, with processing plants in the United States of America and China.

Address: P.O. Box 2667, Fargo, ND 58108, United States of America.

tel: (+1) 701-282-8222, fax: (+1) 701-282-7574.

web site:

Cereal Byproducts Inc. (United States of America)

Has been formulating and marketing animal feed since 1917. Offers a range of products for pigeon and wild bird feeding. Address: 55 East Euclid, Box 575, Mount Prospect, IL 60056, United States of America.

tel: (+1) 847-818-1550, fax: (+1) 847-818-1659

web site:

Diversified Ingredients (United States of America)

Trades globally in commodity and specialty grains for food and feed. Importers of Niger seed and canary seed.

Address: 143 West Clinton Blvd, St. Louis, MO 63132, United States of America.

tel: (+1) 314-822-0110, fax: (+1) 314-822-5781.

web site:

Teague Australia (Australia)

An international broker of food and grain commodities and one of the most important brokers of bird food ingredients in Australia. Deals in millets, Niger seed, sorghum, safflower and canary seed. Web site gives useful information about trading standards of bird food commodities.

Address: 118 Halifax Street, Adelaide 5000, Australia.

tel: (+61) 8 82320664, fax: (+61) 8 82320702.

web site:

Major Brokers (Conclusion)

Broker Details

Knight Seed Inc. (United States of America)

Started trading bird food ingredients in 1964. Sources commodities worldwide.

Address: 151 126th Street, Burnsville, MN 55337, United States of America.

tel: (+1) 952-894-8080, fax: (+1) 952-894-8095

web site:

Commodity Marketing Company (United States of America)

Specializes in bird food ingredients and dry pulses. News on the trade and trends in the bird food industry is regularly published on their website (

Address: 2325 Lakeview Parkway Suite 150, Alphetta, GA 30004, United States of America.

tel: (+1) 678-566-7820, fax: (+1) 687-566-7821

Granaria NV (Belgium)

A leading European broker in agricultural commodities and has a dedicated section for the bird food market. Imports millets, canary seed, Niger seed, maize and pulses from Australia, New Zealand, Argentina, Brazil, Hungary and South Africa.

Address: Granaria NV, Meir 26, B2000 Antwerp, Belgium

tel: (+32) 3 213 9380, fax: (+32) 3 2139394.

Dalsace Frères (France)

Dalsace Frères is a general commodity broker with a specialist section for bird food ingredients.

Major Packers and Wholesalers

Packer/Wholesaler Details

Harrison Bird Food (United States of America)

Has a product line of organic bird food diets[25]. The company philosophy is that non-organic grains may contain pesticide residues that are detrimental to bird's health. Produces mainly extruded diets that contain ground cereals (maize, oats, barley, rice, proso), ground legumes (groundnuts, lentils, peas, soybeans), ground sunflower seed, ground sesame, and dried alfalfa supplemented with vitamins and minerals. Some mixes also contain exotic ingredients such as chia (Salvia columbariae Benth.), kelp seaweed, and algae (Spirulina spp.). Organic bird food is gaining popularity, and Harrison Bird Food's products are now available in several European countries.

Address: 7108 Crossroads Blvd, Suite 325, Brentwood, TN 37027, United States of America.

web site:

Kaytee (United States of America)

Started the manufacturing of pigeon and other bird foods in 1923, and remains one of the most important bird food suppliers in the United States of America. It has locations in Wisconsin and Kansas and is active overseas in Singapore, Canada, Japan and the United Kingdom. Kaytee is part of the Central Garden and Pet Company.

Pennington Seed Inc. (United States of America)

One of the largest bird food packers in the United States of America, is part of Central Garden and Pet Company. Operates three state-of-the-art packing plants under the name 'Penn Pak' in Georgia, Nebraska and Missouri. Penn Pak formulates and packs for third party brands, and has its own brand of wild bird food. Sells several grain mixtures for cover crops and is a major supplier of lawn and turf grasses.

Address: P.O. Box 290, 1280 Atlanta Hwy, Madison, GA 30650, United States of America

web site:

email: [email protected]

Wild Birds Unlimited (United States of America)

A new type of enterprise, concentrating on the sale of bird food for outside feeding and accessories such as feeders, water fountains and binoculars. Operates through franchised shops of which it currently has 290 in the United States of America. At the same time it operates an internet ordering and information service.

Address: 11711 N. College Ave, Carmel, IN 46032, United States of America.

web site:

Wild Bird Centers of America Inc. (United States of America)

This is a similar organization to Wild Birds Unlimited, with 100 franchises in the United States of America.

Wagner Bros Feed Corporation (United States of America)

A family company that has been in the animal feed business since 1894. Sells a wide range of wild bird mixes.

Address: Wagner Bros Feed Corp, Box 26, Farmingdale NY 11735, United States of America.

web site:

Major Packers and Wholesalers (Continued)

Packer/Wholesaler Details

Lebanon Seaboard Inc. (United States of America)

A specialised lawn and garden product company. Markets the Lyric brand of bird food.

Address: 1600 East Cumbermand Street, Lebanon, PA 17042, United States of America.

fax: (+1) 717-273 9466

web site:

Versele-Laga (Belgium)

One of Europe's largest animal feed manufacturers, has a substantial interest in the manufacturing of bird food. It is well known for its pigeon food but, in addition, has a complete product line for wild bird feeding and extruded diets for aviary birds. Produces between 220 000 and 250 000 tonnes of bird food per year, and sources bird food ingredients from Africa, China, eastern Europe and Latin America. Its main brands are Prestige and Orlux.

Address: Versele-Laga, Kapellestraat 70, B9800 Deinze, Belgium.

tel: (+32) 9 381 3200, fax: (+32) 9 386 8513

Vitakraft (Germany)

Has been manufacturing pet food for almost 100 years, operates factories in many European countries, and is active in the United States of America and Asia. Its main brand is Vitakraft.

Lenersane Poortman NV (The Netherlands)

This company has been in the feed business since 1803. Siber Hegner of Germany, a global manufacturer of chemicals/pharmaceuticals and food ingredients, currently owns Lenersane Poortman. Lenersane Poortman imports 40 000 to 60 000 tonnes of small grains from several countries and packs/formulates for private labels.

Address: Lenersan Poortman NV, Vogelaarsweg 23, 3313 LL Dordrecht, The Netherlands.

tel: (+31) 78 6220622, fax: (+31) 78 6210669

web site:

Beduco NV (Belgium)

Created by the merger of Beyers and Dufky. Beyers had global recognition in pigeon food and pigeon breeding. Beduco has a large range of pigeon foods and wild bird foods.

Address: Beduco NV, Wasserijstraat 25, B2900 Schoten, Belgium.

tel: (+32) 3 3608526

web site:

Oxadis (France)

Part of the Limagrain Group of agricultural companies and specializes in garden supplies. They have a complete product line-up in bird food for indoor and outdoor feeding. The main brands are Aime and Tyrol.

Sluis (The Netherlands)

Sluis is one of the oldest bird food brands in The Netherlands. Their product range is mainly aimed at companion birds and is sold under the Sluis brand name or packed for private labels. Sluis is part of Lenersane Poortman BV.

Address: Sluis, P.O.Box 889, 3300 AW Dordrecht, The Netherlands.

tel: (031) 78 621 5200, fax: (+31) 78 621 0669

Major Packers and Wholesalers (Conclusion)

Packer/Wholesaler Details

De Witte Molen (The Netherlands)

A specialised pet food manufacturer owned by Alenheri, a global trader and processor of cereals, pulses and nuts. It has an extensive product range of bird foods and is active in several countries

A Poortman Ltd(United Kingdom)

An international distributor of pulses and bird food. Supplies a wide range of bird food ingredients to the industry.

Address: A. Poortman Ltd., Prescott House, Prescott Street, London E1 8BB, United Kingdom.

tel: (+44) 2074812110, fax: (+44) 2077021513

web address: email: [email protected]

CJ Wild Bird Foods Ltd (United Kingdom)

Based in the United Kingdom and produces and markets wild bird food under the RSPB seal of approval. It has a large range of products including feeders. The company sells through mail order and retail outlets in the United Kingdom and Europe.

Other Brokers/Packers/Wholesalers

Company Mailing Address/phone/fax/web site

D&D Commodities Ltd (United States of America)

P.O. Box 359, Stephen, MN 56757, United States of America

Hall Grain Company (United States of America)

P.O.Box 350, Akron, CO 80720, United States of America

CAMEX Inc. (United States of America)

P.O. Box 17370, Boulder, Colorado 80308, United States of America. tel: 303-652-2000, fax: 303.652.2011.

Sunbird Inc. (United States of America)

P.O. Box 942, 702 3rd Street, Huron SD 57350, United States of America

A& B Grains (Pty) Ltd. (Australia)

Johnston & Jeff Ltd. (United Kingdom)

63 High Street, Hull, HU1 1QP, United Kingdom.

tel: (+44) 1482 224893, fax: (+44) 1482 223618 [email protected]

OXADIS (France)

St. Quentin Fallavier, 38291 France

tel: (+33) 474821010

Natural Granen (Belgium)

Metropoolstraat 28-29, B2900 Schoten, Belgium.

tel: (+32) 3 6403550, fax: (+32) 3 6452016

Harvest Sun Seed & Grain Co. Ltd. (Canada)

12 Hawthorne Crescent, Regina, SK S4S4Y2, Canada.

Agri-Tel Grain Ltd. (Canada)

P.O.Box 808, Beausejour, Manitoba ROE OCO, Canada

Morrow Grain Co. Ltd. (Canada)

Suite 770-789 West Pender Street, Vancouver, BC V6C1H2, Canada.

tel: (+1) 604-688-2755,

fax: (+1) 604-688-1649.

AgrofÉ (Argentina)

Appendix 3
Genetic resources

Following is a list of institutions that hold germplasm accessions or have developed improved varieties. Note that this list, with one exception, includes only public or semi public-institutions.

Canary seed
Crop Development Centre
University of Saskatoon
51 Campus Drive
Canada S7N5AB
Faculty of Agricultutral Sciences
Pannon University of Agriculture
Vas utca 2
H9200 Mosonmagyarovar
Niger seed
All India Coordinated Research Project on Oilseeds
J.N. Krishni Vishwa Vidyalaya
482004 MP
Biodiversity Institute
P.O. Box 2003
Addis Ababa
Jawaharal Neru Agricultural University
Zonal Agricultutal Research Station
480001 MP
Mahatma Phule Krishi Vidyapeeth
Western Ghat Zonla Agricultural Research
Station Itapuri
422403 Maharashtra
National Bureau of Plant Genetic Resources
Regional Research Station
444 104 Maharashtra
Birsa Agricultural University
834 006 Ranchi
Western Regional Plant Introduction Station
Washington State University
56 Johnson Hall
Pullman, WA 99164-6402
United States of America
Central Plant Breeding and Biotechnology
P.O. Box 135
Sunflower seed
North Dakota State University
Foundation Seed Stocks
P.O. Box 5051
Fargo, North Dakota 58150
United States of America
tel: 701.231.8140
Proso millet
502324 Andhra Pradesh
Indian Council of Agricultural Research
Krishi Bhavan
110001 Delhi
tel: (+91) 11 3382534
fax: (+91) 11 3384773
Central Arid Zone Research Institute
Light Industrial Area near ITI
324003 Jodhpur
University of Queensland
R.J. Fletcher
Gatton College
Queensland 4343
University of Nebraska
Nebraska Millet Improvement Programme
Scottsbluff, Nebraska 69361-4939
United States of America
tel: (+1) 308-632-1261
fax: (+1) 308-632-1365
Cereal Breeding Research Darzau
Darzau Hof
29490 Neu Darchau
tel: (+49) 5853 1397
fax: (+49) 5853 1394
North Dakota State University
(contact information listed above)
Other millets
(contact information listed above)
University of Queensland
(contact information listed above)
North Dakota State University
(contact information same as above)
Instituto Nacional Autonomo de Investigaciones
Agropecuarias (INIAP)
Avenida Eloy Alfaro y Amazones s/n
[email protected]
Asociation Nacional de Productores de
Quinua (ANAPQUI)
La Paz
[email protected]
Insitute of Agricultural Research
Melkawerer Research Centre
P.O. Box 2003
Addis Ababa
Seedtec International
P.O. Box 2210
Woodland, California 95696
United States of America
tel: (+1) 916-666-7871
fax: (+1) 916-662-9125
Program de Oleaginosa (CIANO/SARH)
Calle Norman Borlaug km 12
Apdo Postal 515
Sonora State
Mexico 8500
Agri-Food Canada
Research Centre
P.O. Box 300
Main, Lethbridge
tel: (+1)403-327-4591 fax: (+1) 403-387-3156
Directorate of Oilseed Research
Indian Council for Agricultural Research (ICAR)
Hyderabad 500030 AP
tel & fax: (+91) 40245222
Montana State University
Eastern Agricultural Research Centre
1501 North Central
Sidney, MT 59270
United States of America
tel: (+1) 406-433-2208
fax: (+1) 406-433-7336
[email protected]
North Dakota State University
(contact information same as above)
Japanese millet
University of Queensland
(contact information listed above)

Appendix 4
Typical composition of some bird foods

Wild bird food

Simple mixtures

  • Black and striped sunflower seed.

  • Peanuts (whole, shelled)

Custom mixes

  • Finches mix: white millet (Proso), red millet (Dari), canary seed, rapeseed, linseed, oats, Niger seed.

  • Wild bird mix: wheat, flaked maize, canary seed, red millet (dari), white millet (proso), Niger seed, small black or striped sunflower, flaked rice, peanuts.

Caged bird food


  • Canary seed / white millet (50:50)


  • Parrot mix: small sunflower, large sunflower, white millet, safflower, flaked peas, peanuts.

  • Parrot mix extra: small sunflower, large sunflower, red millet, white millet, peanuts, wheat, sunflower hearts, pine nuts, hempseed, banana flakes, pineapple flakes, papaya flakes, coconut shreds, sultanas, apricots.

Appendix 5
Typical retail prices for selected bird food (ingredients)

Prices will typically vary depending on pack size. The ranges indicated below are for 1 kg (highest price) to 25 kg (lowest price) packages.

Typical retail prices for small grains sold for bird food


Small pack (1 kg) (US$)

Large pack (25 kg) (US$/Kg)




White millet






Peanuts (broken)



Black sunflower



Niger Seed



Canadian canary seed



Japanese millet





Spray Millet (500 g)


Striped sunflower



Egyptian white sunflower





Typical prices for bird food mixes

Type Typical content Average price (US$/kg)


canary seed/white millet



canary seed/rape/linseed/Nigerseed


Parrot standard

striped sunflower/peanuts


Parrot elite

striped sunflower/dried fruits and nuts



canary seed/small sunflower/millet/dari/buckwheat


Pigeon maintenance

tick beans/wheat/whole maize



millet/canary seed/small sunflower/dari/hemp seed/groats


Native finches

canary seed/linseed/rape seed


Typical prices for other ingredients used in bird food

Ingredient Price (US$/kg)

Banana chips


Papaya chunks


[25] Organic production means production without the use of artificial fertilizers and pesticides. Organic producers and organic production are subject to inspections by competent authorities.

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