Comité de Pesca
36 º período de sesiones, 8-12 de julio de 2024
Roma, Italia

Publicaciones clave

Código de Conducta para la Pesca Responsable

Desde la antigüedad, la pesca constituye para la humanidad una fuente importante de alimentos y proporciona empleo y beneficios económicos a quienes se dedican a esta actividad. Antes se consideraba que la riqueza de los recursos acuáticos fuese un don ilimitado de la naturaleza. Sin embargo, el desarrollo de los conocimientos y la evolución dinámica de las pesquerías, después de la segunda guerra mundial han hecho desvanecer este mito para constatar que los recursos acuáticos, aun siendo renovables, son limitados y tienen que someterse a una ordenación adecuada si se quiere que su contribución al bienestar nutricional, económico y social de la creciente población mundial sea sostenible. La introducción generalizada de las zonas económicas exclusivas (ZEE), a mediados de los años setenta, y la adopción, tras largas deliberaciones, de la Convención de las Naciones Unidas sobre el Derecho del Mar, en 1982, ofrecieron un nuevo marco para una mejor ordenación de los recursos marinos. El nuevo régimen jurídico del océano reguló los derechos y responsabilidades de los Estados ribereños en materia de ordenación y aprovechamiento de los recursos pesqueros dentro de sus ZEE, abarcando alrededor del 90 por ciento de la pesca marítima mundial.

Aplicación del Código de Conducta para la Pesca responsable - Tendencias en los últimos 25 años

La pesca y la acuicultura constituyen una fuente vital de alimentos, empleo, comercio y bienestar económico para las poblaciones de todo el mundo, para las generaciones presentes y futuras y, por lo tanto, debería llevarse a cabo de forma responsable. En el Código de Conducta para la Pesca Responsable (el Código) se establecen los principios y normas internacionales para la adopción de prácticas responsables en pro de la explotación y la producción sostenibles de los recursos acuáticos vivos prestando debida atención a la conservación de los ecosistemas y la biodiversidad y reconociendo la importancia nutricional, económica, social, ambiental y cultural de la pesca. Transcurridos 25 años desde su aprobación, el Código mantiene hoy la misma pertinencia que en 1995. El presente folleto permite hacerse una idea de los objetivos del Código y el marco de instrumentos y directrices que se han ido incorporando en él en los últimos 25 años para favorecer la aplicación de sus amplias disposiciones. También expone algunas de las tendencias que cabe observar a partir de la información sobre su aplicación presentada por Miembros de la FAO.

El estado mundial de la pesca y la acuicultura 2022

Hacia la transformación azul - La edición de 2022 de El estado mundial de la pesca y la acuicultura coincide con el lanzamiento del Decenio de acción para cumplir los objetivos mundiales, el Decenio de las Naciones Unidas de las Ciencias Oceánicas para el Desarrollo Sostenible y el Decenio de las Naciones Unidas sobre la Restauración de los Ecosistemas. En la publicación se muestra la manera en que esta iniciativas, así como otras iniciativas de las Naciones Unidas de igual importancia, como el Año Internacional de la Pesca y la Acuicultura Artesanales 2022, se están incorporando y respaldando mediante la transformación azul, esfera prioritaria del nuevo Marco estratégico de la FAO para 2022-2031 concebida para acelerar la consecución de la Agenda 2030 para el Desarrollo Sostenible en el ámbito de la alimentación y la agricultura.

FAO and marine biological diversity beyond national jurisdiction (BBNJ) process

FAO is actively engaged in areas beyond national jurisdiction (ABNJ) through projects and initiatives for which it provides assistance to Member Nations and relevant international organizations. This document presents information on the work of FAO that is relevant to the BBNJ process, including ongoing processes and initiatives, and lessons learned, which may be informative and useful for BBNJ Delegates and others. This information may also be a useful indication of areas where FAO may assist Member Nations in the implementation of the future international legally binding instrument (ILBI).

Transbordos: un estudio detallado

El Estudio detallado sobre transbordos surgió como respuesta a la preocupación constante del COFI y la comunidad internacional con respecto a los riesgos que plantean los transbordos en cuanto a que el pescado obtenido a través de la pesca INDNR pueda ser introducido en la cadena de comercialización. Este folleto presenta los rasgos clave del estudio, incluido el enfoque adoptado y las conclusiones principales.

Transshipment: a closer look

An in-depth study in support of the development of international guidelines - Transshipment is a widespread practice in marine capture fisheries, that has recently been associated with a possible risk of introducing catches derived from illegal, unreported and unregulated (IUU) fishing into the supply chain. This in-depth study was carried out in order to shed more light on the practice and make recommendations to inform future discussions on the development of international guidelines for the regulation, monitoring and control of transshipment. The report presents a background to the study, its approach and methodology, the key findings including possible elements of the guidelines, and discusses the main issues from the perspective of the risk of transshipment in supporting IUU fishing.

Understanding and implementing catch documentation schemes

A guide for national authorities - The document contains chapters on the legal and policy background to CDS, an introduction to the features and requirements of existing schemes, as well as guidance on how to handle CDS information requirements and identify national key data elements. Finally, it provides a series of exercises for assessing relevant national capabilities and coordination processes, including the management and exchange of information.

Key successes Common Oceans ABNJ Program 2014-2019 - To contribute to meet these goals, the Common Oceans ABNJ Program brought together global stakeholders and partners to promote the sustainable use of fisheries and the protection of marine biodiversity in the ABNJ. The Program, funded by the Global Environment Facility (GEF) and led by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), involved the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) and the World Bank Group (WBG), as well as Regional Fisheries Management Organizations (RFMOs) and other intergovernmental organizations, national governments, the private sector, civil society and academia. This report presents the results obtained by the Common Oceans ABNJ Program between 2014-2019. It highlights the value, importance and benefits of sustainably managing fisheries and biodiversity conservation in the ABNJ, and how the collateral impact of fishing is less harmful to the marine environment now than when the program started out in 2014.

While diversified aquaculture could reduce both biological and financial risks, the private sector may lack incentives to diversify the species composition of aquaculture production because developing or adopting new species tends to be costly and risky. Conversely, concentrating on the most efficient species can benefit from economies of scale in both production and marketing. With ever-growing concerns over climate change, disease outbreaks, market fluctuations and other uncertainties, species diversification has become an increasingly prominent strategy for sustainable aquaculture development. Policy and planning on species diversification require a holistic, sector-wide perspective to assess the overall prospect of individually promising species that may not be entirely successful when competing for limited resources and markets. The historical experiences of species diversification in global aquaculture can provide guidance for the assessment. This paper develops a benchmarking system to examine species diversification patterns in around 200 countries for three decades to generate information and insights in support of evidence-based policy and planning in aquaculture development. The system uses “effective number of species” (ENS) as a diversity measure that is essentially equivalent to, yet more intuitive than, the widely used Shannon Index. A statistical model is established to estimate a benchmark ENS for each country and construct a benchmarking species diversification index (BSDI) to compare a country’s species diversification with global experiences. Key results are presented and discussed in the main text; and more comprehensive results are documented in Appendix II. The benchmarking system can be used in foresight analyses to help design or refine future production targets (including species composition) in policy and planning for aquaculture development; an example is provided in Appendix I to help practitioners better understand and utilize the system.

El presente plan de acción mundial para la conservación, la utilización sostenible y el desarrollo de los recursos genéticos acuáticos para la alimentación y la agricultura (PAM) fue elaborado por la FAO a petición de los miembros de la Comisión de Recursos Genéticos para la Alimentación y la Agricultura en respuesta a las necesidades y los desafíos identificados en la primera evaluación mundial del estado de los recursos genéticos acuáticos para la alimentación y la agricultura (RGA). Se elaboró tras una amplia consulta con las regiones y la aprobación de la Comisión, fue adoptado formalmente por los miembros de la FAO en el 168º período de sesiones del Consejo de la FAO. El PAM es voluntario y no vinculante y tiene como objetivo promover la gestión de los RGA garantizando que contribuya de forma significativa a la seguridad alimentaria y al desarrollo sostenible, así como a la mitigación de la pobreza, y está dirigido a todas las partes interesadas en la acuicultura, con especial atención a los gestores de recursos y a las autoridades políticas. El PAM consta de dos partes: la primera introduce y establece el contexto de la importancia de los RGA para la acuicultura sostenible y la futura seguridad alimentaria. La segunda parte identifica las prioridades estratégicas y recomienda acciones en cuatro áreas prioritarias: i) caracterización, inventario y seguimiento; ii) conservación y uso sostenible; iii) desarrollo dos RGA para la acuicultura; y iv) políticas, instituciones, creación de capacidades y cooperación.

This brief presents an overview of the inland capture fisheries sector in the Southern African Development Community (SADC), describes historical and current trends, highlights management successes and failures, identifies common constraints and opportunities, and provides recommendations to ensure that the full potential of the sector is realised. Inland capture fisheries in the SADC region are estimated to support over a million people and contribute significantly to food and nutrition security, employment, livelihoods, and human welfare. They also provide a range of important socio-cultural and ecosystem services that contribute directly to the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). These benefits are particularly important in a region that faces a number of dire socioeconomic challenges including extreme poverty, acute malnutrition, and a lack of alternative livelihoods.

The impact of COVID-19 on fisheries and aquaculture food systems, possible responses

The purpose of this information paper is to update information on the COVID-19 pandemic’s impact on the fisheries and aquaculture sector and the measures taken, to inform on the ongoing impact on the fisheries and aquaculture food systems, and responses from seafood providers and governments to counteract the negative impacts on seafood chains.

See the full list of policy briefs related to COVID-19.

CITES and the sea - Trade in commercially exploited CITES-listed marine species

Fish and fish products are amongst the most highly traded food items in the world today, with most of the world’s countries reporting some fish trade. This assessment of commercial trade in CITES-listed marine species occurs within a broader context of globalization and a more general rapid expansion of the international trade in fish and fish products. It summarizes ten years (2007–2016) of trade in a subset of commercially exploited marine taxa listed in CITES Appendix II. We examine both CITES trade data reporting processes (including information on the practical elements of reporting by CITES Parties) and analyse CITES trade records. The analysis shows how, for Appendix II CITES-listed marine species, the overall number of direct export transactions reported by CITES Parties has increased sevenfold during 1990–2016 and how trade for each CITES-listed marine species sub-group has changed through time. An assessment is made, with assistance from species and trade experts, on the strengths and challenges of collating and reporting on trade in CITES-listed marine species. Additional datasets of relevance to marine species trade are highlighted, and recommendations for further refining and improving CITES trade reporting for marine species are provided.

The State of Mediterranean and Black Sea Fisheries 2020

This third edition of the State of Mediterranean and Black Sea Fisheries provides a comprehensive overview of the status of fisheries in the region, looking at their main features and trends, in order to better inform their management and better examine current and future challenges that they will face in the near future. The aim of this report is to produce a document that could provide useful analysis and direction for decision-making and future action. In this respect, this publication also represents a convenient source of information for the FAO Committee on Fisheries and offers a practical complement to the data provided in the State of World Fisheries and Aquaculture published by the FAO Fisheries and Aquaculture Department. This volume includes seven chapters divided into two sections: a first part on the status and trends of different aspects of Mediterranean and Black Sea fisheries, including fleet, catches, socio-economic variables and bycatch, and a second part that focuses on the management of Mediterranean and Black Sea fisheries, including an overview on small-scale fisheries. This report is based to a large extent on the most up-to-date data available submitted by GFCM contracting and cooperating non-contracting parties, including information on stock status, national catches, fleet and socio-economic information up to 2018. It is also complemented with information from other sources.

Impacts of climate change on fisheries and aquaculture

The 2015 Paris Climate Agreement recognizes the need for effective and progressive responses to the urgent threat of climate change, through mitigation and adaptation measures, while taking into account the particular vulnerabilities of food production systems. The inclusion of adaptation measures in the fisheries and aquaculture sector is currently hampered by a widespread lack of targeted analyses of the sector’s vulnerabilities to climate change and associated risks, as well as the opportunities and responses available. This report provides the most up-to-date information on the disaggregated impacts of climate change for marine and inland fisheries, and aquaculture, in the context of poverty alleviation and the differential dependency of countries on fish and fishery resources. The work is based on model projections, data analyses, as well as national, regional and basin-scale expert assessments. The results indicate that climate change will lead to significant changes in the availability and trade of fish products, with potentially important geopolitical and economic consequences, especially for those countries most dependent on the sector.

Directrices voluntarias para lograr la sostenibilidad de la pesca en pequeña escala en el contexto de la seguridad alimentaria y la erradicación de la pobreza

Las presentes Directrices voluntarias para lograr la sostenibilidad de la pesca en pequeña escala en el contexto de la seguridad alimentaria y la erradicación de la pobreza se han elaborado como complemento del Código de Conducta de la FAO para la Pesca Responsable (en adelante, el Código) de 1995. Se formularon a fin de proporcionar orientación complementaria respecto de la pesca en pequeña escala en apoyo de los principios y disposiciones generales del Código. En consecuencia, las Directrices tienen por objeto respaldar la visibilidad, el reconocimiento y el fomento del ya importante papel de la pesca en pequeña escala y contribuir a las iniciativas mundiales y de los países para erradicar el hambre y la pobreza. Las Directrices apoyan la pesca responsable y el desarrollo social y económico sostenible en beneficio de las generaciones presentes y futuras, con especial hincapié en los pescadores y trabajadores de la pesca en pequeña escala y actividades conexas y en particular las pers onas vulnerables y marginadas, y promueven un enfoque basado en los derechos humanos.