Département de l’Agriculture
Sante Animale
Strategies et Polítiques
Systeme d’exploitation agricole
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Evaluation de l'impacte

From the first phase of prevention through to response, social and economic dimensions need to be taken into account when planning and executing a comprehensive HPAI control programme in a country or region. Decisions made at each stage of control have the potential to affect livelihoods from the poorest to the richest members of society and to have an impact on the long-term sustainability of the poultry sector.

This impact assessment section covers:

  • Reports on livelihoods and equity impacts, particularly for small scale producers and those dependent on the poultry sector.
  • Analysis of food security and nutrition impacts
  • Advice on approaches to rehabilitation.
  • Analysis of impacts of possible changes in the structure of the sector

(November 2008)
The paper reviews existing literature on the impacts of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) and control responses on the livestock sector and associated industries in developing countries. The authors distinguish between impacts that arise directly through HPAI-related morbidity and mortality, those that are a consequence of public intervention to control or eradicate HPAI, and impacts that are mediated through market reactions. Their discussion concludes with an outline of directions for future research that combine epidemiology and economics to provide a framework for disease control decision-making.

Authors: J. Otte, J. Hinrichs and J. Rushton (FAO); D. Roland-Holst and D. Zilberman (University of California Berkeley).

Originally published in CAB Reviews: Perspectives in Agriculture, Veterinary Science, Nutrition and Natural Resources, 2008, 3, No. 080
(September 2005)
Arguing that an important aspect of the epidemiology of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) is detailed understanding of the economics and social impact of the disease and its control, the authors present information on these aspects based on studies of the poultry sectors, veterinary services and potential strategies for HPAI in Cambodia, Indonesia, Lao PDR, Thailand and Viet Nam.

Authors: J. Rushton and R. Viscarra (CEVEP, Bolivia); E. Guerne Bleich and A. McLeod (FAO)

Originally published in World’s Poultry Science Journal, Vol. 61, September 2005
Estimates of global HPAI loss from the outbreaks since 2003 run into billions. The cost of the 1997 outbreak in Hong Kong, it is suggested, may have been US$ 100s of millions including knock on effects, but the very strict control measures applied may have prevented large scale human infection. In spite of this, the global poultry sector is dynamic and resilient. Global production and trade have shown the potential to recover quickly from severe outbreaks that until recently were confined mainly to East and South East Asia. Why, then, is this disease the focus of so much attention, when other major transboundary animal diseases (classical swine fever, even foot and mouth disease) and other important diseases of poultry (Newcastle disease) cause much less interest?
A project proposal by FAO, Royal Veterinary College and the Rural Development Research Consortium
Highly pathogenic Avian influenza (HPAI) associated with the H5N1 virus strain first occurred in Vietnam and Thailand in late 2003, causing severe mortality in affected flocks. The disease has recurred in 2004 and 2005, and is now considered endemic to the region. Given that the virus has crossed the species barrier between poultry and humans and caused human fatalities, concerted efforts are being mustered by national governments and international agencies to control the spread of the disease through a variety of measures, which may also include the need for a ' restructuring' of the poultry industry eliminating smallholder backyard producers.
Summary of project results and outcomes
This regional TCP covered Cambodia, Indonesia, Lao PDR, Thailand and Viet Nam. Its main objective was to assist the countries to prepare for a post-avian influenza rehabilitation programme, although the real challenge has become that of preparing a strategy for poultry production that takes into account avian influenza in the short to medium term. The project became operational in April 2004. The main activities were socio-economic impact studies in the countries to identify the effect on poultry producers, especially those most affected and vulnerable, and to describe the major poultry production systems as well as to formulate recommendations for both short-term recovery and longer-term rehabilitation.
A broad array of HPAI control measures are being considered for the poultry sector in Viet Nam. Because the poor are highly represented in this country's poultry production, any national strategy for intervention in this sector needs to take careful account of their welfare. This short paper notes that income from poultry production has an important equity effect in the Vietnamese economy, as this source is much more equally distributed than total income.
Poultry Sector Rehabilitation Project - Phase I
A report prepared for the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations by Agrifood Consulting International. This report is a final report for the the impact of avian influenza on the poultry sector under the Poultry Sector Rehabilitation Project. The report presents a socio-economic impact study on the effects of avian flu on the poultry sector in Vietnam. The fieldwork for the report was carried out over one month in December 2005. The report involved the analysis of background data, field trips and key informant interviews with people involved in all sectors of the poultry industry.
Social and Economic Impacts of Avian Influenza Control (FAO Workshop, Bangkok, December 2004)
(prepared for Committee on World Food Security, 32nd Session, Rome, 30 October - 4 November 2006)