Biodiversidad

Publications

This paper introduces a Special Issue of Forest Ecology and Management that includes a collection of analytical results from the 2015 Global Forest Resources Assessment (FRA 2015) covering 25 years of forest change (1990–2015). FRA 2015 builds on a series of global assessments that began in 1948 and covers change in forest area and type, volume, biomass and carbon stocking, measures of sustainable forest management, biodiversity and conservation, soil and water protective functions, wood product ion and a number of socio-economic variables. It covers 234 countries and territories with an emphasis on forest resource change over a twenty-five year period (1990–2015) and also looks forward to anticipated forest change – both as government targets for forest area and projected change (to 2030) to global production and conservation forest area (to the year 2050).

FAO-CIRAD toolbox Central Africa (2017)

Forests cover nearly one-third of the world’s land area. They provide vital environmental services such as soil and water protection, regulate the climate and preserve biodiversity, produce valuable raw materials and food, and sustain the livelihoods of millions of people

Forest genetic resources refers to the heritable materials maintained within and among tree and other woody plant species that are of actual or potential economic, environmental, scientific or societal value (FAO, 2014b). As mentioned in the Millenium Ecosystem Assessment (MEA), forests are home to the vast majority of the Earth’s terrestrial biodiversity (MEA, 2005), and trees are the keystone species of forest ecosystems. Forest trees differ from other plant species in their capacity to maintain high levels of genetic diversity within populations rather than among populations (Hamrick, 2004). This results from their outcrossed mating system, extensive gene flow and large population sizes (Petit and Hampe, 2006). Forest trees and other woody plant species provide wood, fibre, fuel and many non-wood forest products. They also contribute to a broad range of ecosystem services and fulfil environmental functions. According to Botanic Gardens Conservation International (BGCI), there are approximately 60 000 tree species (BGCI, 2017), but only very few have been studied in any depth for their present and future potential. Globally, around 2 400 species of trees, shrubs, palms and bamboo are actively managed for products and/or services, and approximately 700 tree species are subject to tree improvement programmes (FAO, 2014b).

Forest genetic resources (FGR) are the heritable materials maintained within and among tree and other woody plant species that are of actual or potential economic, environmental, scientific or societal value. They are crucial to the adaptation and protection of our ecosystems, landscapes and production systems, yet are subject to increasing pressures and unsustainable use.