Cambio climático


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Climate change in the highlands is manifested mainly through extreme events such as prolonged drought periods, short periods of heavy rain, and extreme cold during winter. To cope with these phenomena, some Andean populations make use of ichu grass. This native grass is part of the natural land cover, whose tender shoots are eaten by animals. Because of its  cylindrical hard and smooth stem, which is also waterproof, it is used to build the roofs of houses. During the day it is heated by the sun and increases room temperature, while in the afternoons and evenings, it maintains a comfortable temperature inside the protected spaces. It also plays important roles for the territory, mitigating the kinetic of rain on the soil, as well as contributing to soil fertility and carbon sequestration. 

Increasingly unpredictable weather conditions are adding stress on water availability for rural populations living in the Peruvian Andes. The building of small reservoirs close to scarce water sources allows rural communities to have a steady and reliable source of clean water throughout the year. Water provision is used not only for hygienic services, but more importantly for agricultural production critical to sustain the community's livelihoods throughout the year. In addition, water reservoirs may be used to grow trout and carp, thereby providing important nutrients to the diets of the community and diversifying risks and income opportunities. 

Changes in precipitation patterns caused by climate change in the Peruvian Andes jeopardize downstream water provision and cause landslides and erosion. The project aimed at recovering the vegetative cover of the upper parts of mountain ecosystems through the promotion of agroforestry and reforestation practices, which constitute comprehensive climate change adaptation strategies to restore soil humidity, improve water infiltration in the soil and reduce erosion and the likelihoods of runoffs.

The guinea pig (known as cuy) is an ancient source of food for Andean cultures. It is rich in proteins as well as other valuable nutrients critical to healthy and balanced diets. Thus, the guinea pig is considered a strategic practice to adapt to the impacts of climate change by diversifying risks and contributing to the diet and to the family economy, while contributing to soil fertility. The joint program promoted this activity by building capacities of local communities in breeding, reproduction and sale of the guinea pig.

La seguridad alimentaria y la agricultura se enfrentan a grandes desafíos con el cambio climático, en términos de impactos negativos en la productividad e implementación de acciones sectoriales para limitar el calentamiento global.

Las emisiones de gases de efecto invernadero de la agricultura continúan  aumentando, aunque no tan rápido como las emisiones de otras actividades humanas. Tener mejor información a nivel nacional sobre las emisiones de la agricultura, ganadería, pesca y silvicultura, puede ayudar a los países a identificar oportunidades para reducirlas, al mismo tiempo que se persiguen objetivos de seguridad alimentaria, resiliencia y desarrollo rural y conseguir acceso a la financiación mundial para su implementación.

La nueva base de datos de FAOSTAT sobre las emisiones representa la base de conocimientos más completa sobre las emisiones de gases de efecto invernadero agrícolas que se haya reunido jamás. Actualizada anualmente, supone un punto de referencia mundial sobre las emisiones y las oportunidades de mitigación en el sector. Las emisiones se miden en CO2 equivalente (CO2 eq), una medida utilizada para comparar los diferentes gases de efecto invernadero.