9.3 World Calories - Total


1. Between the early 1960s and the late 1990s (35 years), in spite of a population increase of almost 84%, per caput supply of calories for human consumption rose by 21.3%; 30.5% those of animal origin; 19.7% those of vegetal origin. Today, an "average" man of the world consumes about 2 803 calories of food a day, or perhaps, it would be more appropriate to say that our man has a quantity of food equivalent to 2 803 calories available for consumption, However, the actual consumption is presumably lower, maybe 2 620 calories, the rest being left to feed domestic animals, or lost in the preparation and cooking, or just thrown away for various reasons before and after cooking. All these losses and waste are unrecorded losses and waste occurring in the households, estimated here to be 6.5 % of supply for the whole world; 12 % for developed countries and 5% for developing countries.

The 2 620 calories per caput per day would be sufficient to feed everyone adequately if only they were properly distributed and consumed.

2. Today, the distribution of calories by origin is quite well balanced: 10.5% come from proteins, 23% from fat and 66.5% from carbohydrates and alcohol, of which almost 76% from starch and almost 21% from sugar (mono and disaccharides). Some more starch and some less sugar would be better.

3. The contributions to the total of the five main food groups are as follows:

  • Cereals and derived products: 51.3% of all calories, 43.3% of calories from proteins, 67% of calories from carbohydrates and alcohol.

  • Oil crops, nuts and derived products: 10.8% of all calories and 41.8% of calories from fat.

  • Sugar crops and derived products: 8.4% of all calories and 12.6% of calories from carbohydrates and alcohol.

  • Meat and derived products: 8.7% of all calories, 20.4% of calories from proteins, 28.9% of calories from fat.

  • Roots and tubers and derived products: 5.5% of all calories and 7.8% of calories from carbohydrates and alcohol.

4. From the 1960s to the 1990s, contributions of various food groups to the total supply of calories changed as follows:

  • Cereals -1.7%, oil crops +52%, sugar -3.4%
  • Meat +28%, roots and tubers -31%, milk -21%
  • Pulses - 47%, fruits and vegetables +10.2%, eggs and fish +37.2%

5. In the 1990s, composition of fatty acids was as follows: 36% saturated, 38% monounsaturated and 26% polyunsaturated. The share of saturated is now 9% lower than in the 1960s; the share of the other two, 5 - 7% higher.

In fact, aggregate consumption of groundnut oil, soybean oil, sunflower seed oil and rapeseed oil went up 6.5 times from 3.44 to 22.48 million metric tons, while aggregate consumption of palm and palm kernel oil and coconut oil were up 5.8 times, from 1.78 to 10.32 million metric tons.