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抗菌素耐药性

抗菌素耐药性是对全球人类和动物健康的主要威胁,且越来越令人担忧。它还影响食品安全、粮食安全,以及数百万农户的经济福利。

食品在抗菌素耐药性的发展和传播中起着重要的作用。存在于农业生产系统和食物链中的抗菌素耐药性微生物是每个人潜在的暴露途径。农业生产中良好的卫生操作,是实现食品安全的基础,也是解决抗菌素耐药性的关键。

食品法典在抗菌素耐药性中的作用

食品中的微生物(细菌、寄生虫、病毒和真菌)是潜在的食品安全危害。在食品动物中使用抗菌素(可杀死微生物或阻止其生长的药剂)与食物链中耐药性微生物的出现之间的关系是一个令人关切的问题,已成为众多国家和国际磋商的主题。

在食品动物(包括水产养殖)、园艺或人类中使用抗菌药,对人类抗菌素耐药性微生物的影响,不同的微生物和不同的地区其程度不同。

当人类摄入食品中的抗菌素耐药性微生物时,某些种类的微生物可能会致病。这些和其他种类的微生物还可能成为其他微生物(包括人类病原体)的可转移抗性决定因素的来源。

在认识到需要更广泛和多学科的应对措施来应对抗菌素耐药性的情况下,2006年,食典委成立了第一个抗菌素耐药性工作组,以制定以下方面的科学指导:如何评估和管理食品和饲料(包括水产养殖)中存在以及通过食品和饲料传播的耐药微生物对人类健康造成的风险。为了应对全球越来越关注抗菌素耐药性对公共卫生的严重威胁,最近成立了第二个工作组,将会制定科学指导,以便协调一致地管理全食物链的抗菌素耐药性。

关于兽药及其残留物、食品卫生、动物饲料的其他食品法典文本,通过在食物链中防止抗菌素耐药性的发展和尽量减少抗菌素耐药性的传播,也有助于解决抗菌素耐药性。

相关食典文本

索引 标题 委員 最新修订
EN
FR
ES
AR
ZH
RU
CXC 61-2005尽量减少和控制抗菌素耐药性的操作规范TFAMR2021
CXG 77-2011食源性抗菌素耐药性风险分析指南 TFAMR2021
CXG 94-2021Guidelines on integrated monitoring and surveillance of foodborne antimicrobial resistance TFAMR2021

新闻

A decisive moment for Codex and AMR

Speaking on 29 September 2021 at the opening of an FAO/OIE/WHO webinar entitled “One Health Approach to AMR Mitigation and Safer Food in the Asia-Pacific Region”, Codex Secretary Tom Heilandt said the tripartite One Health approach to mitigation of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) and safer food was “the only approach that promises success”. In highlighting the decisive moment for Codex and AMR he encouraged Codex Members to ramp up their efforts to complete the work of the AMR taskforce – due to begin [...]
29 September 2021

UN Volkan Bozkir / lack of awareness about silent AMR pandemic

Volkan Bozkir, President of the 75th Session of the United Nations General Assembly opened a High-level Interactive Dialogue on Antimicrobial Resistance (AMR) on Thursday 29 April 2021 in New York. “We ignore AMR at our peril,” he said recalling how the overuse and misuse of antimicrobials in humans, animals and agriculture has driven up resistance in the micro-organisms these medicines are meant to fight. Lack of regulation, the use of antibiotics as growth promoters in animals, over-the-counter and internet sales have given [...]
30 April 2021

Webinar to provide update on new AMR Code of Practice

On 8 April Codex Members and Observers are invited to a webinar highlighting the progress made in revising the Codex Code of Practice to Minimize and Contain Foodborne AMR. There have been many developments in the area of antimicrobial resistance since the text was originally published in 2005 and following the adoption of the Global Action Plan on AMR by the World Health Assembly, Codex Members agreed it was time to revise the Code of Practice and established the Task Force [...]
07 April 2021

Collaboration key to success with surveillance and monitoring on antimicrobial resistance

More than 500 participants gathered online on Tuesday 16 March 2021 to learn about the tools and resources that FAO and WHO make available to support countries in establishing and implementing their surveillance and monitoring systems on antimicrobial resistance (AMR). In the words of one participant, “it was so helpful to have everything laid out so clearly. Three different organizations, who does what, that was really well done”. Presentations from the Codex parent organizations and the World Organisation for Animal Health [...]
18 March 2021

Online webinar seeks to build consensus around antimicrobial text under development

Close to 200 participants gathered online on 19 January 2021 for the first of two webinars aimed at building understanding on a Codex text currently being drafted in the Codex antimicrobial resistance task force (TFAMR). The text in question is the Guidelines on Integrated Monitoring and Surveillance of Foodborne Antimicrobial Resistance which is being developed to assist governments when they design and implement their own AMR surveillance programmes. Typically, this type of programme will involve collecting and analyzing data from [...]
20 January 2021

Codex webinar series to discuss critical text on antimicrobial resistance

A webinar to discuss key issues on a Codex text regarding antimicrobial resistance (AMR), currently being drafted, will take place online on 19 and 20 January 2021. Working groups are established by Codex committees, usually to develop draft texts between sessions and traditionally operate by correspondence through online platforms such as forums and commenting systems. The suspension of formal physical committee meetings and the need to advance work, combined with experience and familiarity gained by many in participating in virtual events [...]
10 January 2021
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关键事实

  • 每年大约有500 000人的死亡与抗菌素耐药性相关
  • 在动物中使用了27类不同的抗菌素。
  • 2011年全球动物卫生市场总值相当于220亿美元(经合组织)
  • 只有42个国家拥有家畜抗菌素使用情况的数据收集系统(世界动卫组织)
  • 尚没有关于全球家畜使用抗菌药物情况的标准化数据

Source FAO

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