||Responsible use of antibiotics in aquaculture|
| English||Antibiotics are drugs of natural or synthetic origin that have the capacity to kill or to
inhibit the growth of micro-organisms. Antibiotics that are sufficiently non-toxic to
the host are used as chemotherapeutic agents in the treatment of infectious diseases of
humans, animals and plants. They have long been present in the environment and have
played a crucial role in the battle between man and microbe.
Many bacterial species multiply rapidly enough to double their numbers every
20-30 minutes, so their ability to adapt to changes in the environment and survive
unfavourable conditions often results in the development of mutations that enable the
species to survive changing external conditions.
Another factor contributing to their adaptability is that individual cells do not rely on
their own genetic resources. Many, if not all, have access to a large pool of itinerant genes
that move from one bacteria cell to another and spread through bacterial populations
through a variety of mobile genetic elements, of which plasmids and transposable
elements are two examples. The capacity of bacteria to adapt to changes in their
environment and thus survive is called resistance.
Drug choices for the treatment of common infectious diseases are becoming
increasingly limited and expensive and, in some cases, unavailable due to the emergence
of drug resistance in bacteria and fungi â¿¿ resistance that is threatening to reverse much
medical progress of the past 50 years.
Dissemination of resistant micro-organisms may occur in both hospitals and
communities. It is recognized that a major route of transmission of resistant microorganisms
from animals to humans is through the food chain.
In aquaculture, antibiotics have been used mainly for therapeutic purposes and as
prophylactic agents. The contribution to antimicrobial resistance of antibiotics used in
aquaculture is reviewed here, using a risk analysis framework. Some recommendations
on responsible conduct in this context are proposed, aimed at diminishing the threat of
build up of antimicrobial resistance.|
|Author(s)||Hernández Serrano, P.|
|Type of publication||Book
|Bibliographical reference||Hernández Serrano, P.
Responsible use of antibiotics in aquaculture.
FAO Fisheries Technical Paper. No. 469. Rome, FAO. 2005. 97p.|
|Series title||FAO Fisheries Technical Paper
Antibiotics, Medicated feeds