Table 13b. Some nutritional interests, deficiencies and processing restrictions in selected raw materials.
Ingredients % Max.{Min.} Main nutritional interests Main nutritional deficiencies Processing restrictions
Various plant proteins   Alternate protein source Low palatability, antinutritional factors, low HUFA20, 17low lysine & methionine Fibre content sometimes high
Fishmeal (e.g. Menhaden) 16{6}–40 Protein, HUFA Possibly low phenylalanine, Freshness important, milling difficult
arginine, histidine, and lysine4
Herring fishmeal6 As above As above As above As above
Anchovy fishmeal6 As above As above As above As above
Peruvian fishmeal8 As above As above As above As above
Squid meal8,10 1–3 Protein, HUFA   High cost
Shrimp meal8,10 1–10 Protein   High cost
Shrimp head meal8,10 3–15 HUFA, chitin   High fibre content
Cottonseed meal <914   High fibre, Lysine4 <1 100 ppm of free gossypol4
Canola meal (rapeseed, Brassica napus, B. campestris)9        High fibre content
Soybean meal8,13 6218,3015, 45.516 High lysine1 Low methionine1 High fibre content2
Soybean meal Ditto Ditto Ditto Ditto
Pea meal8 42.3      
Lupin (Lupinus angustifolius)7 25 High arginine Low methionine Variable antinutritional content between cultivars
Corn gluten meal 1 013   Low arginine, lysine12  
Wheat flour8 35 Binding properties; Rich in methionine1,19 Low methionine, arginine, tyrosine, threonine19, lysine1 Cost
Wheat gluten 5 Binder   Cost
Rice bran (deoiled)8       High fibre content2
Soybean lecithin crude (liquid)10,11 1–2.0 higher growth rate & better nutrient digestibility3    
Soybean lecithin (deoiled powder)10,11 0.5–1.0    
Cholestrol10 >0.1     Expensive, high melting
crystalline amino acids No   Very low rate of incorporation5  
1Fox et al., 2006 (but still low relative to fishmeal (Watanabe, 2002)).
2Hertrampf, 2006
3Kumaraguru Vasagam, Ramesh and Balasubramanian, 2006
4Lovell, 2002
5Deshimaru, 1982
6NRC and NetLibrary, Inc., 1993
7Smith, Tabrett, and Glencross, 2007
8Bautista–Teruel, Eusebio and Welsh, 2003
9Suárez et al., 2009
10Hunter and Chamberlain, 2006
11Hertrampf, 1991
12Ahamad Ali, Syama Dayal and Ambasankar (2004)
13FAO, 1997
14Baldwin, 1986
15Sara, Gous and Bureau, 2009 (Fenneropenaeus indicus)
16Suárez et al., 2009 (Litopenaeus vannamei)
17Watanabe, 2002
18Biswas et al., 2007
19Slattery and Palmer, 2008
20HUFA = highly unsaturated fatty acids.