Table 6. Binders, attractants and preservatives for shrimp feeds
Binders Amount to use (%) Nutritive value Relative cost Relative effective– ness Cost relative to wheat glutenc,e
Guar gum 0.5–17; 1–36 No Expensive Good  
Lignon sulfonate 0.5–17; 23, 0.5–1.251,   2–46 No Inexpensive Poor 0.06
Carboxymethylcellulose 2–66 No Expensive Fair  
Hemicellulose 2–36 No Moderate Poor  
Bentonite 2–35,6 No Inexpensive Poor  
Alginate 2–36 No Expensive Good  
Agar 2–36 No Expensive Good  
Carrageenan 0,2–17, 0.53, 0.5–16 No Expensive Good 0.62
Wheat gluten 3–77, 13, 3–55, 43, 3–56 Yes Moderate Good 1
High gluten wheat flour6 20 Yes Moderate Good  
Collagen 0.5–36 Yes Moderate Good  
Processed milo 3–56 Yes Moderate Fair 0.21
Cooked starch > 206 Yes Inexpensive Fair  
Various starch sources > 205 Yes Inexpensive Fair – Good  
Urea formaldehyde 0.3–0.57; 0.5–15, 13 No Inexpensive Very good 0.28
Gelatin–based Pro–Bind Plusb 0.5–12 Yes Moderate Fair  
Aquabind: Ethylene/vinyl acetate copolymer 43, 0.3-0.74, 2–45 No Expensive Good 1.93
PVA (polyvinyl alcohol)5 2 No Expensive Good  
Locust bean gum 0.5–17 No      
Attractants 
Crustacean meals (e.g. shrimp waste meal) 3–59 Yes      
Krill 3–5, 58 Yes      
Fish hydrolysates 2–59 Yes      
Fish solubles 2–59 Yes      
Squid liver powder 1–39 Yes      
Squid liver meal 1–39 Yes      
Preservatives 
Synthetic antioxidants    No      
Butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) 0.02 % of fats12; 0.05%10 No      
Ethoxyquin 150 mg/kg12. 0.02%11        
Mould inhibitors   No      
Calcium propionate, propionic acid ("Mycocurb") 0.0614–0.075 %13        
1http://www.uniscope–inc.com/product_detail.htm (accessed March 2009)
2De Muylder, Hage and van der Velden (2008)
3Dominy and Lim (1991)
4http://www.aqua–in–tech.com/aquabind.htm (accessed March 2009)
5Lim and Cuzon (1994)
6Lovell (1989)
7Hunter and Chamberlain (2006)
8Smith et al. (2005)
9Hunter and Chamberlain (2006)
10Bautista–Teruel and Subosa (1999)
11Smith, Tabrett and Glencross (2007)
12NRC and NetLibrary, Inc. (1993)
13FAO (1992b)
14Evans (2009)