Table 8. Recommended and commercial dietary vitamin levels (Penaeus monodon)
Species   Shrimp Shrimp P. Monodon P. monodon
Vitamin Unit used per kg of feed Akiyama, Dominy and Lawrence (1991) CIBA (2002) Rotosquare Enterprises Ltd, (Taiwan)a (2009) Lee and Shiau (2004)
Thiamine (B1) mg/kg 50 15–30 26 14
Riboflavin (B2) mg/kg 40 15–60 50 22.5
Pyridoxine (B6) mg/kg 50 60–120 32 40.5
Pantothenic acid (B5) mg/kg 75 60–120 52 139
Niacin (B3) mg/kg 200 60–120 140 7.2
Biotin mg/kg 1 0.05–0.5 0.6 2.4
Inositol mg/kg 300 1 000–2 000 200 2 700
Choline chloride mg/kg 400 600–800 0 6 200
Folic acid mg/kg 10 6–10 9 2.1
Cyanocobalamin (B12) mg/kg 0.1 0.01–0.02 0.056 0.2
Ascorbic acide mg/kg 100 8 000–10 000 100 40
Retinol acetate, Vitamin Ac IU/kg 10 000 3 000–5 000 7 000 57 416
Vitamin D3 (calciferol)b IU/kg 5 000 2 000–2 400 3 500 3 996
Vitamin Ed mg/kg 300 30–40 160 270
Vitamin K mg/kg 5 4–6 6.6 40
PABA (Para–aminobenzoic acid) mg/kg 0 0 10 270
aAt 2 kg/tonne inclusion of premix (range advised, 1 to 2.5 g/tonne of feed). (Rotosquare Enterprises Ltd. 2009. S. M. Lu (President). 2F No.11–6, Alley 5, Lane 125, Yang Der Ave. Sec.3 Taipei 11149, Taiwan).
bOne mg cholecalciferol equals 40 x 103 I.U. vitamin D3 (Wouters et al., 2001).
cOne mg equals 3.3 x 103 I.U. vitamin A (acetate) or 1.6 x 103 I.U. vitamin A palmitate. (Wouters et al., 2001).
dOne mg equals 1 I.U. vitamin E (acetate).
eL–ascorbyl–2–monophosphate–Mg.
CIBA = Central Institute of Brackishwater Aquaculture, Chennai, India