Aquaculture Feed and Fertilizer Resources Information System

Common carp - References

Antalfi, A. & Tölg, I. 1971. Halgazdasági ABC, Budapest, Mezőgazdasági Kiadó. 218 pp.
Bakos, J. & Gorda, S. 2001. Genetic resources of common carp at the Fish Culture Research Institute, Szarvas, Hungary. FAO Fisheries Technical Paper No. 417, Rome, FAO. 106 pp. (available at:
Balon, E.K. 1995. The common carp, Cyprinus carpio its wild origin, domestication in aquaculture, and selection as colored nishikigoi. Guelph Ichtyol. Rev., 3: 1–55.
Billard, R. 1995. Carp biology and culture. Paris, INRA.
Chakraborti, S.C., Ross, L.G. & Ross, B. 1992. Specific dynamic action and feeding metabolism in common carp, Cyprinus carpio L. Comp. Biochem. Physiol., Part A, 103: 809–815.
Chiba, L.J. (ed.) 2009. Animal nutrition handbook. Section 17. Fish, dog, and cat nutrition and feeding. pp. 447–480.  (avalable at
Coppens International. 2011. (available at:
Csengeri, I. & Majoros, F. 2004. Magyar takarmánykódex, II. Kötet. Gazdasági állatok táplálóanyag-szükséglete, takarmányok kémiai összetétele és mikotoxin határértékek a takarmánykeverékekben. Budapest.
Dabrowska, H., Meyer-Burgdorff, K.H. & Gunther, K.D. 1991. Magnesium status in freshwater fish, common carp (Cyprinus carpio, L.) and the dietary protein-magnesium interaction. Fish Physiol. Biochem., 9(2): 165–172.
Dabrowski, K. 1983. Digestion of protein and amino acid absorption in stomachless fish, common carp (Cyprinus carpio L). Comp. Biochem. Physiol., Part A, 74: 409–415.
Dabrowski, K. 1986. Protein digestion and amino acid absorption along the intestine of the common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.), a stomachless fish: an in vivo study. Reprod. Nutr. Dev., 26: 755–766.
FAO. 2011a. Cultured Aquatic Species Information Programme. Cyprinus carpio (Linnaeus, 1758). Fisheries and Aquaculture Department. (available at: ).
FAO. 2011b. Fisheries glossary 2011. (available at:
FIGIS, 2011. Fisheries Global Information System (FAO-FIGIS) – Web site. Fisheries Global Information System (FIGIS). FI Institutional Websites. In: FAO Fisheries and Aquaculture Department [online]. Rome. (available at:
Flajshans, M. & Hulata, G. 2006. Common carp – Cyprinus carpio. Genimpact final scientific report.
Froese, R. & Pauly, D. (eds.). 2011. FishBase. World Wide Web electronic publication, version (02/2011) (available at:;
Haltáp Kft. 2011. Product list of Haltáp Ltd., Szarvas, Hungary (available at:
Hancz, Cs. (ed.). 2007. Haltenyésztés. Kaposvári Egyetem, Állattudományi Kar, Kaposvár. 261 pp.
Hancz, Cs. 1982. Preliminary investigations on the feeding frequency and growth of juvenile carp in aquaria. Aquacult. Hung., 3: 33–35.
Hancz, Cs. 2000. Haltakarmányozás (in Halbiológia és haltenyésztés. Szerk. Horváth László) pp. 276–294. Budapest, Mezőgazda Kiadó.
Hasan, M.R., Hecht, T., De Silva, S.S. & Tacon, A.G.J. (eds.). 2007. Study and analysis of feeds and fertilizers for sustainable aquaculture development. FAO Fisheries Technical Paper No. 497. Rome, FAO. 510 pp. (available at:
Hepher, B. 1988. Nutrition of pond fishes. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press. 388 pp.
Hepher, B. & Pruginin, Y. 1981. Commercial fish farming with special reference to fish culture in Israel. New York, Willey-Interscience Publication, John Wiley & Son Inc. 260 pp.
Hoole, D., Bucke, D., Burgess, P. & Wellby, I. 2011. Diseases of carp and other cyprinid fishes. England, Fishing News Books. 264 pp.
Horváth, L. 2000. Halbiológia és haltenyésztés. Budapest, Mezőgazda Kiadó. 440 pp.
Horváth, L. & Pékh, Gy. 1984. Haltenyésztés Tógazdasági halászmesterek könyve, Budapest, Mezőgazdasági Kiadó. 175 pp.
Horváth, L. & Tamás, G. 1981. Ivadéknevelés, Szaporító és ivadéknevelő halászmesterek számára. Budapest ,Mezőgazdasági Kiadó., 182 pp.
Horváth, L., Tamas, G. & Coche, A.G. 1985a. Common carp, part 1: mass production of eggs and early fry. FAO Training Series No. 8, 87 pp. Rome, FAO. (available at:
Horváth, L., Tamas, G. & Coche, A.G. 1985b. Common carp, Part 2. Mass production of advanced fry and fingerlings in ponds. FAO Training Series No. 9, 85 pp. Rome, FAO. (available at:
Horváth, L., Tamás, G. & Tölg, I. 1984. Special method in pond fish husbandry. Budapest, Akadémia Kiadó; Seattle, Halver Corporation. 147 pp. 
Huet, M. 1972. Textbook of fish culture – breeding and cultivation of fish. England. Fishing News (Books) Ltd. 435 pp.
Ikuta, K. & Yamaguchi, M.  2005. The present state of carp fisheries and aquaculture in Japan. Ecosystem Conservation Section, Freshwater Fisheries Research Division, National Research Institute of Fisheries Science, Fisheries Research Agency Ueda, Nagano 386-0031, JAPAN (available at:
Jhingran, V.G & Pullin R.S.V. 1985. A Hatchery manual for the common, Chinese and Indian major carps. ICLARM Studies and Reviews, 11, 191 pp. Manila, International Certer for Living Aquatic Resources Management.
Kaushik, S.J. 1995. Nutrient requirements, supply and utilization in the context of carp culture. Aquaculture, 129: 225–241.
Kim, J.D., Breque, J. & Kaushik, S.J. 1998. Apparent digestibilities of feed components from fish meal or plant protein based diets in common carp as affected by water temperature. Aquat. Liv. Resourc., 11: 269–272.
Kuznetsov, Yu.A., Aminova, I.M. & Kuliev Z.M. 2011. Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus, 1758. (Publication linked to Caspian Environment Programme (CEP) at:
Lavens, P. & Sorgeloos, P. (eds.) 1996. Manual on the production and use of live food for aquaculture. FAO Fisheries Technical Paper No. 361. Rome, FAO. 295 pp. (available at:
Lovell, R.T. 1991 Nutrition of aquaculture species.  J. An. Sci., 69: 4193–4200.
Lovell, R.T. & Limsuwan, T. 1982. Intestinal synthesis and dietary non-essentiality of vitamin B12 for Tilapia nilotica. Trans. Am. Fish. Soc., 111: 485–490.
Manomaitis, L. & Cremer, M.C. 2004. Growth performance of common carp fed soy-maximized feed in low volume, high density cages on Lake Maninjau, Indonesia. Results of ASA/Soy-in-Aquaculture 2004 Feeding Trial. St. Louis, American Soybean Association. (available at:
McLarney, W. 1984. Freshwater aquaculture. A handbook for small-scale fish culture in North America. USA, Hartley & Marks, 583 pp.
Miner, J.R. & Smith, R.J. 1975. Livestock waste management with pollution control. NCRRP 222, Midwest Plan Service Handbook MWPS-19. Ames, Iowa State University. 88 pp.
Müller, F. & Váradi, L. 1980. The results of cage fish culture in Hungary. Aquacult. Hung., 2: 154–167.
Murai, T., Akiyama, T. & Nose, T. 1983. Effects of glucose chain length of various carbohydrates and frequency of feeding on their utilization by fingerling carp. Nippon Suisan Gakkaishi, 49: 1607–1611.
NACA. 1989 Integrated fish farming in China. Technical Manual 7, Bangkok , Network of Aquaculture Centres in Asia-Pacific. 278 pp.
New, M.B. 1987. Feed and feeding of fish and shrimp. Aquaculture Development and Coordination Programme, ADCP/REP/87/26. Rome, FAO. 275 pp. (available at:
New, M.B., Tacon, A.G.J. & Csavas, I. (eds.) 1994. Farm-made aquafeeds. FAO Fisheries Technical Paper No. 343. Rome, FAO. 434 pp. (available at:
Nose, T. 1979. Summary report on the requirements of essential amino acids for carp. In K. Tiews & J.E. Halver, eds. pp. 145–156. Finfish nutrition and fishfeed technology. Berlin, Heenemann.
NRC. 1993. Nutrient requirements of fish. Washington, DC, National Academy Press, 114 pp.
Ogino, C. 1980. Requirements of carp and rainbow trout for essential amino acids. Nippon Suisan Gakkaishi, 46: 171–175.
Ohta, M. & Watanabe, T. 1996. Dietary energy budgets in carp. Fish. Sci., 62: 745–753.
Pintér, K. 1989. Magyarország halai, biológiájuk és hasznosításuk. Budapest, Akadémia Kiadó. 202 pp.
Radunzneto, J., Corraze, G. & Charlon, N. 1994. Lipid supplementation of casein-based purified diets for carp (Cyprinus carpio L) larvae. Aquaculture, 128(1–2): 153–161.
Rahman, M.M., Varga, L. & Chowdhury, S.N. 1992. Manual on polyculture and integrated fish farming in Bangladesh. Institutional Strengthening in the Fisheries Sector Bangladesh, FAO BDG/87/045/91/11, 65 pp. (available at:
Ribiansky, M. & Woynarovich. E. 1962. Hal, halászat, halgazdálkodás. Budapest, Mezőgazdasági Kiadó. 310 pp. 
Satoh, S. 1991. Common carp, Cyprinus carpio. In R.P. Wilson, ed. Handbook of nutrient requirements of finfish, pp. 55–67. Boca Raton, CRC Press.
Satoh, S., Izume, K., Takeuchi, T. & Watanabe, T. 1989. Availability to carp of manganese contained in various types of fish meal. Nippon Suisan Gakkaishi, 55: 313–319.
Schaperclaus, W. 1961. Lehrbuch der Teichwirtschaft. Berlin, Verlag Paul Parey. 582 pp.
Schroeder. G.L. 1980. Fish farming in manure-loaded ponds. In R.S.V. Pullin & Z.H. Shehadeh, eds. Integrated agriculture-aquaculture farming systems. Proceedings of the ICLARM-SERCA Conference on Integrated Agriculture-Aquaculture Farming Systems, Manila, Philippines, 6–8 August 1979, pp. 73–86. ICLARM Conference Proceedings No. 4, Manila, International Center for Living Aquatic Resources Management, and Los Baños, Southeast Asian Regional Center for Graduate Study and Research in Agriculture, College. (available at:
Tacon, A.G.J. 1985 Nutritional fish pathology. Morphological signs of nutrient deficiency and toxicity in farmed fish.  Rome , 37 pp.
Tacon, A.G.J. 1986. Development of carp feeds, Papua New Guinea. FI:TCP/PNG/4503,
Field Document 3, July 1986, Project Reports No. 2, Rome, FAO. 49 pp. (available at:
Tacon, A.G.J. 1990. Fish feed formulation and production, FI:CPR/88/077, Field Document 8, November 1990, A report prepared for the Project Fisheries Development in Qinghai Province, Rome, FAO. 26 pp. (available at:
Tacon, A.G.J. 1992 Nutritional fish pathology. Morphological signs of nutrient deficiency and toxicity in farmed fish. FAO Fisheries Technical Paper No. 330. Rome, FAO. 75 pp. (available at:
Tacon, A.G.J. 1995. Application of nutrient requirement data under practical conditions: special problems of intensive and semi-intensive fish farming systems. J. Appl. Ichthyol., 11(3–4): 205–214. 
Tacon, A.G.J. 2001. Increasing the contribution of aquaculture for food security and poverty alleviation. In R.P. Subasinghe, P. Bueno, M.J. Phillips, C. Hough, S.E. McGladdery & J.R. Arthur, eds. Aquaculture in the Third Millennium. Technical Proceedings of the Conference on Aquaculture in the Third Millennium, Bangkok, Thailand, 20–25 February 2000. pp. 67–77. Bangkok, NACA and Rome, FAO.
Takeuchi, T. 1996. Essential fatty acid requirements in carp. Arch. Tierernahr., 1: 23–32.
Takeuchi, T., Satoh, S. & Kiron, V. 2002. Common carp, Cyprinus carpio. In C.D. Webster & C. Lim, eds. Nutrient requirements and feeding of finfish for aquaculture. Oxon and New York, CABI. 418 pp.
Takeuchi, T. & Watanabe, T. 1977. Requirement of carp for essential fatty acids. Nippon Suisan Gakkaishi, 43: 541–551.
Takeuchi, T., Watanabe, T. & Ogino, C. 1979a. Availability of carbohydrate and lipid as dietary energy sources for carp. Nippon Suisan Gakkaishi, 45: 977–982.
Takeuchi, T., Watanabe, T. & Ogino, C. 1979b. Optimum ratio of dietary energy to protein for carp. Nippon Suisan Gakkaishi, 45: 983–987.
Taneja, S.K. & Arya, P. 1994. Lipid deposition in intestine as a possible cause of malabsorption of nutrients in zinc-deficient common carp (Cyprinus carpio). British Journal of Nutrition, 72: 753–762.
Tasnádi, R. 1983. Haltakarmányozás. Budapest, Mezőgazdasági Kiadó. 307 pp.
Watanabe, T. 1982. Lipid nutrition in fish. Comp. Biochem. Physiol., Part A, 73: 3–15.
Welcomme, R.L. (comp.) 1988. International introductions of inland aquatic species. FAO Fisheries Technical Paper No. 294, Rome, FAO. 328 pp. (available at:
Woynarovich, A., Bueno, P.B., Altan, Ö., Jeney, Z., Reantaso, M., Xinhua, Y. & van Anrooy, R. 2011. Better management practices for carp production in Central and Eastern Europe, Caucasus and Central Asia. FAO Fisheries and Aquaculture Technical Paper No. 566, Rome, FAO. 153 pp. (available at:
Woynarovich, A., Moth-Poulsen, T. & Péteri, A. 2010. Carp polyculture in Central and Eastern Europe, the Caucasus and Central Asia: a manual. FAO Fisheries and Aquaculture Technical Paper No. 554. Rome, FAO. 73 pp. (available at:
Woynarovich, E. & Horváth, L. 1980. The artificial propagation of warm-water finfishes – a manual for extension. FAO Fisheries Technical Paper No. 201, Rome, FAO. 183 pp. (available at: