Revisiones 2005
cover State of world aquaculture 2006

State of world aquaculture 2006

Aquaculture is developing, expanding and intensifying in almost all regions of the world, except in sub-Saharan Africa. Global population demand for aquatic food products is increasing, the production from capture fisheries has levelled off, and most of the main fishing areas have reached their maximum potential. Sustaining fish supplies from capture fisheries will, therefore, not be able to meet the growing global demand for aquatic food. Aquaculture appears to have the potential to make a significant contribution to this increasing demand for aquatic food in most regions of the world; however, in order to achieve this, the sector (and aquafarmers) will face significant challenges. The key development trends indicate that the sector continues to intensify and diversify and is continuing to use new species and modifying its systems and practices. Markets, trade and consumption preferences strongly influence the growth of the sector, with clear demands for production of safe and quality products. As a consequence, increasing emphasis is placed on enhanced enforcement of regulation and better governance of the sector. It is increasingly realized that this cannot be achieved without the participation of the producers in decision-making and regulation process, which has led to efforts to empower farmers and their associations and move towards increasing self-regulation. These factors are all contributing to improve management of the sector, typically through promotion of “better management” practices of producers.

Cover Review Central and Eastern European region

Central and Eastern European region - 2005. FAO regularly conducts global and regional reviews of aquaculture status and trends, most recently during 2005 and 2006. The present regional review and synthesis for Central and Eastern Europe (CEE) provides an overview of major issues and trends in the aquaculture sector. The dominant technology is carp-based polyculture production in ponds. Production declined significantly following the political and socio-economic changes in the early nineties. Since 1996, production is gradually increasing. Aquaculture is an important supplier of healthy food for local populations, and will continue to contribute to rural development.


During the Astrakhan workshop in 2005, 13 NASOPAFAD country review studies and the draft Regional Aquaculture Review were presented and discussed. A series of common issues, constraints and trends were recognized for the region covering: predominance of carp production, low production levels, inefficient farm management and marketing, lack of skilled staff, financial and legal problems. Four major thematic areas were analysed: (a) policy framework, legislation and institutional systems; (b) farming systems, species and technologies; (c) processing and marketing (consumers' demand, labelling, certification); and (d) social aspects (food supply, employment, income generation). The workshop highlighted the following points: (a) the significance of aquaculture development in CEE has to be emphasized; (b) governments and other policy-makers should be informed about the opportunities and need of developing a sustainable aquaculture sector; (c) producers should recognize consumer demands and the increased market competition with other commodities; and (d) NACEE can play an important role in facilitating the information exchange in the region. The regional review indicates that there are opportunities for integrating aquaculture with other activities, for enhancing exports, and for strengthening institutional capacity building. There is need for research, technology development and investment to improve sustainability of existing farming systems, to promote diversification using additional and high value species, and to expand marine production systems. There is significant scope for improved human resources development, for better collaboration among farmers, and between science and practice, and for international collaboration, within the region and with institutions and organizations outside the region. 

Cover Review Western-European region

Western-European region - 2005. FAO regularly conducts global and regional reviews of aquaculture status and trends, most recently during 2005 and 2006. The present regional synthesis for Western-Europe provides an overview of major issues and trends in the aquaculture sector. Stagnating capture fisheries and soaring demand for seafood products in Europe have spurred the expansion of aquaculture in this region. In 2003 farmed finfish accounted for 62 percent in volume and 79 percent of value while farmed molluscs accounted for 38 percent and 21 percent of volume and value, respectively.


The expansion between 1994 and 2003 was dominated by marine finfish production particularly of Atlantic salmon in Norway (71 percent), United Kingdom (19 percent) and Faeroe Islands (10 percent). Seabass and seabream farming in Greece, Turkey, Spain, Italy and France in 2003 accounted for 95 percent of production. The increased production and supply of fish was accompanied by falling farmgate prices triggering restructuring of the industry, as well as substantial increases in volume of the key finfish species. The review confirms features of a maturing aquaculture industry including specialization, increasing skills and professionalism, diversification of technology and products, efficient production, vertical integration and market development. The growing environmental and social awareness and recognition of consumer and food safety preferences by the industry and the public sector are contributing to good farm management and governance measures which are enabling effective efforts towards sustainable development and responsible practices in aquaculture.

Cover Review North America

North America - 2005. The aquaculture industry in North America is a relative newcomer in the agricultural sector and has become well established in the last 25 years. Channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) and Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) are the two major species cultured. The governments of Canada and the United States of America (USA) support the continued expansion of the aquaculture sector and are engaged with the industry to facilitate this development. At the same time there is a strong sentiment within the industry that regulatory agencies should take a much more proactive role to eliminate overlapping jurisdictions, resolve conflicting mandates and establish clear guidelines for industry expansion.


A significant constraint to future aquaculture development is public concern about environmental risks associated with aquaculture, the safety of aquacultured products, and the potential impact of fish farms on marine ecosystems. The industry is responding to these concerns with the development of best management practices and environmental codes of practice to insure the long-term sustainability of land based, coastal and offshore aquaculture systems. Current production technology and the extensive environmental regulatory processes in place in Canada and the USA are effective in preventing these concerns from becoming problems. The document analyses the state and the trends in aquaculture development over the past few years in the North American region.

Cover Review Latin America and the Caribbean

América Latina y El Caribe - 2005. El Departamento de Pesca de la FAO realiza regularmente estudios acerca del estado y de las tendencias de la acuicultura. Este documento es el resultado de un estudio que se llevo a cabo durante 2005 y 2006. La síntesis regional es un resumen de la Visión General del Sector Acuícola Nacional (NASO) de 22 países de América Latina y el Caribe. Los volúmenes de producción y los datos de valor se basan en la base de datos FISHSTAT Plus de la FAO para el 2003. Como parte del proceso de revisión para la síntesis, se realizó un taller de expertos a nivel regional en Panamá, República de Panamá, en 2005 para discutir el estado de desarrollo y las tendencias de la acuicultura en la región. El informe de este taller de expertos se incluye también en este documento. La síntesis regional proporciona una descripción del desarrollo de la acuicultura en América Latina y el Caribe en la última década.



La síntesis y el análisis de la información muestran claramente que el sector crece de manera exponencial con el salmón, el camarón y las tilapias como especies principales. Sin embargo, según los datos registrados por la FAO se puede observar que durante los últimos 10 años hay incrementos importantes en la producción de otros grupos de especies tales como las macroalgas, los bivalvos, los carácidos y bagres. Chile, Brasil, México y Ecuador son los países principales en términos de producción y valor para el 2003. En la mayoría de los países el rápido crecimiento de la acuicultura ha beneficiado aspectos sociales y económicos de la región y de localidades específicas atribuidos en gran parte a la acuicultura comercial de mediana a gran escala. La acuicultura rural en América Latina y el Caribe aun depende en gran medida del estado o de proyectos de asistencia técnica y económica internacional. En general, la acuicultura en esta región continuará creciendo pero necesitará una mayor organización y coordinación entre el sector privado y el gobierno particularmente para lograr un beneficio social más compartido.

Cover Review Sub-Saharan Africa

Sub-Saharan Africa - 2005. The FAO Fisheries Department conducts reviews of aquaculture development status and trends on a regular basis. This document is a result of such an activity conducted during 2005 and 2006. This review was made by synthesizing National Aquaculture Sector Overview (NASO) from 16 countries in sub-Saharan Africa. The 16 countries included, Côte d’Ivoire, Ghana, Liberia, Nigeria, Sierra Leone in West Africa; Cameroon, the Republic of Congo and the Democratic People’s Republic of Congo in Central Africa; Uganda, the United Republic of Tanzania and Kenya in East Africa; and Angola, Mozambique, Madagascar, Zambia, Malawi in southern Africa.


South Africa was also included. The production volume and value data have been derived from the latest FAO FISHSTAT Plus database. As part of the review process, a regional expert workshop was conducted in Mombasa, Kenya, in 2005, to discuss the regional aquaculture development status and trends. The report of this expert workshop is also included in this document. The synopsis provided here summarizes the current status and recent advances that have been made by the aquaculture sector in the sub-Saharan Africa region during the last decade and the last five years in particular.

Cover Review Near East and North Africa

Near East and North Africa - 2005. The Fisheries Department of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) regularly conducts reviews of aquaculture status and trends, most recently in 2005. This regional review for the 17 countries in the Near East and North Africa is a synthesis of the available National Aquaculture Sector Overviews (NASOs) and Prospective Analyses for Future Aquaculture Development (PAFADs), with a focus on the period 1994–2003. The review process also included regional expert workshops held in Cairo (Egypt) and Muscat (Oman) in 2005, for discussion of the regional aquaculture development, in particular the status, trends and challenges. 


The information from these workshops is also included in this regional review. In the last decade, the sector has demonstrated remarkable growth from 96 700 tonnes in 1994 to 566 250 tonnes in 2003, and the contribution of aquaculture to total fisheries increased from 4.5 percent to 18.7 percent. Nearly all countries are expected to increase their aquaculture production, manifest in increased production tonnage and diversity of culture species. Production is dominated by Egypt and the Islamic Republic of Iran, with Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, the United Arab Emirates and Yemen being emerging producers. In many instances, increases in production are driven by a need to increase reliability of the domestic supply. Production of protein for human consumption is dominant, particularly of finfish such as tilapia, carps and marine finfish species; the Indian white prawn is the only crustacean of significant economic importance. Within food fish production the main trends are increased culture of marine species, intensification, and more integrated agriculture-aquaculture. Within non-food species, the main trend is towards production of ornamentals. Successfully addressing four key priority issues is essential for the continued growth of aquaculture in the region: (i) farming systems, technologies and species; (ii) marketing and processing; (iii) health and diseases, and (iv) policies, legal frameworks, institutions and investment.

Cover Review Asia and the Pacific

Asia and the Pacific - 2005. The FAO Fisheries Department conducts reviews of aquaculture development status and trends on a regular basis. This document is a result of such an exercise conducted during 2005 and 2006. The regional review is a synthesis of the National Aquaculture Sector Overviews (NASO) of 16 countries from five sub-regions of Asia and the Pacific and information from two additional countries, Japan and the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea. The review also contains a brief description of the aquaculture development trends and issues in the Pacific island nations. 


The production volume and value data have been derived from the latest FAO FISHSTAT Plus database. As part of the review process, a regional expert workshop was conducted in Ramzar, Islamic Republic of Iran, in 2006, to discuss the regional aquaculture development status and trends. The report of this expert workshop is also included in this review.
The regional review provides a description of how the aquaculture sector developed in Asia and the Pacific over the past three decades. The review and analysis of data and information clearly show that the sector is growing and expanding and is predicted to meet the increasing demand for aquatic food products in the years to come, with a few clear trends. These are: (a) increasing demand for aquaculture products; (b) increasing intensification of production systems; (c) continuing diversification of production systems and species farmed; (d) increasing influence of markets, trade, consumers and consumption; (e) enhanced regulation and better governance; and (f) drive towards better management. The review also attempts to analyse the trends and look at the sector’s sustainability and how the sector is behaving as a responsible food production sector in Asia and the Pacific.