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Nemipterus virgatus:   (click for more)

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  • Sparus sinensis  Lacépède, 1802
  • Dentex setigerus  Valenciennes in C. & V, . (1830b).
  • Nemipterus matsubarae  Jordan & Evermann, 1902
    FAO Names
    En - Golden threadfin bream, Fr - Cohana doré, Sp - Baga dorada.
    3Alpha Code: THG     Taxonomic Code: 1703318405
    Scientific Name with Original Description
    Sparus virgatus  Houttuyn, 1782, Verh. Holland. Maatsch. Wet. Haarlem, 20: 323 (Japan).
    Diagnostic Features
    Body depth 3.2 to 4.0 in SL; snout length greater than diameter of eye; diameter of eye 3.4 to 4.3 in head length; lower margin of eye above a line from tip of snout to upper base of pectoral fin; interorbital width 1.4 to 2.1 in eye; suborbital depth 1.0 to 1.7 in eye diameter; a line drawn up from the posterior edge of suborbital reaching the dorsal profile 5 to 7 scale rows before origin of dorsal fin; preopercle naked width 1 .1 to 2.0 in scaly width  pectoral and pelvic fins long, reaching to between level of anus and origin of anal fin; pectoral fins 1 .0 to 1 .2 in head length, pelvic fins 1 .0 to 2.5 in head length; caudal fin moderately forked, upper lobe produced into trailing filament;  3 or 4 pair of small recurved canines anteriorly in upper jaw;  gill rakers 12 to 16.  Colour: body pink, paler below; yellow stripe on back above lateral line; 5 yellow stripes on sides beneath lateral line, the uppermost of these stripes beginning just beneath origin of lateral line and running horizontally to upper base of caudal peduncle, the remaining stripes somewhat concave and descending anteriorly; ventral surface white; head pink, a yellow stripe from upper lip extending to anteroventral margin of eye; two faint yellow bars across cheeks sometimes present; eye pinkish; upper lip yellow; dorsal fin pale pink, with broad yellow margin, edged below by red anteriorly; a yellow stripe just above base of dorsal fin; anal fin translucent pinkish with yellow submarginal stripe, and narrow yellow stripe just above base of fin, this extending to tip of last anal-fin ray; caudal fin pink, upper margin of fin and filament yellow; pelvic fins pinkish, with yellow stripe along second and third rays; pectoral fins translucent pinkish. 
    Geographical Distribution
    Southern Japan, East China Sea, northern part of South China Sea from Vietnam to Formosa Strait, north-western Australia and Arafura Sea .
    Habitat and Biology
    A benthic species, occurs on mud or sand bottomsin depths down to about 220 m.Very abundant in the northern part of the South China Sea and southern part of the East China Sea. Young fish generally occur in shallower water, between 18 and 33 m (Eggleston, 1973).Females predominate at small sizes and males at larger sizes, due to faster growth rates in males (Eggleston, 1973; Kao & Liu, 1979).
    This species is a rudimentary hermaphrodite, in which all males have func-tional testes with rudimentary ovarian portions throughout their life. Spawning takes place from February to June with a peak from February to April in the South China Sea (Eggleston, 1973; Liu & Su, 1972). Eggs and larvae are described by Aoyama & Sotogaki (1955), Renzhai & Surfen (1980) and Renzhai (1986).  The diet consists of crustaceans, fish and cephalopods (Eggleston, 1973).Estimates of the parameters of the von Bertalanffy growth curve made for the population from Hong Kong (Eggleston, 1973) are: L = 44.7cm TL, K = 0.41, to = -0.12 (males); and L = 36.2 cm TL, K = 0.35, t0 = - 0.71 (females).
    Maximum size is 35 cm SL, commonly 23 cm SL.
    Interest to Fisheries
    Taken in commercial quantities by handlines, longlines, and bottom trawls. Juveniles are also caught in considerable quantities by shrimp trawlers using beam trawls . N. virgatus is one of the most important commercial fish in the East China Sea and northern South China Sea (Li, 1954; Eggleston, 1973). The total catch reported for this species to FAO for 1999 was 250 591 t. The countries with the largest catches were China (246 601 t) and Taiwan Province of China (3 990 t).
    Marketed mainly fresh, but also steamed or made into fish balls.
    Local Names
    CHINA : Hung Sam .
    Source of Information
    FAO species catalogue. Vol. 12. Nemipterid Fishes of the World. (Threadfin breams, Whiptail breams, Monocle breams, Dwarf monocle breams, and Coral breams). Family Nemipteridae. An Annotated and Illustrated Catalogue of Nemipterid Species known to Date. Barry C. Russell 1990.  FAO Fisheries Synopsis No. 125, Volume 12
    AlIen & Swainston, (1988)
    Fischer & Whitehead, (1974)
    Sainsbury, et al. (1984)
    Shen, (1984)
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