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Anadara granosa:   (click for more)

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  • Arca (Tegillarca) granosa  Linnaeus, 1758
  • Anadara bisenensis  Shrenck & Reinhart, 1938
  • Anadara obessa  Kotaka, 1953
  • Anadara granosa kamakurensis  Noda, 1966
    FAO Names
    En - Blood cockle, Fr - Arche granuleuse, Sp - Arca del Pacífico occidental.
    3Alpha Code: BLC     Taxonomic Code: 3160407101
    Scientific Name with Original Description
    Arca granosa  Linnaeus, 1758. Systema Naturae per Regna Tria Naturae, Secundum Classes, Ordines, Genera, Species, cum Characteribus, Differentiis, Synonymis, Locis. Edition 10, Tomus 1, Holmiae. 824 pp.
    Diagnostic Features
    Shell equivalve, thick and solid, ovate, strongly inflated, slightly longer than high and feebly inequilateral (Poutiers, 1998). Umbones strongly protruding, cardinal area rather large.  About 18 radial ribs (15 to 20) with wide interstices at each valve. Ribs stout and distinctly rugose, bearing regular,often rectangular nodules. Periostracum rather thin and smooth. Internal margins with strong crenulations corresponding with the external radial ribs. No byssal gape.  Outside of shell white under the yellowish brown periostracum. Inner side white, often tinged light yellow towards the umbonal cavity. 
    Geographical Distribution
    Widespread in the Indo-West Pacific, from East Africa to Polynesia. North to Japan and south to northern and eastern Australia.
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    Habitat and Biology
    A. granosa can live in 20m water depth but concentrates in the littoral area (time for ground drying: 6 - 10 hs/day and night). (see Tran Hoang Phuc Fisheries Review No-6/1997) A. granosa is a typically intertidal species which naturally lives in an area of silty bottom with relatively low salinity and some time of desiccation (when ebbing) every day (Kuang et al., 1995).Shallow Burrower.Filter Feeder. Their feeding habit is related to the bottom feed where they live. Their important nutrient components are organic detritus (98% were found in cockle's intestine), phytoplankton and unicellular algae. (see Tran Hoang Phuc Fisheries Review No-6/1997).
    A. granosa reproduces from August to February of the next year and begins to be mature at the age of 1+ - 2+. One female can produce 518,400 - 2,313,200 eggs. (see Tran Hoang Phuc Fisheries Review No-6/1997).  They can be adaptable to salinity of 14 - 300 and optimum temperature ranging from 20 - 30°C. (see Tran Hoang Phuc Fisheries Review No-6/1997). 
    Maximum shell length 9 cm, commonly to 6 cm
    Interest to Fisheries
    Gathering cockles (A. granosa) from either natural or cultured beds is an important activity in the Chinese fishing communities in Penang, Perak, and Selangor. The greatest development of this industry is in Perak, where about 1,200 ha of the foreshore are under cockle culture. Harvesting begins when the cockles have attained a marketable size of 24-30 mm. The gear used is a long-handled close-set wire scoop, usually operated by one person, who stands in a boat, extends the scoop as far as his reach allows, and draws it through the mud with a gentle, rocking motion, trapping the cockles, which are then deposited in the boat. (Pathansali & Soong, 1958). FAO's Yearbook of Fishery Statistics reports a range of yearly capture production from around 1415 mt in 1995 to 6503 mt in 1999 (China, Taiwan, Korea Rep.). FAO's Yearbook of Fishery Statistics reports a range of yearly aquaculture production from around 252233 mt in 1995 to 315811 mt in 1999 (China, Korea Rep. Thailand, Malaysia). Cockles (A. granosa) are a popular species in Thailand. Cockles consumption exceeds the local production every year. In addition, Thailand has been imported from Malaysia some thousands of metric Tons of cockles of commercial size and seed. Cockles are usually cultivated on mud in the intertidal zone with a water salinity of around 10-32 ppt. The production was of around 20 to 21 thousands of tons per year in 1996 and 1997 (Tookwinas & Kittiwanich, 1999).
    Used as food.
    Local Names
    JAPAN : Hai-gai .
    1997. Biological characters and technique of oyster Anadara granosa culture at Tra Vinh coastal water. Tran Hoang Phuc Fisheries Review No-6. 
    Broom, M.J. - 1985. The biology and culture of marine bivalve molluscs of the genus Anadara. ICLARM Stud. Rev. .  12, 37 p.. (ISSN 0115-4389, ISBN 971-1022-21-4).
    Chan, H. T. - 1986. Human habitation and traditional uses of the mangrove ecosystem in peninsular Malaysia. In: Man in the mangroves: the socio-economic situation of human setlements in mangrove forest. Ed. By P. Kunstadter, E. C. F. Bird and S. Sabhasri. Proceedings of a workshop held at Nong Nuch Village, Pattaya, Thailand, 27-31 May 1985. The United Nations University. . 
    Kuang, S, J. Fang, H. Sun & et al - 1995. Preliminary Study on Suitable Environ-mental Conditions for Embryonic and Larval Development of Blood Clam Tegillarca granosa. In: Annual Report (1995) of National Climb B Plan 'Fundamental Studies on Improving the Germplasm and Disease Resistance of Mariculture Species'. .  pp127-134..
    Pathansali, D. & M. K. Soong - 1958. Some aspects of cockle (Andara granosa L.) culture in Malaya. Proceedings of the IndoPacific Fisheries Council. .  8: 26-31..
    Poutiers, J. M - 1998. Bivalves (Acephala, Lamellibranchia: Pellecypoda). In: The living Marine Resources of the Western Central Pacific. Volume 1. Seaweeds, corals, bivalves and gastropods. (Carpentier, K. E., Niem, V. H. eds) FAO, Rome, Italy. . 
    Tookwinas, S. - 1983. Commercial cockle farming in southern Thailand. ICLARM Transl. .  7, 13 p.. Translated by E.W. McCoy. (ISSN 0115-4141, ISBN 971-1022-20-6).
    Tookwinas, S. & Kittiwanich, J - 1999. Integración de la Acuicultura en el Desarrollo de las áreas costeras de Tailandia. In: El mundo Acuicola, Fundación CENAIM.  . Vol. 4, Nº 2..
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