No. 09/2006

1) Research Articles on Forest and Climate Change

2) Forest and Climate Change Info & Events

3) News on forests and climate change

4) New Publications

5) Climate Change jobs

Penn State University: Position in areas of environmental science and ethics


Forest and Climate Change

Modelling the response of tree growth to temperature and CO2 elevation as related to the fertility and current temperature sum of a site

J. Matala, J. – Ojansuu, R. – Peltola, H. – Raitio, H. – Kellomäki, S. (2006)

Ecological Modelling 199 (1): 39-52

Abstract: A methodology for simulating climate change impacts on tree growth was introduced into a statistical growth and yield model in relation to variations in site fertility and location implemented with current temperature sum. This was based on a procedure in which the relative enhancement in stem volume growth was calculated from short-term runs of a physiological simulation model for Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) and silver birch (Betula pendula Roth.) stands. The impact of location, as implied by current temperature sum, clearly had larger impact on growth reaction to climate change than did the variation between the site types. Regarding regional variations in current thermal conditions, the simulations of productivity under climate change were well in line with previous predictions; i.e. stem volume growth was enhanced more in northern than in southern Finland, because current temperatures have a greater limiting effect on growth in the north.

Carbon sequestration and nutrient cycling implications of the evergreen understory layer in Appalachian forests

Chastain, Jr. R.A. – Currie, W.S. – Townsend, P.A. (2006)

Forest Ecology and Management 231 (1-3): 63-77

Abstract: Evergreen understory communities dominated by mountain laurel (Kalmia latifolia L.) and/or rosebay rhododendron (Rhododendron maximum L.) are an important but often overlooked component of Appalachian forests. In the dense thickets in which these species often occur, they have high carbon sequestration potential and play important roles in nutrient storage and cycling. We used allometric modeling of the aboveground biomass to quantify the importance of K. latifolia and R. maximum, relative to overstory tree species, in driving biogeochemical cycling in the Central Appalachian mountains. Carbon sequestration and nitrogen and phosphorus storage potentials were investigated by running 50-year simulations of the ecosystem accounting model NuCSS for two situations: forests comprising the canopy overstory layer with or without the evergreen understory layer. When simulating forests in several test watersheds based only on the composition and biomass of the overstory canopy, these forests contain between 1631 and 4825 kg/ha less in overall C content and 41–224 kg/ha less N content than if the evergreen understory layer is included. Additional N uptake by evergreen understory vegetation was estimated to amount to between 6 and 11 kg N ha−1 yr−1 at year 50 for the overstory-with-understory forest compared to the overstory-only forest. Vegetation pool nutrient storage was higher by 2–4% for N and by 2–14% for P at year 50 when R. maximum and K. latifolia were included in the model. Aboveground standing biomass of R. maximum and K. latifolia accounted for only a modest portion of the C sequestered and N stored in the forest ecosystems at the watershed scale. In contrast, notably higher amounts of C and N were simulated as stored in the forest floor and soil pools when the understory was included. N storage predominated in the forest floor compared to the soil pool when a larger amount of R. maximum was present in a watershed, most likely due to the larger amounts of recalcitrant litter produced annually by this species compared to K. latifolia. In addition, storage of P in K. latifolia and R. maximum exceeded expectations compared to their watershed-scale standing biomass.

Interactions between climate and desertification

Sivakumar, M.V.K. (2006)

Agricultural and Forest Meteorology; Available online 25 October 2006

Abstract: Deserts are known to mankind, but the term desertification has always been an elusive concept. It is now defined in the United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD) as land degradation in the drylands (land falling within arid, semi-arid and dry sub-humid areas) resulting from various factors, including climatic variations and human activities. This definition, which is now being used worldwide to describe desertification and its impacts, leads to the need to consider carefully the two-way interactions between climate and desertification. Dramatic changes in agricultural practices during the last several decades are one of the main driving forces for land degradation in the drylands and examples of land degradation are given for several regions around the world. The effects of desertification on climate have been described mainly in terms of changes in land use and land cover leading to land degradation; overgrazing; biomass burning and atmospheric emissions; agriculture's contribution to air pollution; forest and woodland clearing and accelerated wind erosion; anthropogenic land disturbances and wind erosion; and the impact of irrigated agriculture on surface conditions in drylands. It is equally important to consider the impact of dryland climates on soils and vegetation and the impact of climate change on desertification. It is important to adopt uniform criteria and methods to assess desertification and encourage monitoring of dryland degradation in all the regions around the world. To better understand the interactions between climate and desertification, it is also important to identify the sources and sinks of dryland carbon, aerosols and trace gases in drylands.

Methane bubbling from Siberian thaw lakes as a positive feedback to climate warming

Walter, K.M. – Zimov, S.A – Chanton, J.P. – Verbyla, D. – Chapin, F.S. (2006)

Nature 7 (443): 71-5

Abstract: Large uncertainties in the budget of atmospheric methane, an important greenhouse gas, limit the accuracy of climate change projections. Thaw lakes in North Siberia are known to emit methane, but the magnitude of these emissions remains uncertain because most methane is released through ebullition (bubbling), which is spatially and temporally variable. Here we report a new method of measuring ebullition and use it to quantify methane emissions from two thaw lakes in North Siberia. We show that ebullition accounts for 95 per cent of methane emissions from these lakes, and that methane flux from thaw lakes in our study region may be five times higher than previously estimated. Extrapolation of these fluxes indicates that thaw lakes in North Siberia emit 3.8 teragrams of methane per year, which increases present estimates of methane emissions from northern wetlands (< 6-40 teragrams per year; refs 1, 2, 4-6) by between 10 and 63 per cent. We find that thawing permafrost along lake margins accounts for most of the methane released from the lakes, and estimate that an expansion of thaw lakes between 1974 and 2000, which was concurrent with regional warming, increased methane emissions in our study region by 58 per cent. Furthermore, the Pleistocene age (35,260-42,900 years) of methane emitted from hotspots along thawing lake margins indicates that this positive feedback to climate warming has led to the release of old carbon stocks previously stored in permafrost.

Potential water yield reduction due to forestation across China

Sun, G. - Zhou, G. - Zhang, Z. - Wei, X. - McNulty, S.G. - Vose, J.M. (2006)

Journal of Hydrology 328 (3-4): 548-558

Abstract: It is widely recognized that vegetation restoration will have positive effects on watershed health by reducing soil erosion and non-point source pollution, enhancing terrestrial and aquatic habitat, and increasing ecosystem carbon sequestration. However, the hydrologic consequences of forestation on degraded lands are not well studied in the forest hydrology community as a whole. China has the largest area of forest plantations in the world now, and the hydrologic consequences of massive forestation are unknown. We applied a simplified hydrological model across the diverse physiographic region to estimate the potential magnitude of annual water yield response to forestation. Our study suggests that the average water yield reduction may vary from about 50 mm/yr (50%) in the semi-arid Loess Plateau region in northern China to about 300 mm/yr (30%) in the tropical southern region. We conclude that forestation in China that often involves a combination of tree planting and engineering (e.g., terracing) may have even a higher potential to greatly reduce annual water yield in headwater watersheds, especially in the semi-arid Loess Plateau region. However, the forestation area is relatively small for most large basins with mixed landuses in China, thus the regional effects of forestation on water resource management may not be of major concern. Comprehensive science-based evaluation of roles of forests on regulating regional water resources is critical to the current forestation endeavors in China.

Fertilization effects on carbon pools in loblolly pine plantations on two upland sites

Leggett,-Z.H. - Kelting,-D.L. (2006)

Soil Science Society of America journal 70 (1): 279-286

Abstract: A study was conducted in loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) plantations on sandy and clayey upland sites, with and without the addition of 250 kg ha-1 of diammonium phosphate (DAP) applied at planting, to estimate the effects of fertilization on ecosystem C

storage. Soil C pools were inventoried before planting and in the 11th year of stand development. Tree inventory data were used to convert stand volume to accumulated biomass. During the 11 yr of stand development, total ecosystem C increased by 24.2 Mg ha-1 on average across sites, averaging 2.2 Mg C ha-1 y-1. Fertilization increased accretion by 25.3 Mg ha-1 or 2.3 Mg C ha-1 yr-1, with the majority of increase (65%) occurring in biomass. The clayey site averaged 64% more total ecosystem C than the sandy site. With the exception of a 12 Mg ha-1 loss in mineral soil C for the 10- to 20-cm depth in nonfertilized (control) plots on the sandy site, soil C in the surface 20 cm did not change during the 11 yr of stand development, suggesting that the mineral soil C is a minor sink in these aggrading pine plantations. The loss in mineral soil C observed in control plots on the sandy site may be explained by the macroporosity of this coarse-textured sandy soil creating an environment conducive to oxidation and in turn optimal for respiration and C losses following site preparation, and a disadvantaged opportunity for C accumulation owing to higher soil temperatures. Fertilization may have improved the opportunity for C accumulation on the plots having been fertilized on the sandy site in early years by creating a cooler soil as a result of more rapid canopy closure and forest floor accumulation.

A model to estimate fossil CO2 emissions during the harvesting of forest residues for energy—with an application on the case of chipping

Van Belle, J.-F. (2006)

Biomass and Bioenergy; available online 24 October 2006

Abstract: In order to fulfil the targets set by the Kyoto protocol, Belgium established a series of regulations for renewable electricity and put in place a virtual market of green certificates. Their attribution is correlated to the reduction of fossil CO2 emissions. For biomass, emissions occurring during harvest have a significant impact. This paper proposes a model to estimate CO2 emissions during this step and applies it to the chipping of poplar forest residues in Southern Belgium. The factors entering into the CO2 ratio per MWh of biofuel are modelled according to the most influential characteristic of forest residues, i.e. mean initial diameter. The results show that if the diameter of the chipped material increased from 4 to 16 cm (factor 4), the CO2 emissions per MWh decreased by a factor 7. This stresses the value of modelling the emissions in order to identify the most critical supply routes for attribution and valuation of the green certificates.

The economics of using forests to increase carbon storage

Boyland, M. (2006)

Canadian Journal of Forest Research 36 (9): 2223

Abstract: Changes in forest-management practices have the potential to increase forest land carbon storage, which would help to reduce CO2 concentrations in the atmosphere linked to climate change and contribute to Kyoto Protocol targets for signatory countries. However, successfully increasing carbon storage while maintaining economic profitability is challenging because of the long planning horizons required for many forest activities and slow carbon sequestration rates in northern forests. The literature on the economics of forest management for carbon storage is unfortunately sparse and, in many instances, confused and misleading. Three carbon valuation equations are widely used that give contradictory results, with two of them (flow summation and average storage) ignoring the time-value carbon benefits and other essential data. Only the discounted carbon equation gives reasonably interpretable economic results. As well, many studies have omitted essential economic gradients that result in structurally questionable results. I review the literature, highlighting deficiencies in equations and how analyses are structured with the intent to produce a reasonable method of interpreting previous work and advice for future studies.

Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Forestry Operations: A Life Cycle Assessment

Sonne, E. (2006)

Journal of Environmental Quality 35 (4): 1439

Abstract: Most forest carbon assessments focus only on biomass carbon and assume that greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from forestry activities are minimal. This study took an in-depth look at the direct and indirect emissions from Pacific Northwest Pseudotsuga menziesii forestry activities to support or deny this claim. Greenhouse gas budgets for 408 "management regimes" were calculated using Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodology. These management regimes were comprised of different combinations of three types of seedlings (P + 1, 1 + 1, and large plug), two types of site preparation (pile and burn, and chemical), 17 combinations of management intensity including fertilization, herbicide treatment, pre-commercial thinning (PCT), commercial thinning (CT), and nothing, and four different rotation ages (30, 40, 50, and 60 yr). Normalized to 50 yr, average direct GHG emissions were 8.6 megagrams (Mg) carbon dioxide equivalents (CO2e) ha -1, which accounted for 84% of total GHG emissions from the average of 408 management regimes. Harvesting (PCT, CT, and clear cutting) contributed the most to total GHG emissions (5.9 Mg CO2e per 700 m3 harvested timber), followed by pile and burn site preparation (4.0 Mg CO2e ha -1 or 32% of total GHG emissions) and then fertilization (1.9 Mg CO2e ha -1 or 15% of total GHG emissions). Seedling production, seedling transportation, chemical site preparation, and herbicide treatment each contributed less than 1% of total GHG emissions when assessed per hectare of planted timberland. Total emissions per 100 m averaged 1.6 Mg CO2e ha -1 over all 408 management regimes. An uncertainty analysis using Monte Carlo simulations revealed that there are significant differences between most alternative management regimes.

Returning forests analyzed with the forest identity

Kauppi, P.E. - Ausubel, J.H. - Fang, J. - Mather, A.S. - Sedjo, R.A. - Waggoner, P.E. (2006)

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 103 (46): 17574–17579

Abstract: Amid widespread reports of deforestation, some nations have nevertheless experienced transitions from deforestation to reforestation. In a causal relationship, the Forest Identity relates the carbon sequestered in forests to the changing variables of national or regional forest area, growing stock density per area, biomass per growing stock volume, and carbon concentration in the biomass. It quantifies the sources of change of a nation’s forests. The Identity also logically relates the quantitative impact on forest expanse of shifting timber harvest to regions and plantations where density grows faster. Among 50 nations with extensive forests reported in the Food and Agriculture Organization’s comprehensive Global Forest Resources Assessment 2005, no nation where annual per capita gross domestic product exceeded $4,600 had a negative rate of growing stock change. Using the Forest Identity and national data from the Assessment report, a single synoptic chart arrays the 50 nations with coordinates of the rates of change of basic variables, reveals both clusters of nations and outliers, and suggests trends in returning forests and their attributes. The Forest Identity also could serve as a tool for setting forest goals and illuminating how national policies accelerate or retard the forest transitions that are diffusing among nations.

Emission Factors and Real-Time Optical Properties of Particles Emitted from Traditional Wood Burning Cookstoves

Roden, C. - Bond, T. (2006)

Environmental Science & Technology 40 (21): 6750 - 6757

Abstract: It is estimated that the combustion of biofuel generates 20% of all carbonaceous aerosols, yet these particles are studied less than those of other common sources. We designed and built a portable battery-operated emission sampling cart to measure the real-time optical properties and other emission characteristics of biofuel cookstoves. In a field study in Honduras, we measured emission factors averaging 8.5 g/kg, higher than those found in previous laboratory studies. Strong flaming events emitted very dark particles with the optical properties of black particles. The elemental carbon to total carbon ratios ranged from 0.07 to 0.64, confirming that high elemental carbon fractions can be emitted from biofuel combustion and may not be used to distinguish fossil-fuel from biofuel sources when cooking is the dominant usage. Absorption Ångström exponents, representing the dependence of absorption on wavelength, ranged from 1 (black) to 5 (yellow). Strongly absorbing particles with absorption inversely dependent on wavelength were emitted separately from particles with weak absorption and strong wavelength dependence; the latter probably contained conjugated aromatic compounds. Because combustion occurs in distinct phases, different types of carbonaceous aerosols from biofuel combustion are externally mixed at emission and may have different atmospheric fates.

The Impact of Boreal Forest Fire on Climate Warming

Randerson, J.T. - Liu, H. - Flanner, M.G. - Chambers, S.D. - Jin, Y. - Hess, P.G. - Pfister, G. - Mack, M.C. - Treseder, K.K. - Welp, L.R. - Chapin, F.S. - Harden, J.W. - Goulden, M.L. - Lyons, E. - Neff, J.C. - Schuur, E.A.G. - Zender, C.S. (2006)

Science 314 (5802): 1130 - 1132

Abstract: We report measurements and analysis of a boreal forest fire, integrating the effects of greenhouse gases, aerosols, black carbon deposition on snow and sea ice, and postfire changes in surface albedo. The net effect of all agents was to increase radiative forcing during the first year (34 ± 31 Watts per square meter of burned area), but to decrease radiative forcing when averaged over an 80-year fire cycle (–2.3 ± 2.2 Watts per square meter) because multidecadal increases in surface albedo had a larger impact than fire-emitted greenhouse gases. This result implies that future increases in boreal fire may not accelerate climate warming.

Assessing approaches to climate-change-related policy formulation in British Columbia’s forest sector: The case of the mountain pine beetle epidemic

Wellstead, A.M. - Davidson, D.J. - Stedman, R.C. (2006)

BC Journal of Ecosystems and Management 7 (3): 1 – 9

Abstract: A growing literature considers how the forest management community will have to adapt to future climate change impacts. Recently in this journal, Spittlehouse and

Stewart presented a framework for planning adaptive actions to address forest-related climate change issues. This paper expands on that framework by discussing five policy process approaches that might be used to implement such actions. The policy com­munity approach outlines the complex configuration of policy actors. The policy network approach exam­ines the relationships between those actors on particular issues. The advocacy coalition framework attempts to measure policy change by taking into account the competing policy-oriented belief structures. Agenda setting considers how issues get the attention of politicians. The punctuated equilibrium model attempts to explain how rapid change in government policy direction can alternate with long periods of stability. The authors conclude that understanding the policy process and how recommended policy changes will be re­alized is as important as identifying issues and the need for change. Examples from the application of these frameworks to British Columbia’s mountain pine beetle infestation are highlighted throughout the paper.

Old-Growth Forests Can Accumulate Carbon in Soils

Zhou, G. - Liu, S. - Li, Z. - Zhang, D. - Tang, X. - Zhou, C. - Yan, J. - Mo, J. (2006)

Science 314 (5804): 1417

Abstract: Old-growth forests have traditionally been considered negligible as carbon sinks because carbon uptake has been thought to be balanced by respiration. We show that the top 20-centimeter soil layer in preserved old-growth forests in southern China accumulated atmospheric carbon at an unexpectedly high average rate of 0.61 megagrams of carbon hectare-1 year-1 from 1979 to 2003. This study suggests that the carbon cycle processes in the belowground system of these forests are changing in response to the changing environment. The result directly challenges the prevailing belief in ecosystem ecology regarding carbon budget in old-growth forests and supports the establishment of a new, nonequilibrium conceptual framework to study soil carbon dynamics.

2) Forest and Climate Change Info & Events


Nairobi, Kenya, 06 to 17 November 2006

The twelfth Conference of the parties to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) serving as the second meeting of the parties to the Kyoto protocol (COP/MOP 2) took place from 6-17/11/2006 in Nairobi, Kenya. The conference was attended by approximately 5,800 participants from governments, governmental- and non-governmental organisations as well as media members. The 25th session of the subsidiary bodies on scientific and technological advice (SBSTA) and on implementation (SBI) took place from 6-14/11/2006. The newly established (third) subsidiary body - the Ad Hoc Working Group on Further Commitments for Annex I parties under the Kyoto Protocol (AWG) – convened simultaneously for the second time.

Compared to international expectations for long-term mandatory cuts of greenhouse gas emissions, the conference might not be considered as a milestone in terms of tangible results and outcomes. However, the meeting produced a series of decisions related to forests, the flexible mechanisms, the compliance regime, vulnerability, impacts and adaptation and the financial mechanism of the convention.

For more information on Decisions and other actions taken by COP 12 and COP/MOP 2:

For the summary report of Earth Negotiations Bulletin:

Forestry and land use related decisions

Reducing emissions from deforestation in developing countries. The UNFCCC report on the first workshop on REDD was presented to the SBSTA and, to further the issue, a second workshop was scheduled before SBSTA 26. This workshop will focus on ongoing and policy approaches and positive incentives, and technical and methodological requirements related to their implementation, assessment of results and their reliability, and improving understanding of reducing emissions from deforestation in developing countries.

In order to facilitate the process, two submissions are scheduled, both due by 23 February 2007:

  • Views on ongoing and potential policy approaches and positive incentives, and technical and methodological requirements related to their implementation
  • Updated information and data from Non annex I Parties, additional to that provided in their latest national communications on emissions and trends in deforestation, data needs, and policies and programmes in place to address deforestation.

For the SBSTA conclusions:

Decisions related to the Clean Development Mechanism. Given that the CDM is fully operational and with around 500 projects registered at the UNFCCC in stages of implementation, a series of decisions adopted by COP 12 reflected feedback by project developers and parties into the UNFCCC negotiations.

  • Forestry CDM. The Executive board of the CDM was requested by the COP to revise (a) the procedures to define the eligibility of lands for afforestation and reforestation project activities and (b) the combined tool to identify the baseline scenario and demonstrate additionality.
  • Small scale forestry CDM. The COP requested submissions by parties and organisations containing views on the implications of possibly changing the limit established for small-scale afforestation and reforestation clean development mechanism project activities. Deadline for submissions: 23 February 2007.
  • Bioenergy CDM. The COP encouraged Parties, intergovernmental organizations, non-governmental organizations, industry and others to support the development of broadly applicable methodologies; in particular with a view to methodologies for small-scale activities that propose the switch from non-renewable sources of biomass to renewable sources of biomass.
  • CDM in least developed countries. To achieve equitable regional distribution of clean development mechanism project activities, the Nairobi Framework should serve to catalyze the clean development mechanism in Africa: By COP decision, Annex I countries, UN organizations and NGOs are encouraged to initiate CDM project activities, including institutional and technical capacity-building and financial support to cover start-up costs, in regions featuring very little CDM activities. Special reference is made to least developed countries, African and Small Island Developing States.

COP/MOP 2 decision:

Nairobi work programme on impacts, vulnerability, and adaptation to climate change.
The 5 year programme, originally incepted during COP 10 (2004) will start its implementation phase. For all 9 working areas there will be a call for submissions, summary reports and expert meetings.

SBSTA 25 conclusion:

For updated information on the 5 year work programme:

UNFCCC: First AR CDM project registered

On 10th Nov 2006, the first reforestation project under the Clean development mechanism got registered at the UNFCCC and thereby passed the formal prerequisite for the verification, certification and issuance of temporary Certified Emissions Reductions (tCERs).

The project design document and other detailed information on the Facilitating Reforestation for Guangxi Watershed Management in PearlRiver Basin project (China) can be obtained here:

UNFCCC: 28th Meeting of the CDM Executive Board

The Executive Board of the Clean Development Mechanism met for the twenty eighth time during 12 − 15 December 2006 in Bonn, Germany.

The EB dealt among others with the following issues relating to procedures for afforestation and reforestation project activities:

  • The AR CDM baseline methodology AR-AM0005 “Afforestation and reforestation project activities implemented for industrial and/or commercial uses” won approval.
  • The simplified baseline and monitoring methodologies for small scale ARC DM projects were revised
  • Technical guidelines for the development of new afforestation/reforestation baseline and monitoring methodologies were issued
  • The EB agreed to open a call for public input on new procedures to demonstrate the eligibility of lands for afforestation and reforestation project activities under the clean development mechanism to be submitted to the secretariat starting 1 January 2007 ending 21 February 2007

The meeting report and all relevant documents can be obtained here:

Technical meeting on specific forestry issues related to reporting and accounting under the Kyoto Protocol

Organised by the European Commission DG-Joint Research Centre in collaboration with sink experts

The expert meeting was held from November 27-29, 2006 in Ispra (Italy) and addressed annex I country experiences and issues related to the submission of estimates of

greenhouse gas emissions and removals resulting from activities under Article 3.3 and 3.4 of the KP.

For the meeting’s agenda, presentations as well as additional material for download:

IIASA Young Scientists Summer Program

The International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA) runs its annual 3 month Young Scientists Summer Program (YSSP) which offers research opportunities to talented young researchers whose interests correspond with IIASA’s ongoing research on issues of global environmental, economic and social change, including climate change.

Time: June - August 2007

The deadline for applying to the 2007 Program is 15 January.

For full details visit

DISCCRS Symposium

Interdisciplinary initiative for recent Ph.D. graduates dealing with Climate Change and its Impacts

Time: September 10 - 17, 2007
Place: Hawai'i Island, U.S.
Eligibility: Ph.D. requirements completed April 1, 2004 - March 31, 2007 in any discipline related to climate change and impacts.

Application Deadline: April 30, 2007

C. Susan Weiler, Ph.D.
Office for Earth System Studies
Whitman College
Walla Walla, WA 99362
Tel: 509-527-5948
Fax: 509-527-5961
E-mail: [email protected]

For more information: and

Workshop on pan-European recommendations for afforestation and reforestation

On October 24-26, 2006, the workshop on pan-European recommendations for afforestation and reforestation in the context of UNFCCC took place in Vilnius, Lithuania.

The workshop was organized by the MCPFE Liaison Unit Warsaw, the PEBLDS Joint Secretariat, and the Ministry of Environment of the Republic of Lithuania.

The goals of the workshop were to provide the latest knowledge on ecological, social, and economic aspects of and policy settings for afforestation and reforestation in Europe, including climate change and biodiversity issues; and to review and discuss a proposal for the pan-European Recommendations for afforestation and reforestation in the context of UNFCCC.

Workshop documents can also be found at:

3) News on forests and climate change

ESA backs incentives for developing countries avoiding deforestation

Every year 13 million hectares of rainforest — an area the size of Greece — are cut down releasing millions of tonnes of carbon emissions into the atmosphere. Although tropical deforestation is the second leading cause of global greenhouse gas emissions, there are currently no provisions in the Kyoto Protocol compensating developing countries for limiting tropical deforestation.

(ESA Press release)

Campaign to Plant a Billion Trees

During SBSTA 25, UNEP launched a campaign to plant a billion trees in 2007. The campaign is backed by Nobel Peace Prize laureate and Green Belt Movement activist Professor Wangari Maathai, His Serene Highness Albert II, Sovereign Prince of Monaco and the World Agroforestry Centre-ICRAF. A pledge of about 20 million trees has already been reached.

Can the forest products industry be part of a bio-solution to climate change?

The global forest products industry can play a significant role in combating climate change by optimizing the use of raw material, increasing efficiency, producing bio-energy and expanding into bio-refinery products while developing the competitiveness of the sector.

(FAO press release)

4) New Publications

Integrating agriculture, forestry and other land use in future climate regimes

Trines, E. – Höhne, N. – Jung, M. – Skutsch, M. – Petsonk, A. - Silva-Chavez, G. – Smith, P. - Nabuurs, G.J. – Verweij, P. – Schlamadinger, B. (2006)

Netherlands Programme on Scientific Assessment and Policy Analysis (WAB) Climate Change

Abstract: The current agreement under the UNFCCC and its Kyoto Protocol takes a fragmented approach to emissions and removals from Agriculture, Forestry and Other Land Use (AFOLU): not all activities, not all gases and not all countries are included. Overmore, net removals can be used to offset emissions from other sectors as the sector "Land-Use Change and Forestry (LUCF) is not an integral part of the "quantified emission limitations or reductions commitments" or targets to which Parties included in Annex I to the UNFCCC have committed themselves. This report presents five policy options that can be employed by non-Annex I Parties on a voluntary basis, at a moment of their choice, that will lead to a broader and deeper participation under a possible post 2012 climate regime without hindering but rather promoting their development, whilst at the same time enabling Annex I parties to take on commitments that lead to deeper cuts in emissions.


Full report:

Land accounts for Europe 1990-2000

European Environment Agency EEA Report No 11/2006

Abstract: Changes in land cover in Europe reflect modifications in the uses of land, which often compete for the same resource: development of artificial surfaces for housing, transport and economic activities; intensification or extensification of agriculture practices; conversion of natural land to agriculture or farmland abandonment; afforestation or deforestation. Accounting for land cover change in a consistent way at the European scale has been made possible because of the Corine land cover inventory by satellite images carried out in 1990 and 2000 (and planned to be repeated for 2006). Based on spatial information, the land accounts produced by the EEA provide assessments of the magnitude of the various types of change and, at the same time, of their distribution over the European territory. Built up using the methodology of the integrated system of economic environmental accounting (SEEA2003) of the United Nations, land cover accounts are connected to other sets of tables which describe the use of the natural resources by the economy. Land cover accounts can serve as well as a platform to account for ecosystem integrity and goods and services provided to societies by these ecosystems. The report analyses the main results for 24 European countries and presents the methodology used for that purpose. The complete database is available at the EEA via its website, and its access is supported by powerful as well as user friendly extraction tools which make it possible to produce accounts for various types of geographical breakdowns.

Published at:

The Atlas of Climate Change - Mapping the World's Greatest Challenge

Dow, K. - Downing, T.E. (2006)

University of California Press, 112 pp

Description: The Atlas examines the signs of climate change--glacial and polar melting, rising sea levels, erratic weather patterns--and explains how global warming is being driven by the emission of greenhouse gases. It looks at the serious implications of these changes for food and water supplies, human health, sensitive ecologies, vulnerable cities, and cultural treasures--especially in those countries lacking the resources to adapt.
The book also provides insights into contentious climate-change politics as it reviews current response efforts: the progress being made in meeting Kyoto commitments, the development of emissions trading, patterns of funding, and the contributions being made by local action.

Carbon, Land and Water: A Global Analysis of the Hydrologic Dimensions of Climate Change Mitigation through Afforestation/Reforestation

Zomer, R.J. - Trabucco, A. - van Straaten, O. - Bossio, D.A. (2006)

International Water Management Institute (IWMI) – ENCOFOR (2006)

Abstract: This research report examines the hydrologic dimensions of international efforts to mitigate climate change, specifically the potential impacts of the Clean Development Mechanism - Afforestation / Reforestation (CDM-AR) provisions of the Kyoto Protocol, on global, regional and local water cycles. The global impact of the redistribution of water use, driven by agriculture and land use change, of which CDM-AR can be a contributing factor, is a major component of ongoing global change and climate change processes. If converted to forest, large areas deemed suitable for CDM-AR would exhibit increases in actual evapotranspiration and/or decreases in runoff. Almost 20 % of all suitable land shows little or no impact on runoff and another 28 % shows only moderate impact. About 27 % is in the highest impact class, exhibiting an 80-100 % decrease in runoff in drier areas, the semi-arid tropics, and in conversion from grasslands and subsistence agriculture. Significant impacts on local hydrologic cycles are evident, although these are not predicted at regional or global scale under the current limit on carbon sink projects. With expected climate change, and/or wider adoption of CDM-AR mitigation measures, it will become increasingly important to consider implications on local to regional water resources. The hydrologic dimension of CDM-AR impacts significantly on issues related to sustainability, local communities, and food security.

You can download the Research Report here: or:

Climate Change, Kyoto Protocol and Forest Sector - Afforestation/Reforestation Clean Development Mechanism in Asia

Yeo-Chang Youn, Ed. (2006)

Published by Korean Studies Information (KSI)

Description: The contents of the book are largely grouped into four parts. First part is composed of papers setting the ground for understanding United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, Kyoto Protocol and the relevance to forestry, especially for developing countries in the tropics. The second part provides some detailed information for designing and implementing CDM forestry projects in developing countries, with some experiences from case studies in Indonesia and Nepal. In the third part, situations and issues for developing CDM forestry in five countries in Asia are presented. In the concluding chapter, the presentations and discussions at the international workshop held in Seoul, Korea September 21-23, 2004 is summarized.

Please share any comments or questions with the editor, Yeo-Chang Youn at: [email protected]

5) Climate Change jobs

IIASA Vacancy Announcement

IIASA's Energy Program (ENE) is seeking applications for the position of two Research Assistants or Junior Research Scholars, depending on work experience and educational qualifications.

Closing date: 31 January 2007

For further information:

Penn State University: Position in areas of environmental science and ethics

We invite applications for the following position in the area of ethics and the environmental sciences, but have particular interest in faculty who work in the area of climate science and ethics.

Penn State's Rock Ethics Institute is the Secretariat of the Collaborative Program on the Ethical Dimensions of Climate Change

Review of applications begins on January 15 and will continue until the position is filled.

For more information, please contact the chair of the search committee, Nancy Tuana at [email protected]

Nancy Tuana
DuPont/Class of 1949 Professor of Ethics
Director, Rock Ethics Institute

Thank you for your contributions to this Issue: Peter Giampaoli, Lera Miles, Yeo-Chang Youn

The objective of CLIM-FO-L is to be a forum for sharing current information and experiences about climate change and forestry amongst experts and non-experts. CLIM-FO-L will send periodically to subscribers synopsis of contributions, indicating how to obtain more detailed information on the topic. CLIM-FO-L is a service provided by the FAO Forest Resources Division, Forest Conservation Service (FORC).



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last updated:  Tuesday, November 18, 2008