CLIM-FO-L No 08-2005


No. 8/2005

1) Research Articles on Forest and Climate Change

2) Forest and Climate Change News

3) Forest and Climate Change Info & Events

4) New Publications

5) Climate Change jobs

6) Websites of interest


1) Research Articles on Forest and Climate Change

The Ecological and Economic Potential of Carbon Sequestration in Forests: Examples from South America

de Koning, F. - Olschewski, R. - Veldkamp, E. - Benítez, P. - López-Ulloa, M. - Schlichter, T. - de Urquiza, M. (2005)

Ambio Vol. 34, No. 3, pp. 224–229

Abstract: Costs of reforestation projects determine their competitiveness with alternative measures to mitigate rising atmospheric CO2 concentrations. We quantify carbon sequestration in above-ground biomass and soils of plantation forests and secondary forests in two countries in South America—Ecuador and Argentina—and calculate costs of temporary carbon sequestration. Costs per temporary certified emission reduction unit vary between 0.1 and 2.7 USD Mg−1 CO2 and mainly depend on opportunity costs, site suitability, discount rates, and certification costs. In Ecuador, secondary forests are a feasible and cost-efficient alternative, whereas in Argentina reforestation on highly suitable land is relatively cheap. Our results can be used to design cost-effective sink projects and to negotiate fair carbon prices for landowners.

Impacts of Present and Future Climate Variability on Agriculture and Forestry in the Humid and Sub-Humid Tropics

Zhao, Yanxia - Wang, Chunyi - Wang, Shili - Tibig, Lourdes V. (2005)

Climatic Change 70 (1/2): 73

Abstract: Although there are different results from different studies, most assessments indicate that climate variability would have negative effects on agriculture and forestry in the humid and sub-humid tropics. Cereal crop yields would decrease generally with even minimal increases in temperature. For commercial crops, extreme events such as cyclones, droughts and floods lead to larger damages than only changes of mean climate. Impacts of climate variability on livestock mainly include two aspects; impacts on animals such as increase of heat and disease stress-related death, and impacts on pasture. As to forestry, climate variability would have negative as well as some positive impacts on forests of humid and sub-humid tropics. However, in most tropical regions, the impacts of human activities such as deforestation will be more important than climate variability and climate change in determining natural forest cover.

Optimal management of a forested catchment providing timber and carbon sequestration benefits: Climate change effects

Spring, D.A. - Kennedy, J.O.S. - Mac Nally, R. (2005)

Global Environmental Change Part A 15 (3): 281-292

Abstract: Climate change is predicted to increase fire frequency and exacerbate water scarcity. The effect of these changes on the tree harvest decision in a forested catchment is investigated using stochastic dynamic programming, taking a stand of mountain ash (Eucalyptus regnans) in south–eastern Australia as a case study. We find that for a range of water and carbon sequestration values, it is optimal to cease harvesting in the absence of climate change. Whether it is optimal to do so under climate change will depend on the magnitude of the increases in fire frequency and water value. Potential increases in forest productivity also have a significant impact on the tree harvest decision.

Climate change threats to plant diversity in Europe

Thuiller, W. - Lavorel, S. - Araújo, M.B. - Sykes, M.T. - Prentice, I.C. (2005)

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 102 (23): 8245-8250

Abstract: Climate change has already triggered species distribution shifts in many parts of the world. Increasing impacts are expected for the future, yet few studies have aimed for a general understanding of the regional basis for species vulnerability. We projected late 21st century distributions for 1,350 European plants species under seven climate change scenarios. Application of the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources Red List criteria to our projections shows that many European plant species could become severely threatened. More than half of the species we studied could be vulnerable or threatened by 2080. Expected species loss and turnover per pixel proved to be highly variable across scenarios (27-42% and 45-63% respectively, averaged over Europe) and across regions (2.5-86% and 17-86%, averaged over scenarios). Modeled species loss and turnover were found to depend strongly on the degree of change in just two climate variables describing temperature and moisture conditions. Despite the coarse scale of the analysis, species from mountains could be seen to be disproportionably sensitive to climate change (about 60% species loss). The boreal region was projected to lose few species, although gaining many others from immigration. The greatest changes are expected in the transition between the Mediterranean and Euro-Siberian regions. We found that risks of extinction for European plants may be large, even in moderate scenarios of climate change and despite inter-model variability.

Possible impacts of climate change on natural vegetation in Saxony (Germany)

Chmielewski, F.M. - Müller, A. - Küchler, W. (2005)

International Journal of Biometeorology; published online 2 August 2005

Abstract: Recent climate changes have had distinct impacts on plant development in many parts of the world. Higher air temperatures, mainly since the end of the 1980s, have led to advanced timing of phenological phases and consequently to an extension of the general growing season. For this reason it is interesting to know how plants will respond to future climate change. In this study simple phenological models have been developed to estimate the impact of climate change on the natural vegetation in Saxony. The estimations are based on a regional climate scenario for the state of Saxony. The results indicate that changes in the timing of phenophases could continue in the future. Due to distinct temperature changes in winter and in summer, mainly the spring and summer phases will be advanced. Spring phenophases, such as leafing or flowering, show the strongest trends. Depending on the species, the average timing of these phenophases could be advanced by 3–27 days by 2050. Phenophases in autumn show relatively small changes. Thus, the annual growth period of individual trees will be further extended, mainly because of the shift of spring phases. Frequent droughts in summer and in autumn can compensate for the earlier leafing of trees, because in this case leaf colouring and leaf fall would start some weeks earlier. In such cases, the growing period would not be really extended, but shifted to the beginning of the year

Valuing the impacts of climate change on protected areas in Africa

Velarde, S.J. - Malhi, Y. - Moran, D. - Wright, J. - Hussain, S. (2005)

Ecological Economics 53 (1): 21-33

: This study quantifies the economic costs of climate change impacts on protected areas in Africa. Downscaled results from four Global Circulation Models (GCMs) are used to classify different ecosystems in accordance with the Holdridge Life Zone (HLZ) system. A benefits transfer approach is then used to place an economic value on the predicted ecosystem shifts resulting from climate change in protected areas. The results provide approximations for the impacts on biodiversity in Africa under the "business-as-usual" scenario established by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) for the middle and end of the 21st century. The geographical analysis shows that there are twenty HLZs in Africa and all of them are represented in the protected area network. Three of these HLZs do not change in extent as a result of climate change. Assuming initially that the willingness to pay (WTP) values and the preferences for different ecosystem services remain constant, three of the GCM models show an (undiscounted) negative economic impact of climate change for protected areas in Africa for the year 2100. The worst-case damage scenario totals USD 74.5 million by 2100. However, the model for the year 2065 shows a higher undiscounted value than the present. The finding of positive net impacts from warming is consistent with the predictions of other macro models that show potential gains from warming scenarios.

Comparison of coniferous forest carbon stocks between old-growth and young second-growth forests on two soil types in central British Columbia, Canada

Fredeen, A.L. - Bois, C.H. - Janzen, D.T. - Sanborn, P.T. (2005)

Canadian journal of forest research 35: 1411–1421

Abstract: Carbon (C) stocks were assessed for hybrid interior spruce (Picea glauca (Moench) Voss × Picea engelmannii Parry ex Engelm.)-dominated upland forests within the Aleza Lake Research Forest in central British Columbia, Canada. Four old-growth (141–250 years old) and four young second-growth (<20 years old) forest plots were established on the two dominant soil texture types, coarse and fine, for a total of 16 plots. Mean total C stocks for oldgrowth stands ranged from 423 Mg C·ha–1 (coarse) to 324 Mg C·ha–1 (fine), intermediate between Pacific Northwest temperate forests and upland boreal forests. Total C was lower in second-growth stands because of lower tree (mostly large tree stem), forest floor, and woody debris C stocks. In contrast, old-growth forest-floor C stocks ranged from 78 Mg C·ha–1 (coarse) to 35 Mg C·ha–1 (fine), 2.9- and 1.2-fold higher than in corresponding second-growth stands, respectively. Woody debris C stocks in old-growth stands totaled 35 Mg C·ha–1 (coarse) and 31 Mg C·ha–1 (fine), 2.7- and 3.4-fold higher than in second-growth stands, respectively. Mineral soil C to 1.07 m depth was similar across soil type and age-class, with totals ranging from 115 to 106 Mg C·ha–1. Harvesting of old-growth forests in sub-boreal British Columbia lowers total C stocks by 54%–41%.

Forest conservation in the Philippines: A cost-effective approach to mitigating climate change?

Sheeran, K.A. (2005)

Ecological Economics; available online 29 August 2005

: Slowing tropical deforestation can reduce global carbon emissions and prevent climate change. This article estimates the costs of preserving the carbon sequestration and storage services of tropical forests in the Philippines, and compares the costs of this approach to mitigating climate change with the costs of alternative abatement options in the developed world. Unlike most previous studies, the analysis estimates costs based on opportunity costs and includes non-market activities such as subsistence agriculture. The analysis finds that while the opportunity costs for the Philippines are significant, countries like the U.S. may find paying the Philippines for forest conservation to be a cost-efficient alternative to reducing emissions within their own borders.

Modelling of carbon cycle and fire regime in an east Siberian larch forest

Ito, A. (2005)

Ecological Modelling 187 (2-3): 121-139

Abstract: Carbon budget of Siberian boreal forests is one of the largest uncertainties in the global carbon cycle under changing environment and then climate prediction. A coupled carbon cycle and fire regime model, which is applicable to simulate carbon budget of a fire-prone boreal forest in eastern Siberia, was developed in this paper. The carbon model consists of 10 pools and represents carbon dynamics including biomass burning, on the basis of an ecophysiological carbon cycle model (Sim-CYCLE). The fire model simulates fire behavior (ignition, expansion, and extinction) at a landscape scale with a spatially explicit cellular automaton, in a stochastic manner. Fire spread and burning intensity are parameterized as functions of temperature, moisture, and fuel availability, and ground fire and crown fire are dealt with separately. Interactions between the carbon cycle and fire behavior models are included, such that the carbon model simulates fuel dynamics and post-fire vegetation growth and the fire model simulates biomass burning (carbon dioxide emission, detritus production, and charcoal formation). The model was calibrated at a deciduous needle-leaved (larch) forest near Yakutsk, Russia (62°N, 130°E), in which Japanese researchers conducted surveys of carbon dynamics. The long-term simulation (1200 years) indicated that the mean fire interval of the larch forest was as short as 64 years, and most fires (94% of burnt area) occurred as ground fires. Although crown fires were less frequent (6% of burnt area), they exerted more severe impacts on carbon storage than ground fires. On average, the biomass burning released about 12% of carbon fixed by plant photosynthesis directly and resulted in acceleration of carbon cycling of the boreal forest. Young post-fire forests exhibited higher photosynthetic activity and compensated for the loss of old stands. Sensitivity of the model simulation to variation in parameter values and environmental conditions was examined. Finally, the simulation analysis confirmed that the fire regime is an important ecosystem attribute, and that a coupled carbon and fire model is useful to investigate the carbon budget of boreal forest in eastern Siberia.

2) Forest and Climate Change News

Researchers Find That Carbon Dioxide Does Not Boost Forest Growth

Levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide, a potent greenhouse gas, have been on the upswing over the last century. How the earth's plant life, particularly trees, will react to the change remains unclear. Some researchers have proposed, however, that the rising concentrations will spur plant growth and thus allow them to store additional amounts of carbon dioxide, thereby mitigating the atmospheric increase to some degree. Now a report published in the journal Science disputes this claim.

(from Scientific American)

Earth “losing fight against global warming”

The Earth is losing its natural resistance to global warming as the oceans and forests reach capacity in their ability to soak up carbon emissions, say scientists. Using a new computer model, researchers “fast- forwarded” 100 years to reveal that unless emissions are curbed, land and seas – the “sinks” for carbon dioxide – will become steadily less effective at removing carbon from the atmosphere, causing the planet to heat faster and increasing temperatures and droughts.

(From Sunday Herald)

Study yields mixed results on potential for pine trees to store extra carbon dioxide

Southern pines appear to grow and conserve water somewhat better in the carbon-dioxide-enriched atmosphere expected by mid-century, a Duke University study has found. However, any growth spurts appear to diminish over time, due at least in part to the kind of hot and dry weather that likely may become more common in the future. Thus, the researchers concluded, enhanced growth of pines may not constitute a long-term sink for human-produced carbon dioxide which might ameliorate global warming.

(from Eureka Alert – see also below under websites of interest)

Fossil forest points to rapid climate change, scientists say

Palaeontologists in Brisbane show off a haul of dinosaur bones found in Australia. ABC TV

You would not expect to find a rainforest in what is now one of the hottest and driest places on the east coast of Queensland. Ancient fossil deposits found in caves near Rockhampton in central Queensland have revealed the area was once a tropical rainforest wiped out by climate change.

(from ABC News)

Air pollution and forest clearance endanger Indian monsoon

Increasing air pollution and forest conversion in South Asia could lead to a failure of the Indian summer monsoon. This has been shown by researchers at the Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research (PIK) in a study exploring the stability of the Indian monsoon.

(Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research - press release)

Kyoto calls for carbon accounting

A Carbon Monitoring System for New Zealand’s plantation forests is being developed for reporting on carbon stocks under the Kyoto protocol.

(from ENSIS link)

3) Forest and Climate Change Info & Events

United Nations Climate Change Conference - COP 11 and COP/MOP 1

Venue and date: Canada, Montréal, 28 November to 9 December 2005

The eleventh session of the Conference of the Parties to the Climate Change Convention (COP 11) will be held in conjunction with the first session of the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to the Kyoto Protocol (COP/MOP) in Montréal.

Visit the United Nations Climate Change Conference web section at:

Side events and exhibits

Applications will be considered on a first come, first served basis from 12 to 30 September 2005. For registration turn to:

UNFCCC: Submission of new A/R methodologies

2 proposed new afforestation & reforestation baseline and monitoring methodologies have been submitted to the CDM Executive Board:

"ARNM0012: Afforestation or reforestation project activity implemented on unmanaged grassland"

"ARNM0013: The Mountain Pine Ridge Reforestation Project (MPR Project)"

From 26 Aug 05 till 15 Sep 05 they are available for public input on the UNFCCC CDM web site:

11th PhD Workshop on International Climate Policy

Date: 4/5th November 2005

Venue: Cologne, Germany

The Workshop is organized by the European PhD Network on International Climate Policy, which is an independent scientific community. As a vital part of the network, the PhD candidates meet twice a year for a workshop session which gives them the opportunity to present their theses and discuss them with other PhD students and scientists working in the area of climate policy.

Please find the call for papers along with further information on the website:

Summary QUEST workshop "Sustainable Forestry and Climate Mitigation"

University of Bristol (UK), 25-26 July 2005

The workshop proceedings are now available on the QUEST web site at:

Climate Change and Biodiversity Conservation: Knowledge needed to support development of integrated adaptation strategies

E-conference, 29 August-16 September 2005

This electronic conference will run from 29 August to 16 September 2005 and its results will be presented at the European Platform for Biodiversity Research Strategy (EPBRS) meeting in Scotland, on 2-5 October 2005. The e-conference will focus on the knowledge gaps and research priorities regarding: the development of adaptation strategies in terms of sites and ecological networks; the development of adaptation strategies working with other sectors such as agriculture, forestry, water, energy; and understanding, predicting and adapting to change in marine and coastal ecosystems. To subscribe to the e-conference, complete the form at: In case of any difficulty, e-mail [email protected]. (UKCIP news)

Outputs from ‘Trees in a Changing Climate’ conference

Transcripts of the proceedings of June’s ‘Trees in a Changing Climate’ conference are now available at This event brought together a range of experts, who examined what impact climate change will have on tree growth, health and ecology and what the responses to these impacts should be by the forestry, conservation, heritage and gardening communities. (UKCIP news)

Carbon Sinks and Emissions Trading: Room for Optimism?

On May 11, 2005, in Cologne, Germany, the Ecosystem Marketplace, in conjunction with its various partners, held the second in a series of "Katoomba Dialogues" on markets for ecosystem services. The dialogue, entitled "That Sinking Feeling; Carbon Sinks and Emissions Trading," highlighted the arguments both for and against the inclusion of forestry-related carbon sinks in emissions trading schemes. A number of interesting issues were raised during the discussion and the lively conversation ended, for the most part, on an optimistic note. An edited transcript of the dialogue can be found by following the link given below.

Informal Dialogue on the Role of Land Use, Land Use Change and Forestry in the Climate Change Response

Date and Venue: 17-20 October 2005: Rotorua, New Zealand

Purpose: The aim of the workshop will be to build understanding of the current approaches to LULUCF under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and the Kyoto Protocol, provide an opportunity to share national experiences and lessons learned, and discuss ways to address land use management and climate change issues. The discussion will focus on policy issues rather than technical matters.

For further information:

4) New Publications

How biodiversity and climate change interact

Reid, H. – Pisupati, B. - Baulch, H. (2004)

Policy briefs of the Science and Development Network

Summary: Biodiversity is inextricably linked to climate, but these interactions are not straightforward. This policy brief examines the interface from both sides. The authors firstly explore the impacts of global warming on biodiversity, from increasing the rate of extinctions to more subtle changes in reproductive cycles and growing seasons. Turning the tables, they then look at how biodiversity affects climate change. For example, when forests are felled, both local weather and global climate are affected as the removal of trees causes shifts in moisture and temperature, and stored carbon is released to the atmosphere. Similarly, changes in oceanic algal populations can, through a series of natural processes, actually lower air and water temperatures. With biodiversity and climate change so closely linked, the authors explain why a strong, integrated response is needed, although there are numerous hurdles at the international level. National programmes with a two-pronged approach possibly hold more promise, but even here, governments will need to restructure the way they handle environmental issues before real progress can be made.

Online available at:

Estado del arte en la formulación y aprobación de proyectos forestales bajo el MDL

Laguado, W. – Gutierrez, V. (2005)

Centro de Investigación Carbono & Bosques boletín Cambium 3 (5)

Resumen: El artículo trata sobre los diez proyectos forestales que se han enviado para registro ante la Mesa Ejecutiva del MDL, se presenta una descripción general y además se muestra un análisis comparativo de los aspectos más importantes. De esta forma, se busca que los lectores tengan una idea más clara acerca de la formulación de estos proyectos, sus posibles alcances e intereses.

El artículo puede descargarse desde el siguiente vínculo en internet:

Afforestation and Reforestation for Climate Change Mitigation: Potentials for Pan-European Action

IUCN Programme Office for Central Europe (2004)

Abstract: Afforestation and reforestation activities enjoy high attention at the policy agenda as measures for carbon sequestration in order to mitigate climate change. The decrease of agricultural viability and the objective to increase forest cover in order to ensure soil protection, the supply with forest products and a reduction of forest fragmentation also trigger afforestation of former agricultural land in certain areas in Europe. But the establishment of new forested areas can endanger other environmental and social services, including biological diversity. Therefore, there is a need for a comprehensive approach to afforestation and reforestation, which should consider carbon sequestration, biodiversity conservation, soil protection, as well as sustainable provision of raw material for forest industries and other goods and services in a balanced way.

Available at:

Sequestration of C in a Spanish chestnut coppice

Gallardo-Lancho,-J.F. (2004)

Investigacion Agraria - Sistemas y Recursos Forestales Oct 2004: 227 p

Abstract: The objective of this work was to quantify the C sequestration in a Sweet chestnut forest located in the "Sierra de Gata" Mountains (Central-Western Spain). This chestnut coppice is located in the southern edge of the "Sierra de Gata" mountains (province of Caceres, central-western Spain). This coppice of Castanea sativa is 25 years old, i.e., the usual rotation time. The accumulations of C in the tree biomass was 58 Mg C ha-1 yr-1, the calculated litter decomposition-constants 0.39 yr-1, and the aboveground annual-production 5.25 Mg C ha-1 yr-1. The accumulation of C in the Ah horizons was 143 Mg C ha-1. On calculating a global balance, inputs of C into this forest ecosystem are always greater than the C outputs, the excess being 4.7 Mg C ha-1 yr-1.

5) Climate Change jobs

International Emissions Trading Association (IETA)

IETA Program Manager

Find the job description at:

Deputy Conference Director for Carbon Expo

Find the job description at:

University of Florida's School of Forest Resources and Conservation

Post Doctoral Opportunity

The School of Forest Resources and Conservation is seeking a highly motivated, knowledgeable, self starter for a Post Doctoral Position, to work in a DOE funded project: "Genomic Mechanisms of Carbon Partitioning and Allocation in Poplar".

Interested persons should submit application before 15 September 2005.

For further information see the SFRC website:

Responding to Climate Change (RTCC)

Publishing Manager and Office Administrator

Specifically the job will entail:

    o Responsibility for the overall supervision and management of publishing a number of high profile international media projects. These projects include the publication of an annual report on climate change and calendars and photographic competitions produced in association with the UN.

    o Direct liaison with UN agencies, designers, printers and logistics organizations both in the UK and overseas.

    o Setting pagination, copy-chasing and dealing directly with clients for proof reading and finalizing their contributions.

    o Organizing attendance and participation in international/UN meetings and/or receptions for both clients and RTCC/Entico staff. Some travel may be required.

    o Administering the internal computer network and email requirements of approx 8 members of staff and the effective running of the office (organizing cleaners, couriers etc.)

    o Invoicing and filing of new business and finance.

    o Dealing with tight deadlines and variable workloads.

The post is full time, based in central London and we are looking for someone to start straight away. If this job sounds like it could be for you please call +44 (0) 020 7799 2222 and ask for James or Adam.

Institute for Global Environmental Strategies (IGES)

Researcher for Forest Conservation project

The Institute for Global Environmental Strategies (IGES) is currently in its Third Phase (April 2004-March 2007) of strategic research. It is currently seeking applicants for researcher for Forest Conservation project (FC).

Further details on the position and how to apply can be found in the Recruitment Announcement:

UNFCCC Internal/External Vacancy Announcement

Support for implementation (SIMP) programme,

Capacity building and outreach sub-programme

Vacancy announcement no.: UNFCCC internal/external VA 05/e017

Publication/transmission date: 15 august 2005

Deadline for application: 12 September 2005

Title and grade: programme officer, p-4

Post number: fca-5998-p4-001

Indicative net annual salary: us$ 59,132 net salary (without dependents)

Us$ 63,499 net salary (with dependents) plus

Applicable post adjustment

Duration of appointment: one and half years, with possibility of extension

Duty station: Bonn, Germany

Further information:

Global carbon project

The Global Carbon Project is announcing the position of an Executive Officer, Tsukuba (Japan)

For more information please see the website:

Director for Applied Forest Ecology

Center for Tropical Forest Science, Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute and Yale School of Forestry & Environmental Studies

The Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute’s Center for Tropical Forest Science (CTFS) and the Yale School of Forestry & Environmental Studies seek a Director for Applied Forest Ecology to supervise and develop applied research programs in the Republic of Panama and across the worldwide network of CTFS research sites. The position is based at the Smithsonian’s facilities in the Republic of Panama, and will include a courtesy appointment at the Yale School of Forestry & Environmental Studies.

Applicants should hold an advanced degree in a natural resource management field (PhD or Masters Degree and significant relevant experience), such as forestry (silviculture, forest ecology and ecosystem science) or agriculture (soils and agronomy). Applicants should have a significant background in applied and basic forest sciences and an ability to work with researchers from other disciplines, including sociology, anthropology, economics, and political science.

Additional information is available at:

6) Websites of interest

A Climate Change Atlas for 80 Forest Tree Species of the Eastern United States - spatial database

USDA Forest service

The climate change tree atlas presents information including distribution maps and tables for different climate change scenarios, life-history and disturbance attributes, ecological attributes, forest type maps and sorted list of species importance values by state/county for different climate change scenarios. The products presented in this atlas were a result of a modelling effort that involved the use of USDA Forest Service's Forest Inventory Data, numerous environmental variables gleaned from various sources and 2xCO2 equilibrium climate variables provided by five Global Circulation Models (GCMs) - ie., GISS, GFDL, Hadley, UKMO and CCC.


Duke University FACE research site

The Free-Air Carbon Dioxide Enrichment (FACE) experiment is located in the Blackwood Division of the Duke Forest, US. It consists of four free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE) forest plots that provide elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration and four plots that provide ambient CO2 control. The site displays information on effects on ecosystems, publications, data and research options.



Thank you for your contributions to this Issue: Arthur L. Fredeen, Free de Koning, Till Neeff, Sandra J. Velarde



The objective of CLIM-FO-L is to be a forum for sharing current information and experiences about climate change and forestry amongst experts and non-experts. CLIM-FO-L will send periodically to subscribers synopsis of contributions, indicating how to obtain more detailed information on the topic. CLIM-FO-L is a service provided by the FAO Forest Resources Division, Forest Conservation Service (FORC).





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