No. 3/2005

1) Research Articles on Forest and Climate Change

2) Forest and Climate Change News

3) Forest and Climate Change Info & Events

4) New Publications

5) Climate Change jobs

6) Websites of interest


1) Research Articles on Forest and Climate Change

Environmental and economic impacts of substitution between wood products and alternative materials: a review of micro-level analyses from Norway and Sweden

Petersen, A.K. - Solberg, B. (2005)

Forest Policy and Economics 7 (3): 249-259

Abstract: This article gives a state of the art overview on quantitative analyses from Norway and Sweden of Life cycle analyses (LCA), which compare the environmental impacts of substitution between wood and alternative materials, with emphasis on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, economics and methodological issues. In all studies referred to this overview, wood is a better alternative than other materials with regard to GHG emissions. Furthermore, wood is causing less emissions of SO2 and generates less waste compared to the alternative materials. Preservative treated wood, on the other hand, might have toxicological impacts on human health and ecosystems. Impacts on acidification, eutrofication and creation of photochemical ozone vary in different comparisons. Amount of greenhouse gases avoided due to substitution between wood and steel is in the range of 36¿530 kg CO2-equivalents per m3 input of timber with 4% discount rate; depending on waste management of the materials, and how carbon fixation on forest land is included. This amount is 93¿1062 kg CO2-equivalents for substitution between wood and concrete, if the wood is not landfilled after use. Many of the LCAs could be considerably improved, if the analyses were done with several alternative assumptions regarding boundaries of the system used in the LCA. This is important, not least to map what are the main assumptions for the results obtained and to compare with other studies. It is also important to consider the time-profile of the GHG emissions and other impacts over the life-cycle¿it is surprising that this is not taken more seriously. Wood as a building material is competitive on price in those studies that include costs. It is a weak point of many LCAs that costs as well as other economic aspects influencing product substitution are not included, and a major research challenge is to combine traditional LCA with economic analysis in order to make both more policy relevant. In particular, one should develop dynamic input/output models where price and income substitutions as well as technological changes and cost components are included endogenously.

Modeling and evaluating the effect of forest fire control on the CO2 cycle in Siberia

Chikahisa, T. - Anzai, H. - Hishinuma, Y. - Kudo, K. (2005)

Energy 30 (11-12): 2261-2274

Abstract: The forests of Siberia play an important role in absorbing carbon dioxide. Resent increases in forest fires, due to both human negligence and global warming, appear to cause significant damage to the forests. In the present research, basic models were established to evaluate changes in land area and carbon flux by forest fires and by disturbances of permafrost. Basic data necessary for the analysis are also summarized and presented. The characteristic of the model is a solution to the problem with probabilities in statistic space, rather than detailed simulation. The results of the simulation shows the significance of forest fires on the net carbon flux, which maintains the present level with a sensitive balance between large positive and negative fluxes. It was also shown that forest areas keep decreasing over a thousand-year time span even after a fire rate becomes constant. This implies that changes of land features are quite slow and that there may be irreparable situations at the time when changes are actually recognized. The effect of fire control and planting of the areas exposed to fires is also evaluated.

Sensitivity analysis of predicted change in soil carbon following afforestation

Paul, K.I. - Polglase, P.J. - Richards, G.P. (2003)

Ecological Modelling 164 (2-3): 137-152

A credible and cost-effective methodology is needed to support the use of new tree plantations to offset greenhouse gas emissions, and ultimately to form part of an emissions trading scheme. A number of validated models of forest growth are available. However, there has been relatively little validation of models to predict changes in pools of C in litter and soil, and thus suitable for C accounting. A modelling approach is needed to track changes in soil C because direct measurements are currently cost-prohibitive. Modelling approaches also allow for scenario analyses that can be useful for planning purposes. We used a complete C accounting model for forests, GRC3, to simulate patterns of change in soil C following afforestation under four test cases representing typical conditions in Australia. Soil C was predicted to initially decrease (usually during the first 10 years) before a gradual recovery and accumulation of soil C occurred. Sensitivity analyses were used to determine which parameters and inputs potentially cause the greatest uncertainty in calculated change in soil C using GRC3. Taking into account the uncertainties in the values of parameters and inputs, initial (0¿10 years) decrease in soil C was predicted to be 0.96¿2.35% per year (or 4.16¿14.8 t C ha−1) with a standard deviation between 0.10 and 0.43% per year among case studies, whereas the predicted increase in soil C (10¿40 years) was predicted to be between 0.49 and 1.80% per year (or 7.57¿24.4 t C ha−1) with a standard deviation between 0.18 and 0.69% per year. Results indicated that uncertainty could be greatly reduced by calibration of the fraction of above-ground litter transferred to soil C (i.e. humification), fraction of C lost by respiration during decomposition of litter, dead roots and soil C, and decomposition rates of the soil C pools. It was also important to obtain accurate input data for initial soil C content (including inert soil C), climatic conditions and allocation of net primary production to various tree components.

Fire assisted pastoralism vs. sustainable forestry¿the implications of missing markets for carbon in determining optimal land use in the wet¿dry tropics of Australia

Ockwell, D. - Lovett, J.C. (2005)

Journal of Environmental Management 75 (1): 1-9

Using Cape York Peninsula, Queensland, Australia as a case study, this paper combines field sampling of woody vegetation with cost¿benefit analysis to compare the social optimality of fire-assisted pastoralism with sustainable forestry. Carbon sequestration is estimated to be significantly higher in the absence of fire. Integration of carbon sequestration benefits for mitigating future costs of climate change into cost¿benefit analysis demonstrates that sustainable forestry is a more socially optimal land use than fire-assisted pastoralism. Missing markets for carbon, however, imply that fire-assisted pastoralism will continue to be pursued in the absence of policy intervention. Creation of markets for carbon represents a policy solution that has the potential to drive land use away from fire-assisted pastoralism towards sustainable forestry and environmental conservation.

Forest transitions: towards a global understanding of land use change

Rudel, T.K. - Coomes, O.T. - Moran, E. - Achard, F. - Angelsen, A. - Xu, J. - Lambin, E. (2005)

Global Environmental Change Part A 15 (1): 23-31

Places experience forest transitions when declines in forest cover cease and recoveries in forest cover begin. Forest transitions have occurred in two, sometimes overlapping circumstances. In some places economic development has created enough non-farm jobs to pull farmers off of the land, thereby inducing the spontaneous regeneration of forests in old fields. In other places a scarcity of forest products has prompted governments and landowners to plant trees in some fields. The transitions do little to conserve biodiversity, but they do sequester carbon and conserve soil, so governments should place a high priority on promoting them.

Synthesis of remote sensing approaches for forest carbon estimation: reporting to the Kyoto Protocol

Patenaude, G.- Milne, R. - Dawson, T.P. (2005)

Environmental Science & Policy - available online 17 March 2005

Abstract: The Kyoto Protocol requires that signatory countries reduce their human-induced emissions of CO2 by at least 5% below their emission levels of 1990 by 2008¿2012. Parties ratifying the agreement are given the option to meet part of their reduction requirements through the conservation and enhancement of the carbon stored in forest ecosystems. To do this, they must estimate carbon stocks in 1990 and any changes since 1990 from all afforestation, reforestation and deforestation activities. In the UK, although some data are already available, the Protocol will require additional monitoring. To address this, we provide a quantitative assessment of remote sensing approaches for: (1) land cover discrimination to monitor deforestation; and (2) above-ground forest carbon stocks estimation. For land cover discrimination, both optical and radar remote sensing have been successful. For forest carbon stock monitoring, radar is most appropriate until LiDAR is made available from satellite platforms. While focusing on the requirements specific to the UK, our treatment is relevant for Parties having similar requirements. Finally, we stress the need for a synergetic use of approaches and for the launch of satellite missions designed especially for terrestrial carbon stock monitoring. We also highlight future requirements for improving the current forest inventory scheme.

The role of forestry projects in the clean development mechanism

Jung, M. (2005)

Environmental Science & Policy - available online 16 March 2005

Abstract: Land use, Land-use change and Forestry (LULUCF) has been a controversial subject in the climate negotiations. The inclusion of LULUCF in the clean development mechanism (CDM) and the rules and modalities for such an inclusion belong to the most complicated and technical negotiation issues in the history of the Kyoto Protocol. This paper examines in detail the implications of different policy decisions concerning the inclusion of CDM forestry projects in the first commitment period of the climate regime (2008¿2012). The analysis is based on the development of marginal carbon sequestration cost curves which are implemented into the carbon market model CERT. The latter is a partial equilibrium model of the international market for emissions permits under the Kyoto Protocol. The scenario analysis sheds light on the role of CDM forestry projects in the climate regime, the effect of different policy scenarios on the permit price as well as the distribution of benefits and losses between countries. The results suggest that the role of forestry projects in the CDM in the first commitment period will be rather small. The countries mainly benefiting from the introduction of forestry in the CDM are the Annex B countries as a whole, as well as the Latin-American and African countries. In spite of the benefits to Annex B as a whole, the hot air holding countries lose, while in the group of the Non-Annex B countries, China is the biggest loser from an introduction of LULUCF in the CDM. The comparison of benefits and losses of countries with their respective negotiating position on the issue shows that economic reasons can explain country negotiating positions partly. In some cases, however, country positions are driven by reasons other than economic interest.

Carbon cycling and budget in a forested basin of southwestern Hokkaido, northern Japan

Shibata, H. - Hiura, T. - Tanaka, Y. - Takagi, K. - Koike, T. (2005)

Ecological Research - published online: 2 March 2005

Abstract: Quantification of annual carbon sequestration is very important in order to assess the function of forest ecosystems in combatting global climate change and the ecosystem responses to those changes. Annual cycling and budget of carbon in a forested basin was investigated to quantify the carbon sequestration of a cool-temperate deciduous forest ecosystem in the Horonai stream basin, Tomakomai Experimental Forest, northern Japan. Net ecosystem exchange, soil respiration, biomass increment, litterfall, soil-solution chemistry, and stream export were observed in the basin from 1999¿2001 as a part of IGBP-TEMA project. We found that 258 g C m¿2 year¿1 was sequestered annually as net ecosystem exchange (NEE) in the forested basin. Discharge of carbon to the stream was 4 g C m¿2 year¿1 (about 2% of NEE) and consisted mainly of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC). About 43% of net ecosystem productivity (NEP) was retained in the vegetation, while about 57% of NEP was sequestered in soil, suggesting that the movement of sequestered carbon from aboveground to belowground vegetation was an important process for net carbon accumulation in soil. The derived organic carbon from aboveground vegetation that moved to the soil mainly accumulated in the solid phase of the soil, with the result that the export of dissolved organic carbon to the stream was smaller than that of dissolved inorganic carbon. Our results indicated that the aboveground and belowground interaction of carbon fluxes was an important process for determining the rate and retention time of the carbon sequestration in a cool-temperate deciduous forest ecosystem in the southwestern part of Hokkaido, northern Japan.

Testing mechanistic modeling to assess impacts of biomass removal

Merganièová, K. - Pietsch, S.A. - Hasenauer, H. (2005)

Forest Ecology and Management 207 (1-2): 37-57

Abstract: The impacts that stand treatments have on carbon, nitrogen and water cycles is a key question relating the sustainability of forests to individual forest management decisions. While the response of the above ground carbon cycle may be relatively easy to measure and is well understood, e.g. volume growth response due to thinning, the impact of stand treatment and different harvesting scenarios on the water, and nutritional status of the remaining trees and site as well as on the below ground carbon and nitrogen cycle is much more difficult to assess due to the difficulty of obtaining reliable data. An alternative that eliminates the need for detailed site-specific data is to use existing models that were explicitly designed for studying biogeochemical processes. In this paper we test and evaluate the applicability of a species-specific mechanistic biogeochemical model to assess the impact of different harvesting scenarios after thinning. Data are available from 36 Norway spruce stands covering three regions each with three harvesting scenarios after thinning and four replications. The different harvesting scenarios applied are: (1) whole tree harvest, (2) whole tree harvest after one vegetation period, i.e. without needles, and (3) commercial stem wood harvest. The modeling results suggest that the variant 3 exhibited the highest growth efficiency, a measure of net carbon uptake or growth, versus all other harvesting methods. This is confirmed by the available field observations. Nitrogen, an indicator of nutrient supply, behaved similarly. The important exception was nitrogen plant uptake, which was lower immediately after thinning on the sites where the lowest amount of biomass was removed. Significant relationships exist between observed versus modeled stand volume and volume growth suggesting that mechanistic modeling is a suitable diagnostic tool for analyzing the impacts of different management practices and thus, such models can be efficiently used to enhance silvicultural decision-making.

2) Forest and Climate Change News

Modeled Climate and Land-use Change Threatens Plant Species

Proteas¿plants with large, colorful flowers that are important in the floral trade¿are under threat from land-use change and climate change. A study based on a multispecies modeling effort for over 300 proteas of the Cape Floristic Region of South Africa suggests that the protected range of proteas is expected to decrease by 36 to 60 percent by 2050 as a result of climate change.

(Press release from American Institute of Biological Sciences)

Australian Scientists Prove Less Trees, Less Rain

SYDNEY (Reuters) - Australian scientists have found that deforestation along the Amazon River in South America was reducing rainfall and causing climate change in the region. A study in the Amazon found that a loss of forests meant less water evaporated back into the atmosphere, resulting in less rainfall, said Ann Henderson-Sellers, director of environment at the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organization.

(from Reuters)

Forests Could Be Key to Curbing Global Warming

Effective control of forest fires may prove crucial in the fight against global warming since blazes from Alaska to Indonesia spew out vast amounts of heat-trapping gases, Canadian foresters said.

(from Reuters)

Climate Change: Colombia gearing up to do its Bit

Colombia is set to begin systematically measuring the impact of climate change on its remarkably diverse territory, which ranges from Caribbean and Pacific coastal regions to snow-capped Andes Mountains and tropical Amazon rainforest, in compliance with the Kyoto Protocol. A five-year Integral National Adaptation Pilot Project (INAP), to be designed this year and to go into effect in early 2006, will be ¿the first climate change adaptation project in the world,¿ according to Colombian officials.

(from Interpress)

Cooking With Wood Contributes to Climate Change

Changing the way food is cooked in households across South Asia could help tackle climate change, according to a study published in the latest edition of Science. The research shows that 'biofuels' such as wood, agricultural waste and dried animal manure, which are widely used in the region, are a significant source of pollution in the form of soot.

(from allAfrica)

3) Forest and Climate Change Info & Events

Workshop announcement: "Options for Including LULUCF Activities in a Post-2012 International Climate Agreement"

Hosted by Joanneum Research in Graz, May 5 & 6, 2005

The workshop organizers are trying to achieve a geographical distribution of attendees and a balanced attendance from research, governmental and non-governmental organizations. At this time the organizers are still looking for participants from the following regions:

- Africa,
- Central and South America,
- India,
- Russia and Newly Independent States; and
- South East Asia.

The workshop website ( has a detailed workshop announcement including tentative agenda, list of speakers and a registration form. Presentations and other documentation will be available on the website after the workshop.


Neil Bird
Joanneum Research
Elisabethstrasse 5
8010 Graz, Austria
Email: [email protected]

UNFCCC: Call for Afforestation/Reforestation Working Group Members

The CDM Executive Board, at its eighteenth meeting, agreed to invite experts to submit their application for consideration:

    o As members of the Meth Panel; and

    o As members of the Afforestation and Reforestation Working Group (AR WG).

Applications will be accepted from 14 March 2005 to 11 April 2005 (17.00 GMT).

Experts wishing to apply to these two calls shall apply using the respective application interfaces through the UNFCCC CDM web site.

For more information please visit the UNFCCC CDM web site: (

New Afforestation and reforestation methodology submitted

The following proposed new afforestation and reforestation baseline and monitoring methodologies have been submitted to the CDM Executive Board for its review and are available for public input (09 March 2005 - 31 March 2005):

ARNM0003: The International Small Group & Tree Planting Program (TIST)

In accordance with the ¿procedures for submission and consideration of a proposed new methodology for afforestation and reforestation¿ the secretariat shall make the proposed new A/R methodology publicly available on the UNFCCC CDM web site and invite public inputs for a period of 15 working days. Public inputs on a proposed new methodology shall be made using the ¿Proposed new A/R methodology - public comment form¿ (F-CDM-AR-NMpu). Comments shall be forwarded to the A/R Working Group at the moment of receipt and made available to the public at the end of the 15 working day period.

For call for inputs please visit the URL:

International seminar: Regular Recycling of Wood Ash to Prevent Waste Production RecAsh ¿ A Life-environment demonstration project

First Announcement and Call for Papers

Venue: Hotel Olympik, Prague

Date: 8th ¿ 9th (10th) of November 2005

The objective of the International Seminar on Regular Recycling of Wood Ash is to disseminate major findings of the LIFE-environment demonstration project including a handbook on wood ash recycling, and discuss the theoretical background of the techniques and how regular recycling of wood ash is best organised with respect to ecological, technical, economic, logistic and administrative aspects.

Deadline for receipt of abstracts: 15th April 2005

Only contributions complying with the above specifications and received in time will be considered. Please e-mail the complete information (abstract plus optionally up to 3 explanatory pages) to:

[email protected] or

[email protected]

Posters: There will be also a display area for posters. Please, send us a proposal.

Seminar announcement: ¿Better Forest and Land Management ¿ Fostering Climate Change Mitigation and Africa¿

African Parks is organizing a seminar ¿Better Forest and Land Management ¿ Fostering Climate Change Mitigation and Africa¿ on the 31st of March, 2005, to which there is an open invitation.

Program: As economic development in Africa and the problem of climate change continue to top the list of global priorities, this timely event unifies a number of salient issues of interest to the international community. The recently published Report of the Commission for Africa ¿Our Common Interest states that ¿...safeguarding the environment, and addressing the risks of climate change should be integral to donor and government programmes¿. Thus, the promotion and support of carbon markets that foster African trade and development opportunities are consistent with this new development paradigm. The event will focus on the role that efficient and effective use and trade of natural renewable resources can have for African development, and will feature speakers from the World Bank (Benoit Bosquet, Director of the BioCarbon Fund) and the European Climate Exchange (Albert de Haan, Director). This will be an opportunity for candid discussion on the subject of improved land management, climate change mitigation and sustainable development in Africa with representatives from a number of leading organisations.

The event will be hosted at the British Council in Brussels:

Leopold Plaza

Rue du Trône 108 / Troonstraat 108

1050 Brussels

Telephone: + 32 (0) 2 227 0840

Fax: +32 (0) 2 227 0849

The seminar will take place from 6 PM ¿ 8 PM. Please send RSVP as soon as possible to:

Tanja Havemann

[email protected]

Tel: + 44 (0) 207 612 1965

Mobile: + 44 (0) 7812021692

4) New Publications

The economics of including carbon sinks in climate change policy: evaluating the carbon supply curve through afforestation in Latin America

Benitez,-P.C.; Obersteiner,-M. (2003)

Energy Research Centre of the Netherlands (ECN), Wageningen University, International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA)

Abstract: A methodology was developed to estimate the cost curves of C sequestration from afforestation activities and its combination with existing cost curves of C abatement in the energy sector, applied to the Latin American region. To derive the C supply curves, a bottom-up approach is used where the costs of C sequestration are first estimated on individual grids (geo-referenced area of 50 x 50 km), which are aggregated in a single cost curve. Evaluation of the C sequestration benefits of forests included capture of the life-cycle of the sequestered C by accounting for the C uptake during forest growth, the C emissions during the harvest periods, and the residual C storage in short- and long-lived products. Results from a number of model runs showed that: (1) the cumulative C sequestration by 2010 could amount to about one fourth of the yearly emissions in the region's energy sector, given a C price of US$ 20/t C; (2) the Latin American region on its own could fulfill the Kyoto Protocol demand on Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) sinks for 2008-2012 at a C price of US$ 26-32/t C; and (3) when the supply curves of afforestation and energy are combined, the total emission reductions in 2010 are at least 15% larger than in the case of the energy sector alone. A sensitivity analysis showed that long-run projections are very sensitive to forest growth assumptions.


State of the World¿s Forests 2005

Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (2005)

The sixth edition of State of the World¿s Forests presents a global picture of the forest sector, providing the latest information on activities and developments. Contributions from non-governmental organizations (NGOs), individuals in their personal capacity and FAO highlight challenges and opportunities related to some of today¿s key emerging issues.

Summary: The State of the World's Forests reports on the status of forests, recent major policy and institutional developments and key issues concerning the forest sector. It makes current, reliable and policy-relevant information widely available to facilitate informed discussion and decision-making with regard to the world's forests. It has the theme ¿realizing the economic benefits from forests¿ and includes two major sections: The first one focuses on the situation and recent developments in the forest sector, including carbon stock changes and national frameworks for forests under the Kyoto Protocol; secondary forests in the tropics; new woods and fiber; threats from invasive species; the economics of wood energy; international trade in non-wood forest products (NWFPs); and the global forest policy dialogue.

The second section addresses challenges and opportunities in realizing the economic benefits from forests, such as: forest¿s declining contributions to national incomes; North/South disparities in value-added production; the increased exports of secondary processed wood products from tropical countries like Brazil, Indonesia, Malaysia, Mexico, the Philippines, Thailand, Vietnam and China; as well as tariff and non-tariff barriers, such as certification systems and sanitary and phyto-sanitary requirements; furthermore forests and armed conflict.

The State of the World¿s Forests is published in Arabic, Chinese, English, French and Spanish.


A guiding frame for mainstreaming biodiversity and development into National Adaptation Programmes of Action (NAPA)

Bhujangarao Dharmaji, B. - Azain Raban, A. - Balakrishna Pisupati, B. - and Helen Baulch, H. (2004)

IUCN - Regional Biodiversity Programme, Asia, Colombo, Sri Lanka

Abstract: The search for inter-linkages among the three Rio conventions is generally hailed as a desirable initiative. Due to numerous barriers, however, it often remains challenging in practice to move beyond statements of goodwill and to implement concrete initiatives, even with modest initial targets. In the case of NAPAs, a focus on their country-driven character could help promote synergy among conventions, including the promotion of jointly-implemented activities, and the systematic exchange of information. Given that climate change is a major challenge to sustainable development and poverty eradication in LDCs, in which economies are generally based on climate-dependent primary commodities, the pursuit of positive linkages among the activities under different MEAs, and even under other broader national priorities, are essential cornerstones in the promotion of sustainable development in these countries. In addition to the NAPAs, other areas remain where existing linkages could be strengthened and potential synergies should be utilized. This publication complements IUCN-RBP's efforts of focusing synergies and inter-linkages among Rio Conventions using community approach to achieve sustainable development. This publication is one step in the direction of supporting national level adaptation planning and conserving natural resources enhancing joint efforts for achievement of the objectives of the UNFCCC and the CBD.

For copies of the publication please contact:

BHUJANGARAO D DHARMAJI, Regional Coordinator-SACNET & Senior Programme Officer, IUCN - Regional Biodiversity Programme, Asia
No. 53, Horton Place, Colombo 7, Sri Lanka, Email: [email protected]

5) Climate Change jobs

Postdoctoral researcher Global Change Research Center (GCRC)

The Global Change Research Center (GCRC) is seeking a research scholar or postdoctoral researcher whose primary task is taking part in the Climatical statistical data analysis and integrating assessment modeling of climate change.

If you are interested in this job, please send your resume and educational background document to:
Global Change Research Centre National Taiwan University
1, Sec. 4, Roosevelt Rd., Taipei, Taiwan, R.O.C. 10764

The successful candidate will be offered an initial fixed-term contract for 1-2 years, with the possibility of extension.

For details on the available position, see GCRC's website at:

Research Scientist/Associate Research Scientist: Program Leader for Climate and Society Publications Series

The International Research Institute for Climate Prediction (IRI) at Columbia University is seeking an outstanding individual with excellent analytical abilities and a research background in climate impacts and related policy arenas.

The Research Scientist (RS)/Associate Research Scientist (ARS) will be responsible for leading the development and production of a flagship report series on climate and society. The report will help meet the needs of decision-makers and the public for peer-reviewed, policy-relevant scientific information on the consequences of climate variability for society and options for response. The incumbent is also expected to pursue his/her own scientific interests on the use of climate information for sustainable development within the research framework of the IRI. Relevant areas include climate impacts, decision systems and institutions and policy related to IRI regional programs in Africa, Asia, and the Americas.

Strong quantitative skills and demonstrated ability to communicate scientific information to a general audience are essential. Required skills include the ability to meet deadlines and ability to work collaboratively in a skilled group environment. Excellent written and oral communications skills and organizational habits are also required.

For more information, please visit:

Intern - European Business Council for Sustainable Energy

e5, the European Business Council for Sustainable Energy is looking for an intern (full- or part-time) to assist with a one-off research project on next power plant generation in the EU at e5 headquarters in Bad Vilbel, Germany. The project will examine how renewable energy sources and energy-efficient technology can be fully integrated into the future energy supply system of Europe.

Tasks include:

    o Contribute to the project activities (compile discussion papers, organise workshop, support media campaign, etc.)

    o Support fundraising activities

    o Make business contacts, etc.

Duration: 3-6 months

Requirements: interest in renewable and sustainable energy issues MS Office (Word, Excel, Outlook, Powerpoint), internet research, self-dependent working, friendly phone voice

Salary: travel expenses plus small stipend

Starting date: ASAP

Further details: ; [email protected] for inquiries

To apply: CV and cover letter to [email protected]

Research Scholar - International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA)

The International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA) is seeking a research scholar for its newly formed Population and Climate Change Program. This interdisciplinary program aims to improve the representation of demographic factors in integrated assessment modeling of climate change, and to develop novel treatments of uncertainty in such models. Its work on demography will include a substantial focus on the influence of demographic factors such as aging, urbanization, and changes in household size and structure on future energy demand and associated emissions. Research will be organized around a set of country case studies, and will employ a general equilibrium modeling framework with detail in the energy sector and in the representation of household demand.

Briefly, the primary tasks will include (1) carrying out econometric analysis of production and consumption data required to support calibration of a general equilibrium model for various country case studies, and (2) contributing to model development, conducting simulations, and analyzing output. In addition, a particular research focus consistent with the incumbent¿s background and interests can be defined. A background in economics with solid statistical skills is of primary importance; knowledge of energy and/or demographic issues is highly desirable.

The successful candidate will be offered an initial fixed-term contract for 1-2 years, beginning in the first half of 2005, with the possibility of extension.

For details on the available position, see IIASA's website at:

Coordinator, Implementation Programme (IMP) - UNFCCC

Vacancy Announcement No: UNFCCC Internal/External VA 05/E002

Deadline for Application: 07 April 2005

Title and Grade: Coordinator, D-2

Post Number: FCA-6004-D2-002

Duration of Appointment: One and Half Years, With Possibility of Extension

Duty Station: Bonn, Germany

Expected Date for Entry on Duty: As Soon As Possible

Associate Meetings Services Officer - UNFCCC

Vacancy Announcement No: UNFCCC Internal/External VA 05/E001

Deadline for Application: 14 April 2005

Title and Grade: Associate Meetings Services Officer P-2

Post Number: Fqa-6012-P2-001

Duration of Appointment: One Year, with Possibility of Extension

Duty Station: Bonn, Germany

For more information on these posts:

6) Websites of interest

GRID-Arendal Climate Change website update

Vital Climate Change Graphics was first published in 2000 by the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) and GRID-Arendal (Based on the findings of the Second Assessment Report (SAR) of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), it presented a collection of graphics focussing on the environmental and socio-economic impacts of climate change. This second edition, launched in February 2005, is based on the Third Assessment Report (TAR) of the IPCC that was published in 2001. The publication of this second edition was prompted by the popularity of the first edition and the obvious need for providing updated information to readers.

The website contains links to:

The Vital Climate Graphics for Latin America and the Caribbean

The Vital Climate Graphics Africa

Climatewire - a recently launched news portal dedicated to climate change. The site is updated every morning with links to climate change articles from English language media world wide.



Thank you for your contributions to this Issue: Lars Andersson, Bhujangarao Dharmaji, Syaka Sadio



The objective of CLIM-FO-L is to be a forum for sharing current information and experiences about climate change and forestry amongst experts and non-experts. CLIM-FO-L will send periodically to subscribers synopsis of contributions, indicating how to obtain more detailed information on the topic. CLIM-FO-L is a service provided by the FAO Forest Resources Division, Forest Conservation Service (FORC).





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