1) Research Articles on Forest and Climate Change
2) Forest and Climate Change News
3) Forest and Climate Change Info & Events
4) New Publications
5) Climate Change jobs
6) Websites of interest


1) Research Articles on Forest and Climate Change


Managing carbon sinks by changing rotation length in European forests

Kaipainen, T. - Liski, J. ¿ Pussinen, A. ¿ Karjalainen, T. (2004)

Environmental Science & Policy 7 (3): 205-219

Abstract: Elongation of rotation length is a forest management activity countries may choose to apply under Article 3.4 of the Kyoto Protocol to help them meet their commitments for reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. We used the CO2FIX model to analyze how the carbon stocks of trees, soil and wood products depend on rotation length in different European forests. Results predicted that the carbon stock of trees increased in each forest when rotation length was increased, but the carbon stock of soil decreased slightly in German and Finnish Scots pine forests; the carbon stock of wood products also decreased slightly in cases other than the Sitka spruce forest in UK. To estimate the efficiency of increasing rotation length as an Article 3.4 activity, we looked at changes in the carbon stock of trees resulting from a 20-year increase in current rotation lengths. To achieve the largest eligible carbon sink mentioned in Article 3.4 of the Kyoto Protocol, the rotation lengths need to be increased on areas varying from 0.3 to 5.1 Mha depending on the forest. This would in some forests cause 1¿6% declines in harvesting possibilities. The possible decreases in the carbon stock of soil indicate that reporting the changes in the carbon stocks of forests under Article 3.4 may require measuring soil carbon.

Liana allometric biomass equations for Amazonian primary and secondary forest

Gehring, C. ¿ Park, S. ¿ Denich, M. (2004)

Forest Ecology and Management 195 (1-2): 69-83

Abstract: This study develops allometric equations for the estimation of aboveground liana biomass in field studies. We measured diameter, length, and total and leaf biomass of 561 shoots of 26 common liana species in secondary and primary forests of central Amazonia. Liana shoots ranged in size from 0.1 to 13.8 cm diameter and 20 cm¿48 m length. We developed mixed-species and species-specific regressions. The diameter is recommended as single biomass estimator. Neither the forest type nor the number of shoots per plant individual affected the allometric relationships. With few exceptions, species-specific equations were similar and goodness of fit increased only moderately over mixed-species equations. The mixed-species equations presented here were valid over a wide range of environments and species compositions, and are recommended for the non-destructive estimation of liana biomass in tropical forests and bushlands.

Increased carbon sink in temperate and boreal forests

Liski, J. ¿ Korotkov, A.V. ¿ Prins, C.F.L. ¿ Karjalainen, T. ¿ Victor, D.G. ¿ Kauppi, P.E. (2003)

Climatic Change 61 (1-2): 89-99

Abstract: An intense search is under way to identify the 'missing sink' in the world carbon budget of perhaps 2 Pg year-1 (petagrams, or billion tonnes) of carbon, but its location and mechanism have proved elusive. Here we use a new forest inventory data set to estimate the carbon sink and the carbon pool of woody biomass in 55 countries that account for nearly all temperate or boreal forests and approximately half the world's total forest area. In each country there was a net accumulation of biomass; together, the carbon sink of woody biomass was 0.88 Pg year-1 during the 1990s with estimated uncertainty from 0.71 to 1.1 Pg year-1. This estimate, already about half of the missing sink, would probably be even larger if carbon accumulation in soil and detritus were also accounted for, but we are unable to quantify that additional sink. The sink is twice that estimated for the woody biomass of these forests a decade ago due to higher estimates for tree growth throughout the region and decreased timber harvests in Russia. In contrast, the new data indicate a carbon pool that is smaller than earlier estimates because of improved data for Russia and Australia.

Basics for an evaluation of forests as sinks for carbon dioxide

Original non-english title: Grundlagen für eine Bewertung der Wälder als Kohlendioxidsenken.

Krapfenbauer, A. ¿ Hochbichler, E. (2003)

Centralblatt für das gesamte Forstwesen 120 (3-4): 177-210

English abstract: The Kyoto Protocol notes that forests are important sinks of carbon dioxide. Considering forests as sinks and forest management as a contribution to mitigation are often discussed contradictorily. Knowledge and expanded examples from literature are used to describe the problems considering forests as sinks for carbon dioxide. Case studies, based on local biomass inventories, are used to describe and discuss pools, fluxes and balances of carbon. The important role of hetrotrophic respiration within the carbon and nutrient cycle is pointed out. A continuous nutrient cycle driven by decomposition processes is the supply base for the forest ecosystem production. To prove that forests are real sinks or sources of carbon dioxide is not an easy issue.

A synthesis of literature on evaluation of models for policy applications, with implications for forest carbon accounting

Prisley, S.P. - Mortimer, M.J. (2004)

Forest Ecology and Management, available online 25 June 2004.

Abstract: Forest modeling has moved beyond the realm of scientific discovery into the policy arena. The example that motivates this review is the application of models for forest carbon accounting. As negotiations determine the terms under which forest carbon will be accounted, reported, and potentially traded, guidelines and standards are being developed to ensure consistency, accuracy, transparency and verifiability. To date, these guidelines have focused on definitions, data, and reporting, but not on models. The goal of this paper is to synthesize literature that may inform the development of guidelines for the application of models in areas with policy implications, such as forest carbon accounting. We discuss validation, verification, and evaluation as applied to modeling, and review common components of model evaluation. Peer review, quantitative analysis of model results, and sensitivity analysis are the most widely used approaches to model evaluation.

Pristine New Zealand forest soil is a strong methane sink.

Price, S.J. ¿ Sherlock, R.R. ¿ Kelliher, F.M. ¿ McSeveny, T.M. ¿ Tate, K.R. ¿ Condron, L.M. (2004)

Global-Change-Biology 10 (1): 16-26

Abstract: Methanotrophic bacteria oxidize methane (CH4) in forest soils that cover approx.30% of Earth's land surface. The first measurements for a pristine Southern Hemisphere forest are reported here. Soil CH4 oxidation rate (FCH4) averaged 10.5+-0.6 kg CH4 ha-1 yr-1, with the greatest rates in dry warm soil (up to 17 kg CH4 ha-1 yr-1). Methanotrophic activity was concentrated beneath the organic horizon at 50-100 mm depth. Water content was the principal regulator of FCH4 (r2=0.88) from the most common value of field capacity to less than half of this when the soil was driest. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that soil temperature was not very influential. However, inverse co-variability confounded the separation of soil water and temperature effects in situ. The soil was always a net sink for atmospheric CH4 and no net CH4 (or nitrous oxide, N2O) emissions were measured over the 17-month long study. For New Zealand, national-scale extrapolation of our data suggested the potential to offset 13% of CH4 emissions from ca. 90 M ruminant animals. Our average FCH4 was about 6.5 times higher than rates reported for most Northern Hemisphere forest soils. This very high FCH4 was attributed to the lack of anthropogenic disturbance for at least 3000-5000 years and the low rate of atmospheric nitrogen deposition. Our truly baseline data could represent a valid preagricultural, preindustrial estimate of the soil sink for temperate latitudes.

Effects of chronic N additions on tissue chemistry, photosynthetic capacity, and carbon sequestration potential of a red pine (Pinus resinosa Ait.) stand in the NE United States

Bauer, G.A. ¿ Bazzaz, F.A. ¿ Minocha, R. ¿ Long, S. ¿ Magill, A. ¿ Aber, J. ¿ Berntson, G.M.

Forest Ecology and Management, available online 20 June 2004.

Temperate forests are predicted to play a key role as important sinks for atmospheric carbon dioxide, which could be enhanced by nitrogen (N) deposition. However, experimental evidence suggests that the impact of N deposition on temperate forest productivity may not be as great as originally assumed. We investigated how chronic N addition affects needle morphology, nitrogen metabolism, photosynthetic capacity and foliage productivity. The investigation is based at the Harvard Forest (MA) as part of a now 15-year long N amendment study. Foliar N content in red pine (Pinus resinosa) of the high N treatment has significantly increased, but this increase was accompanied by a de-coupling of the photosynthesis¿N relationship. In addition needle longevity in the high N trees was significantly lower compared to the control trees. Conifers of the high N treatment did not use the surplus of N to optimize the amount of photosynthetically active metabolites. Instead N accumulated as soluble protein (other than Rubisco), amino acids and chlorophyll. Photosynthetic capacity in the control trees was about 50% higher than in the fertilized trees. These results indicate that the increase in leaf N is not accompanied by a greater capacity for carbon assimilation in the high N treatment. Using a simple model (PnET-Day) of canopy photosynthesis and carbon allocation, we assessed the long-term effect of these physiological changes on ecosystem carbon balance. The model results emphasize and reinforce the large difference between rates of carbon accumulation predicted to occur if net photosynthesis remained linearly related to foliar N concentration, and rates measured in the field.

Soil emissions of nitric oxide in two forest watersheds subjected to elevated N inputs

Venterea, R.T. ¿ Groffman, P.M. ¿ Castro, M.S. ¿ Verchot, L.V. ¿Fernandez, I.J. ¿Adams, M.B. (2004)

Forest Ecology and Management 196 (2-3): 335-349

Abstract: The production of nitric oxide (NO) in forest soils can indicate that the ecosystem is progressing toward a state of nitrogen (N) saturation. Soil NO emissions may also have impacts on local tropospheric ozone (O3) levels. During 2000¿2001, we made first-time measurements of NO emissions in two paired watershed studies. In each study, one watershed had been amended with aerial applications of 2.5¿3.5 g N m-2 per year above background atmospheric deposition rates since 1989, and an adjacent watershed served as a reference. In plots at the Fernow Experimental Forest (FEF) in West Virginia and the Bear Brook Watershed in Maine (BBWM), NO emissions in N-amended watersheds (0.61¿6.8 small mu, Greekg NO-N m-2 h-1) were higher than in the reference watersheds (0.21¿1.4 small mu, Greekg NO-N m-2 h-1). In the N-amended watershed at BBWM, NO fluxes in plots dominated by hardwood species were higher than in plots dominated by softwood species, in contrast to previous studies in other forests. Field NO fluxes were correlated with mineral soil nitrate (NO3-) concentrations (r2=0.65, P=0.016) across all plots, suggesting that NO emissions may be a reliable indicator of NO3- leaching potential. Laboratory experiments indicated that nitrification was the dominant source of NO at both sites. At BBWM, increased NO emissions in N-amended soil appeared to result from more rapid nitrification. In contrast, reduced soil pH in N-amended soil at FEF may have caused increased protonation of nitrification-derived nitrite, and the subsequent abiotic formation of NO, even though nitrification rates were not significantly higher than in unamended soil. The results suggest that enhanced soil NO emissions are a characteristic response in forests subjected to elevated N inputs. One possible consequence of higher NO emissions is an increase in O3-related phytotoxicity. This effect may mitigate the ability of forests to accumulate carbon in response to N inputs or increasing atmospheric CO2.

Impacts of fine root turnover on forest NPP and soil C sequestration potential

Matamala, R. - Gonzalez-Meler, M.A. ¿ Jastrow, J.D. ¿ Norby, R.J. - Schlesinger, W.H. (2003)

Science 302 (5649): 1385-1387

Abstract: Estimates of forest net primary production (NPP) demand accurate estimates of root production and turnover. We assessed root turnover with the use of an isotope tracer in two forest free-air carbon dioxide enrichment experiments. Growth at elevated carbon dioxide did not accelerate root turnover in either the pine (Pinus) or the hardwood forest. Turnover of fine root carbon varied from 1.2 to 9 years, depending on root diameter and dominant tree species. These long turnover times suggest that root production and turnover in forests have been overestimated and that sequestration of anthropogenic atmospheric carbon in forest soils may be lower than currently estimated.

Improved estimates of net carbon emissions from land cover change in the tropics for the 1990s

Achard, F. - Eva, H. D. - Mayaux, P. - Stibig, H.-J. ¿ Belward, A. (2004)

Global Biogeochem. Cycles 18, GB2008

Recent figures on net forest cover change rates of the world's tropical forest cover are used for the calculation of carbon fluxes in the global budget. By applying our deforestation findings in the humid tropics, complemented by published deforestation figures in the dry tropics, to refereed data on biomass, we produced new estimates of net carbon emissions. These estimates are supported by recent, independent estimations of net carbon emissions globally, over the Brazilian Amazon, and by observations of atmospheric CO2 emissions over Southeast Asia. Our best estimate for global net emissions from land-use change in the tropics is at 1.1 ± 0.3 Gt C yr-1. This estimate includes emissions from conversion of forests (representing 71% of budget) and loss of soil carbon after deforestation (20%), emissions from forest degradation (4.4%), emissions from the 1997¿1998 Indonesian exceptional fires (8.3%), and sinks from regrowths (-3.3%).

Forest conservation and the clean development mechanism: Lessons from the Costa Rican protected areas project

Vöhringer, F. (2004)

Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change 9 (3): 217

Abstract: Deforestation is currently the source of about 20% of anthropogenic CO2 emissions. Avoided deforestation has, nonetheless, been ruled out as a Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) category in the Kyoto Protocol's first commitment period, because several methodological issues were considered too difficult to resolve. This paper explores whether CDM issues such as (1) carbon quantification, (2) additionality and baseline setting, (3) leakage risks, (4) non-permanence risks, and (5) sustainable development can be adequately dealt with in large, diversified forest conservation projects. To this aim, it studies the case of the Costa Rican Protected Areas Project (PAP), an Activities Implemented Jointly (AIJ) project which was meant to consolidate the national park system to avoid deforestation, promote the growth of secondary forests and regenerate pastures on an area that, in total, covers 10% of the national territory. The case study examines how the issues mentioned above have been addressed in the project design and in the certification process. It is found that baseline uncertainties are the major problem in this case. Nonetheless, the case suggests the possibility to address CDM issues by specific requirements for project design and very conservative and temporary crediting. Provided that other case studies support this conclusion, eligibility of well-designed forest conservation projects under the CDM in the second commitment period may be worth considering, given the secondary benefits of avoided deforestation.

Carbon Monitoring Costs and their Effect on Incentives to Sequester Carbon through Forestry

Cacho, O.J. - Wise, R.M. - MacDicken, K.G. (2004)

Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change 9 (3): 273

Abstract: Technically, forestry projects have the potential to contribute significantly to the mitigation of global warming, but many such projects may not be economically attractive at current estimates of carbon (C) prices. Forest C is, in a sense, a new commodity that must be measured to acceptable standards for the commodity to exist. This will require that credible C measuring and monitoring procedures be in place. The amount of sequestered C that can be claimed by a project is normally estimated based on sampling a number of small plots, and the precision of this estimate depends on the number of plots sampled and on the spatial variability of the site. Measuring C can be expensive and hence it is important to select an efficient C-monitoring strategy to make projects competitive in the C market. This paper presents a method to determine whether a forestry project will benefit from C trading, and to find the optimal management strategy in terms of forest cycle length and C-monitoring strategy A model of an Acacia mangium plantation in southern Sumatra, Indonesia is used to show that forestry projects can be economically attractive under a range of conditions, provided that the project is large enough to absorb fixed costs. Modeling results indicate that between 15 and 38 Mg of Certified Emission Reductions (CERs) per hectare can be captured by the simulated plantation under optimal management, with optimality defined as maximizing the present value of profits obtained from timber and C. The optimal cycle length ranged from 12 to 16 years and the optimal number of sample plots ranged from 0 to 30. Costs of C monitoring (in present-value terms) were estimated to be between 0.45 (Mg C)-1 to 2.11 (Mg C)-1 depending on the spatial variability of biomass, the variable costs of C monitoring and the discount rate.


2) Forest and Climate Change News


First Ever Standards Linking Climate Change, Biodiversity and Poverty Opened Up for Global Peer Review

Global Collaboration between Private Sector, Conservation Groups and Academia seek practical solutions to fight global warming while conserving biodiversity and alleviating poverty

The first ever set of standards certifying land use projects that reduce global warming while conserving the environment and alleviating poverty have been opened up for global peer review and comment by the Climate, Community & Biodiversity Alliance (CCBA).

This "multiple benefit" approach which incorporates climate, environmental and social issues addresses shortfalls in existing land-based climate strategies. With input from environmental organizations, academic institutions and the private sector, the Climate, Community & Biodiversity (CCB) Standards will help companies, conservation organizations, governments and international funding groups to efficiently identify cost-effective carbon emission reduction projects that also have a positive impact on biodiversity and local communities.

The CCBA members include: BP, Conservation International, GFA Terra Systems, the Hamburg Institute of International Economics, Intel, The Nature Conservancy, Pelangi, and SC Johnson. Other institutions helping refine the standards and ensure broad input include the World Agroforestry Center (formerly ICRAF) in Kenya, the Centro Agronomico Tropical de Investigacion y Ensanansa (CATIE) based in Costa Rica, and the Center for International Forestry Research based in Indonesia.

All parties interested in reviewing and commenting on the standards can do so online at The first stage of the public comment period runs from June 7th through July 15th, 2004. Field-testing and a second round of comments will take place later this year.

The CCB standards are primarily designed for projects that mitigate or adapt to climate change. Land use, land-use change and forestry projects reduce or prevent emissions (e.g., conservation of threatened ecosystems), sequester carbon (e.g., ecosystem restoration, reforestation, agro-forestry, afforestation) or develop substitutes for fossil fuels (bioenergy projects). The Standards will work in developing, developed or emerging economies and can be used for projects with private investment, public investment or a combination.

The final CCB Standards will be distributed and available on the Internet in late 2004 or early 2005.

NASA Data Shows Deforestation Affects Climate in the Amazon

NASA satellite data are giving scientists insight into how large-scale deforestation in the Amazon Basin in South America is affecting regional climate. Researchers found during the Amazon dry season last August, there was a distinct pattern of higher rainfall and warmer temperatures over deforested regions.

(From Global Change Research)

New Zealand Government tackles the question of ¿who owns the carbon¿

The government of New Zealand agreed that some benefits of sink credits from afforestation and reforestation should accrue to those undertaking sink activities. Ownership of credits to landowners would provide the strongest incentives to protect and enhance sinks. However, the government also considered its ultimate responsibility to meet reduction obligations as the signatory of the KP.

Although controversial discussions are underway, the government intends to retain sink credits from all post-1990 commercial forests for the first commitment period. It will also accept liability for up to 10% of carbon losses from deforestation. Landowners who enter into contracts to manage post-1990 forests as ¿permanent forests¿, will be able to trade credits. Landowners accept the costs of generating the emission units and participating in emission trading, e.g. monitoring; they accept full responsibility for future emissions from the forest during a period of 35 years. After that time, selective harvesting while maintaining continuous canopy cover will be permitted. Contracts will be registered against land titles and will bind future land owners.

US Senate considers Climate Change in new Bill

The US Senate could consider Climate change legislation when it takes up another bill this week. The Climate change bill would provide for research on abrupt climate change and establish a market-driven system of greenhouse gas tradeable allowances including credits for reforestation and forest preservation, among other things. However, a similar bill has stalled in the House.

To read the text of the bill visit:

Forestry 'Carbon Credits' A Powerful Negotiating Tool?

The greenhouse-gas emission targets set in Kyoto two years ago could have a direct effect on the pockets of New Zealand¿s farmers and foresters.

(The MAF Rural Bulletin, June 2000)


3) Forest and Climate Change Info & Events


Forestry issues at SBSTA 20

The subsidiary bodies of the UNFCCC met from 16 to 25 June 2004 in Bonn, Germany. The 20th Session of the SBSTA negotiated on many ¿loose-end issues¿ related to forests, e.g. small-scale forestry projects under the CDM and carbon inventories in forests. Progress occurred on all issues; however, nearly all will carry over to SBSTA 21 and COP10 in Buenos Aires, Argentina, from December 6-17, 2004.

IPCC Good Practice Guidance (GPG) for land use and forestry

The GPG provides practices for measuring and reporting carbon changes in forests. COP hedged its agreement on the GPG dealing with the Kyoto Protocol¿s rules for afforestation, reforestation, deforestation (ARD) and forest management and on reporting tables. SBSTA will take a decision at COP10.

Harvested wood products

Forest products contain 10-20% of the carbon in forest ecosystems. Failing to account for this reservoir will punish countries that replace energy intensive materials by carbon neutral wood. Definitions, approaches, impacts and methods will be treated in an August workshop in Norway.

Dealing with ¿forest degradation¿ and ¿devegetation¿ in carbon accounting

Countries might gain credits from A&R and from those areas of their managed forest to which they apply the Protocol¿s ¿forest management¿, while actually liquidating carbon stores in other parts of their forest. IPCC compiled a report on how to define ¿forest degradation¿ (basically following conclusions of the FAO- led process on harmonizing forest-related definitions) and ¿devegetation¿, e.g. removal of ¿trees outside of forests¿, urban trees, or ¿other wooded land¿. SBSTA did not conclude.

Dealing with indirect human-induced effects and the effects of unbalanced age class distributions in forests carbon sequestration

Carbon sequestration often increases due to nitrogen deposition, CO2 enrichment, warming, or as a consequence of the age distribution within national forests. An IPCC report is due at COP10. Delivery appears doubtful after an inconclusive IPCC Expert Meeting in Geneva in September 20021. SBSTA will deliberate at its next session.

Review of greenhouse gas inventories and projections in forests

A note by the Secretariat reports on methods and analyzes country reports on carbon stock changes in their forests during the period 1990 ¿ 2001. The report allows comparisons with other internationally available data and exposes gaps in data and methods, reinforcing the need for more work on forest carbon inventories.
A common electronic reporting format for data will be tested. SBSTA deferred action.

Rules for small-scale afforestation and reforestation projects in the CDM

This project type is of great interest to developing countries, particularly in Africa and Central America. ¿Regular¿ larger-scale A&R projects represent normal, profitable investment opportunities for the private sector. Concerns persist about their social and environmental effects. Small-scale projects, by definition constrained to low- income rural populations and communities, can potentially deliver direct benefits to rural development. As they would not normally be economically feasible due to high fixed costs, both simplification and facilitation is essential. Negotiations stalled in the conflict between environmental integrity and practicality. Many difficult, highly technical details are delegated to the CDM Executive Board. A bracketed text will be considered at SBSTA 21.

Cooperation with relevant international organisations

The CCD Executive Secretary, Diallo, reported on the Viterbo Workshop on synergies between the Rio-Conventions ( Contrary to the Workshop Report, the report referred only fleetingly to National Forest Programmes, and not at all to the United Nations Forum on Forests (UNFF) and the Collaborative Partnership on Forests (CPF), created specifically for coordination and synergies. Mr. Diallo also reported on the last session of the "Joint Liaison Group" (JLG) of the three Secretariats ( The JLG will produce a "paper on options for enhanced collaboration" and will organize a next meeting on this topic, also reviewing ongoing collaborative activities.

FAO- IUCN- UNEP Workshop on small-scale afforestation and reforestation projects under the CDM, Bonn, June 13, 2004

Discussions with 20 participants from Asia, Africa and Latin America confirmed great interest of most developing countries in this forestry / agroforestry activity geared specifically to low income populations and rural communities. China is a notable exception. Simplifying rules will not by itself achieve economic feasibility; additional funds, e.g. ODA, and/or capacity building by international organizations( e.g. FAO, ICRAF) might be necessary for facilitating this project type, eliminating costly procedures, e.g. baseline or carbon measurement.

Side event on synergies between the Rio- Conventions in sustainable management and conservation of natural forests and plantations in New- Zealand

New Zealand¿s delegation to SBSTA 20 presented its solution to attain production and conservation goals, achieved by setting aside nearly all remaining natural forests and producing timber for domestic use and export in short rotation plantations. FAO joined the Natural Resources Defence Council, the World Business Council for Sustainable Development, and New Zealand¿s Marlborough Development Trust on the panel.

Transferability of the NZ model and NZ¿s future carbon ownership law were main topics. Owners enter into a contract with the Crown to create ¿permanent forests¿ and earn carbon credits (~$15/tC). Only after 35 years is selective harvest allowed; owners bear the risk of premature carbon release and all costs of implementing Kyoto rules. The contract is registered against the land title. The Crown claims all carbon on normal plantations, and assumes responsibility for 10% of the carbon lost in harvest or deforestation.

Workshop Announcement: Land-use Related Choices under the Kyoto Protocol

Obligations, Options and Methodologies for Defining ¿Forest¿ and for Selecting Activities under Kyoto Protocol Article 3.4

Graz / Austria, March 2005

Co-organizing entities (to be confirmed): Joanneum Research, European Environment Agency, FAO, JRC, CarboEurope, European Sink Expert Group

An international workshop will be organized that aims at elaborating on the above-mentioned matters and at facilitating countries¿ decision making. The workshop will offer policy relevant guidance on the choice of numerical values for parameters in the definition of forest, and for selection of Art. 3.4 activities. The guidance will be extended to ad hoc methods of estimation of GHG removals by sinks and emissions by sources from activities related to land use, land use change and forestry activities as needed for the decision making process. The information resulting from the workshop will be combined into a decision support system that is based on the IPCC Good Practice Guidance and is applicable for a wide range of Annex I Parties to the Kyoto Protocol.

Contact: [email protected]

Climate Change and Planning of CDM Projects in the Forestry and Bio-Energy Sectors

International Course

CATIE, Global Change Group, October 4th -8th 2004

For 5 years, the Tropical Agricultural Research and Higher Education Center (CATIE, Costa Rica) has been offering an intensive one-week course on climate change, forestry and bioenergy. The next session will be held from the 4th to the 8th of October2004 in Turrialba, Costa Rica.

This international course on planning of CDM projects in the forestry and bio-energy sectors does not only provide state of the art about climate change and its impacts, but also detailed information and practical training on how to design and negotiate CDM projects.

The course is offered by the Global Change Group working at the CATIE. The working language will be Spanish, though part of the literature will be in English.This year thanks to the Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation (SDC/COSUDE) there are a limited number of scholarships to partiticipants.

For more information on the requirements please go to
or contact to Mrs Zenia Salinas at
[email protected]

Meeting of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change

Mauritius 31 May ¿ 6 June, 2004

The meeting deliberated contents and assigned authors to specific tasks in the planned 2006 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories, which cover forests and other wooded lands, croplands, grasslands, livestock, wetlands and other land uses. Reporting covers CO2, methane, NOx, and other greenhouse gases.

Experts from 13 developing and 14 developed countries, as well as from FAO and the UNCCD participated.

Next Global Forest Resource Assessment by FAO in 2005

The Global Forest Resources Assessment (FRA) 2000 constitutes the most comprehensive and accessible global reporting on forest resources to date ( Breaking with a tradition of 10-year intervals, the next global FRA is scheduled for 2005. Efforts are made to harmonize and streamline reporting with other international forest-related processes within the framework of the Collaborative Partnership on Forests, as well as with the FAO initiated process of harmonization of forest-related definitions. The assessment is expected to help reducing the reporting burden on countries. As far as possible, FRA will report on forest biomass and carbon employing the recent IPCC Good Practice Guidance. Most of the primary data will come from Member countries through an established network of officially nominated national correspondents. They are encouraged to link up nationally with climate change, desertification and biodiversity focal points. Independent remote sensing surveys will complement national data. The incorporation of national information into the global database will be undertaken collaboratively and will be transparent and well documented.


4) New Publications


A value chain assessment of climate change and energy issues affecting the global forest-based industry

Global climate change means forest products companies have to anticipate and meet Kyoto Protocol requirements imposed by national governments. New research from the WBCSD examines the environmental and energy aspects of the climate change issue from the perspective of the forest-based industry value chain. Looking at the industry¿s value chain might help companies to understand the costs and benefits of proactively managing their carbon emissions.

To download the report: (PDF, 62 kb)

Economics of Sequestering Carbon in the U.S. Agricultural Sector

Lewandrowski, J. - Peters, M. - Jones, C - House, R. - Sperow, M. ¿ Eve, M. ¿Paustian, K.

Technical Bulletin No. (TB1909) 68 pp, March 2004

Abstract: Atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases can be reduced by withdrawing carbon from the atmosphere and sequestering it in soils and biomass. This report analyzes the performance of alternative incentive designs and payment levels if farmers were paid to adopt land uses and management practices that raise soil carbon levels. At payment levels below $10 per metric ton for permanently sequestered carbon, analysis suggests landowners would find it more cost effective to adopt changes in rotations and tillage practices. At higher payment levels, afforestation dominates sequestration activities, mostly through conversion of pastureland. Across payment levels, the economic potential to sequester carbon is much lower than the technical potential reported in soil science studies. The most cost-effective payment design adjusts payment levels to account both for the length of time farmers are willing to commit to sequestration activities and for net sequestration. A 50-percent cost-share for cropland conversion to forestry or grasslands would increase sequestration at low carbon payment levels but not at high payment levels.

To download a summary: (PDF, 48 kb)


5) Climate Change jobs


Internship at Ecofys available on Climate Change/Climate Policy (Ref. No. I-001-CC)

We would like to announce the extension of the submission date for applications for the internship position on climate change / climate policy that is currently available at Ecofys. Applications can be submitted until 15 July 2004 and sent to the attention of Ms. Jacqueline Crawford (e-mail: [email protected]) or to Ecofys GmbH, Eupener Str. 59, 50933 Cologne, Germany.

More information on the internship can be viewed at


IPA Energy Consulting, based in Edinburgh, Scotland, is currently recruiting for a Climate Change Consultant.

IPA is a specialised energy consultancy working in over 61 countries. Climate change and renewable energy forms one of IPA's 5 core areas of business.

We are looking for an enthusiastic self-starter to join our Climate Change and Renewable Energy team in a full-time position, starting as soon as possible.

The position requirements are as follows:

- excellent academic qualifications - at Masters or PhD level - in economics, engineering, law, environmental science, management or similar fields

- 1 to 5 years practical experience in climate change (in areas such as policy, regulation, project development, MRV, emissions projections - NOT climate modelling, unless combined with other relevant areas)

- experience with renewable energy would be an advantage (policy, regulation or project development)

- practical experience and a thorough understanding of the JI/CDM process (including writing PDDs) would be an advantage

- must have strong quantitative skills and the ability to work to very tight deadlines

- excellent written and spoken English is essential; other languages would be desirable

- international experience and willingness to travel would be an advantage

IPA offers attractive salary and bonus packages, together with relocation. Please send CVs to [email protected] marked 'Climate Change Consultant'.

Institute for Global Environmental Strategies (IGES)

The Institute for Global Environmental Strategies (IGES), a non-profit organization in Japan, is currently in its Third Phase (April 2004-March 2007) of Strategic Research. It is currently seeking applicants for the position of Research Fellow or Research Associate for the Forest Conservation Project.

Further details on the post and how to apply can be found in the Recruitment
Announcement of the following URL.


6) Websites of interest


Kyoto Forest Owners Launch Web Site

The Kyoto Forest Owners Association has launched a website to publicize issues and information in respect of their carbon credits and the governments expropriation of this property. You are invited to visit them at:


Thank you for your Inputs for this Issue: Frédéric Achard, Jason W. Anderson, Zenia Salinas



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1 The question of age effects is highly political, since young age-classes predominate in most national forests of industrialized countries. Many would like to gain credits for accumulating carbon stocks even though this is an effect of activities before 1990, which are ineligible under the Protocol.

last updated:  Tuesday, November 18, 2008