CLIM-FO-L No 3-2004


No. 4/2004

1) Research/Publications on Forest and Climate Change
2) Forest and Climate Change News
3) Forest and Climate Change Info & Events
4) New Publications
5) Websites of Interest
6) Climate Change jobs

1) Research/Publications on Forest and Climate Change

Appropriate measures for conservation of terrestrial carbon stocks-Analysis of trends of forest management in Southeast Asia

Kim Phat, N. - Knorr W. - Kim, S. (2004)

Forest Ecology and Management 191 (1-3): 283-299

ABSTRACT: Southeast Asia or ASEAN comprises 10 countries of different cultures and political background. Rapid economic development and fast-growing population in the region have raised much concern over the use of natural resources, especially forest resources. This study aims at finding the appropriate measures for sustainable use and management of tropical forests on a long-term basis. Between 1990 and 2000, about 2.3 million ha of forest were cleared every year and lost to other forms of land use. In terms of carbon emissions, a net amount of approximately 465 million t per year were released to the atmosphere over the same period, which amounts to 29% of the global net carbon release from deforestation worldwide. This study provides an approach to analyzing the implications of alternative forest and land management options on forest carbon stocks. This is done in three steps: First, observed trends in land use are expressed in terms of a model in order to create a scenario for the period 1980-2050. Second, forest management practices and timber production rates are analyzed and three management scenarios are created: (1) continuing the current rate of exploitation, (2) management for long-term economic gains, and (3) climate-beneficial management. Third, the impact of the three scenarios on regional carbon storage is estimated on the basis of a carbon balance model. Comparing the additional rate of carbon sequestration of scenario (3) over scenario (2), and taking into account differing management costs, we also discuss a framework for industrialized countries to invest in carbon credits in the region in order to fulfil their commitments under present and future climate protection agreements.

Stand restoration burning in oak-pine forests in the southern Appalachians: effects on aboveground biomass and carbon and nitrogen cycling

Hubbard, R. M. - Vose, J. M. - Clinton, B. D. - Elliott, K. J. Knoepp, J. D. (2004)

Forest Ecology and Management 190 (2-3): 311-321

ABSTRACT: Understory prescribed burning is being suggested as a viable management tool for restoring degraded oak-pine forest communities in the southern Appalachians yet information is lacking on how this will affect ecosystem processes. Our objectives in this study were to evaluate the watershed scale effects of understory burning on total aboveground biomass, and the carbon and nitrogen pools in coarse woody debris (CWD), forest floor and soils. We also evaluated the effects of burning on three key biogeochemical fluxes; litterfall, soil CO2 flux and soil net nitrogen mineralization. We found burning significantly reduced understory biomass as well as the carbon and nitrogen pools in CWD, small wood and litter. There was no significant loss of carbon and nitrogen from the fermentation, humus and soil layer probably as the result of low fire intensity. Burning resulted in a total net loss of 55 kg ha-1 nitrogen from the wood and litter layers, which should be easily replaced by future atmospheric deposition. We found a small reduction in soil CO2 flux immediately following the burn but litterfall and net nitrogen mineralization were not significantly different from controls throughout the growing season following the burn. Overall, the effects of burning on the ecosystem processes we measured were small, suggesting that prescribed burning may be an effective management tool for restoring oak-pine ecosystems in the southern Appalachians.

Prescribed burning and productivity in southern pine forests: a review

Carter, M. C. - Foster, C. D. (2004)

Forest Ecology and Management 191 (1-3): 93-109

ABSTRACT: Fire is an ancient tool but still widely used in the management of southern pine forests. Fire is a relatively inexpensive tool and has a number of beneficial uses such as removing logging debris, reducing wildfire risk, increasing the abundance of certain understory species, and maintaining or restoring certain ecological conditions. However, recent studies demonstrate that fire can play a significant role in regulating the productivity of certain ecosystems. Burning releases large quantities of carbon and essential nutrients to the atmosphere as gases and particulates. The adverse impact of these releases on air quality is widely recognized, but the potential impact of nutrient losses and changes in soil productivity have received less attention from southern pine managers. The effect of fire on nitrogen (N) pools is especially significant since N availability is one of the most common limiting factors in forest productivity. The amount of N lost during the burning of forest fuels is directly related to fuel consumption and ranges from 3 to 6 kg N Mg-1 of fuel consumed. The combined losses of N and other elements through harvesting and burning appear to exceed considerably the rate of replacement by natural processes, and may necessitate the regular application of fertilizer to maintain the nutrient capital of the site. Burning results in a short-term increase in soil available N and other nutrients immediately after burning, which stimulates the growth of understory vegetation; a desirable effect in some settings but also a source of competition for newly planted pine seedlings. A more thorough understanding of the biogeochemical effects of prescribed fire of varying frequencies and severities is needed to make optimum use of this tool in sustainable forest management.

Could payments for forest carbon contribute to improved tropical forest management?

Smith, J. - Applegate, G. (2004)

Forest Policy and Economics 6 (2): 153-167

ABSTRACT: Under the Kyoto Protocol industrialized countries will be able to meet carbon emission reduction commitments by financing forestry projects that sequester carbon in developing countries. While this mechanism would compensate for missing markets in forest environmental services, it could also enable industrialized countries to avoid reducing energy use. This paper assesses whether such projects could contribute to improved logging practices in the tropics. Results from studies primarily in Asia and Latin America are analyzed in the context of the modalities of the Kyoto Protocol. Results show that the opportunity cost of shifting from conventional logging to improved practices may have been underestimated. At the same time the long-term carbon and biodiversity benefits of improved forest management may have been underestimated. These results follow primarily from the fact that most previous studies assume that a permanent forest estate is maintained under conventional logging and that cutting cycles are as long as 30-60 years. A more realistic scenario, however, consists of repeated harvesting at short intervals during the first few decades, resulting in the degradation of the forest into shrub and grassland. The implications of these results are that forest management projects may be less cost-effective than previously assumed. Therefore, expectations about their potential contribution to improved management should be scaled down. At the same time, the extent to which such projects will enable industrialized countries to avoid reducing industrial pollution is also unlikely to be significant. Cost-effectiveness is likely to be highest where timber volumes in the first few decades after initial logging are comparable under conventional and improved logging. This is likely where topography is relatively flat, biodiversity values are low, wastage of felled timber is high and the policy environment is favorable. A number of proactive measures are suggested to expand the niche for forest management carbon projects. These measures are justified because the incremental carbon and biodiversity benefits in the long run may be higher than previous studies have indicated.

A Decision Matrix Approach to Evaluating the Impacts of Land-Use Activities Undertaken to Mitigate Climate Change

Kueppers, L. M. - Baer, P. - Harte, J. - Haya, B. - Laura E. Koteen, L. E. - Smith, M. E. (2004)

Climatic Change 63 (3): 247-257

ABSTRACT: Land-use activities that affect the global balance of greenhouse gases have been a topic of intense discussion during ongoing climate change treaty negotiations. Policy mechanisms that reward countries for implementing climatically beneficial land-use practices have been included in the Bonn and Marrakech agreements on implementation of the Kyoto Protocol. However some still fear that land-use projects focused narrowly on carbon gain will result in socioeconomic and environmental harm, and thus conflict with the explicit sustainable development objectives of the agreement. We propose a policy tool, in the form of a multi-attribute decision matrix, which can be used to evaluate potential and completed land-use projects for their climate, environmental and socioeconomic impacts simultaneously. Project evaluation using this tool makes tradeoffs explicit and allows identification of projects with multiple co-benefits for promotion ahead of others. Combined with appropriate public participation, accounting, and verification policies, a land-use activity decision matrix can help ensure that progressive land management practices are an effective part of the solution to global climate change.

Climate Change and People-Caused Forest Fire Occurrence in Ontario

Wotton, B. M. - Martell, D. L. - Logan, K. A. (2003)

Climatic Change 60 (3): 275-295

ABSTRACT: Climate change that results from increasing levels of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere has the potential to increase temperature and alter rainfall patterns across the boreal forest region of Canada. Daily output from the Canadian Climate Centre coupled general circulation model (GCM) and the Hadley Centre's HadCM3 GCM provided simulated historic climate data and future climate scenarios for the forested area of the province of Ontario, Canada. These models project that in climates of increased greenhouse gases and aerosols, surface air temperatures will increase while seasonal precipitation amounts will remain relatively constant or increase slightly during the forest fire season. These projected changes in weather conditions are used to predict changes in the moisture content of forest fuel, which influences the incidence of people-caused forest fires. Poisson regression analysis methods are used to develop predictive models for the daily number of fires occurring in each of the ecoregions across the forest fire management region of Ontario. This people-caused fire prediction model, combined with GCM data, predicts the total number of people-caused fires in Ontario could increase by approximately 18% by 2020-2040 and 50% by the end of the 21st century.

Forestry Projects under the Clean Development Mechanism?

van Vliet, O. P. R. - Faaij, A. P. C. - Dieperink, C. (2003)

Climatic Change 61 (1-2): 123-156

ABSTRACT: Afforestation is considered an important option for mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions. Recently, plantation projects have been suggested for inclusion under the Clean Development Mechanism. While considered a cheap option, significant uncertainties make it difficult to determine the (net) carbon benefits and profitability of forestry projects. The current uncertainties about the regulatory framework of the CDM and the environmental and economic performance of plantation forestry could create uncertainties with respect to the additionality of such projects and thus their acceptance under the mechanism. Six plantation forestry projects that were proposed in Brazil have been used as cases to study sources of uncertainty for carbon benefits and economics for such projects. These cases vary widely in terms of productivity and products delivered. A quantitative model for calculating greenhouse gas balances and financial benefits and costs, taking a broad range of variables into account, was developed. Data from the developers of the proposed projects was used as main source material. Subsequently, scenario's were evaluated, containing different and realistic options for baseline vegetation, carbon crediting systems and CDM modalities, fluctuations in product prices, discount rates and carbon prices. The real cost of combined carbon sequestration and substitution for the case projects was below $3 per ton of carbon avoided, when based exclusively on data supplied by project developers. However, potential variations in carbon impact and costs based on scenario options were very large. Different baseline vegetation or adopting a different discount rate cause carbon credits to vary by as much as an order of magnitude. Different carbon crediting systems or fluctuations in (commodity) product prices cause variations up to 200% in carbon credits and NPV. This makes the additionality of such projects difficult to determine. Five of the six case projects seem uneligible for development under the CDM. A critical attitude towards the use of plantation projects under the CDM seems justified.

A Review of Forest Carbon Sequestration Cost Studies: A Dozen Years of Research

Richards, K. R. - Stokes, C. (2004)

Climatic Change 63 (1-2): 1-48

ABSTRACT: Researchers have been analyzing the costs of carbon sequestration for approximately twelve years. The purpose of this paper is to critically review the carbon sequestration cost studies of the past dozen years that have evaluated the cost-effectiveness of the forestry option. Several conclusions emerge. While carbon sequestration cost studies all contain essentially the same components they are not comparable on their face due to the inconsistent use of terms, geographic scope, assumptions, program definitions, and methods. For example, there are at least three distinct definitions for a `ton of carbon' that in turn lead to significantly different meanings for the metric `dollars per ton of carbon'. This difference in carbon accounting further complicates comparison of studies. After adjusting for the variation among the studies, it appears that carbon sequestration may play a substantial role in a global greenhouse gas emissions abatement program. In the cost range of 10 to 150 dollars per ton of carbon it may be possible to sequester 250 to 500 million tons per year in the United States, and globally upwards of 2,000 million tons per year, for several decades. However, there are two unresolved issues that may seriously affect the contribution of carbon sequestration to a greenhouse gas mitigation program, and they will likely have counteracting effects. First, the secondary benefits of agricultural land conversion to forests may be as great as the costs. If that is the case, then the unit costs essentially disappear, making carbon sequestration a no-regrets strategy. In the other direction, if leakage is a serious issue at both the national and international levels, as suggested by some studies, then it may occur that governments will expend billions of dollars in subsidies or other forms of incentives, with little or no net gain in carbon, forests or secondary benefits. Preliminary results suggest that market interactions in carbon sequestration program analyses require considerably more attention. This is especially true for interactions between the forest and agricultural land markets and between the wood product sink and the timber markets.

Mitigating GHG Emissions in the Humid Tropics: Case Studies from the Alternatives to Slash-and-Burn Program (ASB)

Palm, C. - Tomich, T. - Van Noordwijk, M. - Vosti, S. - Gockowski, J. - Alegre, J. - Verchot, L. (2004)

Environment, Development and Sustainability 6 (1-2): 145-162

ABSTRACT: Tropical forest conversion contributes as much as 25% of the net annual CO2 emissions and up to 10 % of the N2O emissions to the atmosphere. The net effect on global warming potential (GWP) also depends on the net fluxes of greenhouse gases from land-use systems following deforestation. Efforts to mitigate these effects must take into account not only the greenhouse gas fluxes of alternative land-use systems but also the social and economic consequences that influence their widespread adoption. The global alternatives to slash-and-burn program (ASB) investigated the net greenhouse gas emissions and profitability of a range of land-use alternatives in the humid tropics. The analysis showed that many tree-based systems reduced net GWP compared to annual cropping and pasture systems. Some of these systems are also profitable in terms of returns to land and labour. The widespread adoption of these systems, however, can be limited by start-up costs, credit limitations, and number of years to positive cash flow, in addition to the higher labour requirements. Projects that offset carbon emissions through carbon sinks in land use in the tropics might be a means of overcoming these limitations. A synthesis of the findings from this program can provide guidelines for the selection and promotion of land-use practices that minimize net global warming effects of slash-and-burn.

Arbuscular mycorrhizae respond to plants exposed to elevated atmospheric CO2 as a function of soil depth

Rillig, M. C. - Field, C. B. (2003)

Plant and Soil 254 (2): 383-391

ABSTRACT: The importance of arbuscular mycorrhizae (AM) in plant and ecosystem responses to global changes, e.g. elevated atmospheric CO2, is widely acknowledged. Frequently, increases in AM root colonization occur in response to increased CO2, but also the lack of significant changes has been reported. The goal of this study was to test whether arbuscular mycorrhizae (root colonization and composition of root colonization) respond to plants grown in elevated CO2 as a function of soil depth. We grew Bromus hordeaceus L. and Lotus wrangelianus Fischer & C. Meyer monocultures in large pots with a synthetic serpentine soil profile for 4 yr in an experiment, in which CO2 concentration was crossed factorially with NPK fertilization. When analyzing root infection separately for topsoil (0-15 cm) and subsoil (15-45 cm), we found large (e.g., about 5-fold) increases of AM fungal root colonization in the subsoil in response to CO2, but no significant changes in the corresponding topsoil of Bromus. Only the coarse endophyte AM fungi, not the fine endophyte AM fungi, were responsible for the observed increase in the bottom soil layer, indicating a depth-dependent shift in the AM community colonizing the roots, even at this coarse morphological level. Other response variables also had significant soil layer CO2 interaction terms. The subsoil response would have been hidden in an unstratified assessment of the total root system, since most of the root length was concentrated in the top soil layer. The increased presence of mycorrhizae in roots deeper in the soil should be considered in sampling protocols, as it may be indicative of changed patterns of nutrient acquisition and carbon sequestration.

Fluxes of CO2 and CH4 in soil profiles of a mountainous watershed of Nepal as influenced by land use, temperature, moisture and substrate addition

Shrestha, B.M. - Sitaula, B.K. - Singh, B.R. - Bajracharya, R.M. (2004)

Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems 68 (2): 155-164

ABSTRACT: Effects of land use, moisture, temperature and substrate on production of CO2 and consumption of CH4 were measured in a series of laboratory incubation experiments on bulk soil samples from 0-10, 10-20, 20-40, 40-60, 60-80 and 80-100 cm soil depths under four dominant land uses [forest, grazing land, irrigated rice on level terraces (Khet), and upland maize-millet on sloping terraces (Bari)] of Mardi watershed (area=144 km2), Nepal. In addition, baseline physical and chemical properties of these soils were measured. The production of CO2-C day-1 per unit soil organic carbon (SOC) content in topsoil was lowest in grazing land, indicating a possibility of higher C sequestration with this land use than with other land uses. There was a decreasing trend of CO2 emission with soil depth in all land uses, as was also the case with the SOC content. The CO2 emission was increased by 90, 58, 27 and 23% for Bari, Khet, grazing and forest soil, respectively, with increase in moisture level from 40 to 60 % (w/w). The CO2 release from forest soil went up from 15 to 50 µg CO2 g-1 dry soil with increase in temperature from 5 to 15 C and it further increased to 67 µg CO2 g-1 at 20 C with estimated Q10 values of 3.4 and 1.8, respectively. Significantly higher amounts of CO2 were emitted from all the land use types upon addition of glucose to the soil, indicating high potential of microbial activity. Consumption of CH4 was more rapid in the soil from 10 to 20 cm depth for all the land use types. There was a 89% increase in CH4 consumption in forest soil with increase in moisture level from 40 to 60%, while it was decreased by 38, 73, and 40% for Khet, Bari and grazing soil, respectively. Addition of (NH4)2SO4 inhibited CH4 oxidation in soils of all land uses, indicating a negative effect of N fertiliser input on CH4 uptake in soil.

2) Forest and Climate Change News

Small-scale afforestation and reforestation projects under the CDM

The Conference of the Parties, requested the Subsidiary Body for Scientific and Technological Advice (SBSTA) to recommend a draft decision on simplified modalities and procedures for small-scale afforestation and reforestation project activities under the CDM and on measures to facilitate these project activities, for adoption by the COP at its tenth session. The COP invited Parties and accredited observers to submit to the secretariat their views on how to facilitate the implementation of small-scale afforestation and reforestation project activities under the CDM. The secretariat has received 10 such submissions from Parties. The secretariat has also received two submissions from intergovernmental organizations.

These submissions will be found soon in document FCCC/WEB/2004/1, available at Currently, the site is under preparation.

EU draft rules threaten NZ carbon credit cash

Draft rules for the European Union's carbon credits market would exclude New Zealand's forest sink credits.

(from New Zealand Herald)

'Untouched' rainforest hit by environmental change

CO2 surplus could lead to demise of slower growing trees. Supposedly pristine regions of the Amazon rainforests are being affected by changes in the environment, say researchers in Panama. The species composition of ecosystems is changing even in remote areas, they report in Nature.

(from Nature)

Amazon destruction speeds up

New satellite information from Brazil has revealed a sharp increase in the rate of destruction of the Amazonian rainforest.

(from BBC News)

Kyoto Protocol Becomes Binding For European Union

(from UN Wire)

Greenhouse Gases Linked To Drop In Amazon Tree Diversity

The Amazon's most remote regions have changed dramatically over the past two decades, with slower-growing trees losing out to other species in what scientists believe is a manifestation of climate change, the London Independent reports today.

(from UN Wire)

US forest district eyes carbon market

The DuPage County Forest Preserve District is exploring a new market in which polluting industries pay for the creation in the US will spend almost $150,000 on pilot projects designed to explore the newly emerging carbon market.

(from Point Carbon)

Status of forest-based carbon sinks

After many years of debate and policy negotiations forest-based carbon sinks are now able to play a role in emissions trading and investment. The current status and prospects are viewed from a business perspective.

(from Australasian Emissions Trading Forum (AETF))

Issue February/March 2004

3) Forest and Climate Change Info & Events

2. Latin American Carbon Sequestration Symposium

Summary: Climate Change is one of the most discussed topics around the world nowadays. The subject is profoundly related to another subject: carbon sequestration. These issues are influencing global politics, economy and even culture. In view of these facts, the second edition of this event will serve for the national and international society, scientific, business and political communities to present their papers and to share experiences.

The objective of the event is to get professionals, enterprises, government, and organizations together to discuss issues such as: sustainable methodologies for CDM projects, national legislation and decisions related to Kyoto Protocol referendum (COP 9), tendencies of the carbon market, implemented cases, eligible indicators for CDM projects, approved projects in Brazil (FNMA - Environment National Fund, World Bank, bilateral deals) and the technical and economical viability for CDM projects.

The event will focus on the presentation of invited lecturers, oral presentation of scientific articles evaluated by the scientific committee and through a dynamic discussion when the lectures will answer participant's questions. A book composed by invited articles will be launched during the event.

The enrolment for the Symposium is already opened. The number of participants will be limited to 500.


Reitoria Theater

1299 XV de Novembro Street, downtown, Curitiba, Paraná, Brazil.


From April 21st, 2004 to April 24th, 2004.

For further information in Spanish, English, and Portuguese:

The Best CDM Project 2004 Competition

Large or small, landfill or reforestation? The best CDM project of 2004 will be selected by an independent jury at Carbon Market Insights 2004 in Amsterdam.

The winner project will be selected at the CDM sessions on 21 April by an independent jury pointed out by Point Carbon. However, all delegates attending the Carbon Market Insights 2004 conference can vote for the CDM project of the year.


Werner Betzenbichler, TÜV Süddeutschland

Einar Telnes, DNV

Gareth Phillips, SGS

Sumie Nakayama, J-Power

Ben Pearson, CDM Watch

(from CDM Monitor)

Carbon Market Insights 2004

Organized by Point Carbon

Date: 20-21 April 2004

Amsterdam, The Netherlands

The annual event for the world's carbon markets: a Point Carbon conference. Concise viewpoints on recent carbon market developments and likely future directions from high-profile speakers. For details and to sign up, go to:

4) New Publications

A Climate Policy Framework: Balancing Policy and Politics

Proceedings from the joint Aspen Institute/Pew Center Conference, March 2004.

A diverse group of business, government, and environmental leaders, brought together by the Aspen Institute and the Pew Center, recommends a framework for a mandatory greenhouse gas reduction program for the United States.

Discussion paper on LULUCF: Integrating Land Use, Land Use Change, and Forestry into a Mandatory National Greenhouse Gas Reduction Program

By R. Neil Sampson, pp. 63-72.

This discussion paper examines policy issues that might arise if land use, land use change, and forestry (LULUCF) practices and projects were incorporated into options of a mandatory national greenhouse gas reduction program: a comprehensive upstream cap-and-trade program and a sectoral hybrid program that combines a large-source downstream cap-and-trade program with product efficiency standards.

LULUCF incorporation into a mandatory national program might take three basically different approaches:

* An opt-in market approach, where emitters can purchase carbon sequestration credits created in LULUCF projects that can help achieve compliance with an emissions cap.

* A combination approach where opt-in market credits and federal incentives

* (i.e. subsidies, technical assistance, etc.) are both featured.

5) Websites of Interest

The Collaborative Partnership on Forests Sourcebook discussion forums

Do you need help and advice from an on-line expert in obtaining funding for forest-related projects?

An on-line forum has been set-up by the Collaborative Partnership on Forests and the National Forest Programme Facility to allow people to share information, ideas and experiences on funding for forest-related projects.

The on-line forum aims at helping fund seekers to further and enhance their funding search process as well as increase their skills on how to go about soliciting funding for their projects. Representatives of grant making bodies are also invited to post news and advice for potential applicants.

Links to the forum:



For more information and guidance on how to post messages, see the following URL:

Pilot project offers incentive for new climate change investment in agriculture and forestry sectors

The Government of Canada has launched the Pilot Emission Removals, Reductions and Learnings (PERRL) Initiative, seeking proposals to enhance carbon sinks on agricultural and forest land.

CDM Brazil

The website on Carbon Trade Projects, which until recently was under construction, has been completed. The site is directed to the public interested in carbon trade projects. It provides links to:

- projects looking for investors;

- further information on carbon trade rules;

- other consulting services related to carbon trade.

6) Climate Change jobs

Carbon Sequestration Internship

The World Land Trust is an international conservation charity, working to protect threatened habitats worldwide. WLT manages several overseas projects and is currently investigating the implications of carbon sequestration in the development of future projects.

WLT currently has a vacancy for a Project Development Assistant (Carbon Sequestration), to join the team as part of our internship programme, focussing on the research and development of carbon sequestration and conservation. The internships offered by the WLT are fixed 6- month voluntary positions.

This post requires a good communicator with background knowledge of the issues surrounding global warming, carbon sequestration and the Kyoto Protocol.

For further information, contact Kirsty Burgess at [email protected] or see for further details.

GHG Protocol Initiative - World Resources Institute (WRI)

The GHG Protocol Initiative has an Associate position available in Washington DC. We are looking for someone to:

* Play a key role in advancing the accounting and reporting procedures for GHG projects - the Project Quantification Standards

* Develop sector specific guidance for electricity and/or land-use projects that is consistent with the Project Quantification Standards

* Develop calculation tools for measuring GHG emissions from different sources; and

* Engage in policy issues relevant to WRI's domestic climate policy.

Please see the job description for more information:

Closing date is April 12th, 2004.

International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA)

The International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA) is seeking research scholars for five positions related to its new interdisciplinary Greenhouse Gas Initiative. These positions span a range of fields including forestry, land use, agriculture, energy systems, technology dynamics, and decision analysis.

Briefly, the positions consist of:

1. Forestry modeling

Will contribute to the expansion of a global and spatially explicit forestry model of joint production of greenhouse gas mitigation benefits, biomass for energy, and timber; collect new information for the model on forest growth and engineering-type cost functions; and integrate the model with the broader integrated assessment framework.

2. Technology dynamics

Will contribute to the development of models of technological choice and diffusion under existence of innovation uncertainty, presence of increasing returns, and heterogeneous agents.

3. Energy and environmental systems modeling

Will work with the GGI team on various aspects of model development and quantitative analysis, including modifications of the IIASA energy systems model MESSAGE for use in country specific analysis, developing methods for linking different models, and providing modeling support for uncertainty analysis.

4. Land use and environmental systems modeling

Will contribute to incorporating carbon cycle and non-CO2 greenhouse gas cycle dynamics into the IIASA spatially explicit Agro-Ecological Zone model; modeling bio-energy supply within IIASA's global and regional agricultural trade model (BLS); and assisting in developing/testing methodologies for spatial downscaling of regional and country-level information.

5. Land use and agriculture

Will assist with the creation of a database quantifying nitrous oxide and methane emissions from agricultural practices.

For details on the available positions, see IIASA's website at:

Ecofys Netherlands

Ecofys Netherlands invites interested and qualified senior consultants to apply for our two vacancies in the department energy and climate strategies:

1. Senior energy market specialist

Work concentrates on energy supply analysis and energy market developments, including understanding of electricity production systems, energy price setting, trading arrangements, design of market strategies and response to important market aspects such as security of energy supply.

2. Senior climate change specialist

Topics covered include future commitments on emission reductions, implementation of emmissions trading systems, baseline methologies for project-based carbon trading and capacity building to government and corporate clients.

Applicants must have over 5 years professional experience and should have a demonstrable experience in acquisition of projects in the indicate market areas. You will be responsible for a part of the team's acquisition and will be responsible for management and operation of projects in the above mentioned areas, including supervision of project team staff.

For more information of these vacancies see:

Please send your application and CV before the end of March to Ecofys, att. Martine van Manen, P.O. Box 8408, 3503 RK Utrecht or by e-mail to: mailto:[email protected]

Conservation International: Advisor, Agroforestry

Conservation International is recruiting an agroforestry advisor to work in its conservation enterprise team, based in Washington DC. CI's technical specialists are responsible for guiding regional programs and partners in developing sustainable, independent businesses that are integrated into their biodiversity conservation strategies. This position will support the development of agricultural practices that promote conservation in coffee and cocoa enterprises. It will also help build capacity and develop approaches for local management of these practices. It will further support CI's private sector partners to promote conservation concepts in their supply chain. In common with all technical positions, it will also fundraise for CI's agroforestry activities.

The successful candidate will have:

* Masters degree in field related to agricultural policy and practice

* Experience of project implementation in tropical countries in the agricultural sector

* Understanding of biodiversity and impacts of agriculture on the environment

* Knowledge of coffee sector

* Very good level of spoken and written English and Spanish

* Five years experience of working in tropical countries, including in Latin America

* High level of writing skills, evidenced in reports and proposals

* Track record in fundraising

* Excellent inter-personal and communication skills, especially in multi-cultural situations

* Willingness to travel up to 25% of time, in rural environments

CI will give preference to candidates who can further demonstrate

* Knowledge of cocoa sector

* Experience in monitoring and evaluation systems and defining indicators

* Knowledge of current research issues in agriculture and biodiversity, especially corridors

Applicants should send a cover letter and CV by mail, e mail or fax by 23rd April 2004 to:

Katie Kelly, Conservation Enterprise Department,

Conservation International,

1919 M Street, NW, Suite 600,

Washington, DC 20036

Fax: 202 912 0765; e mail: [email protected]


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