CLIM-FO No.2-2004


No. 3/2004

1) Publications on Forest and Climate Change
2) Forest and Climate Change News
3) Forest and Climate Change Info & Events
4) New Books
5) Climate Change Jobs
6) Websites of Interest


1) Publications on Forest and Climate Change

Modelling of beech forest dynamics in the Bieszczady Mountains in response to climate change

Kozak, I. - Menshutkin, V. - Jozwina, M. - Potaczala, G. (2003)

Ekologia Bratislava 22: 152-161

ABSTRACT: Results of an investigation of a beech forest succession in response to climatic changes in the Bieszczady Mountains using modelling techniques are presented in this report. The applied model was verified according to field observations in 1998-2001 in a beech forest. Tree biomass and tree number was predicted for the next 600 years. Beech (Fagus sylvatica) dominated when mean annual temperature increased by 2°C. A decrease in temperature by 2°C made fir (Abies alba) dominant. Scenario 3 (warm and humid) increased beech biomass. That trend was also characteristic for a cold and humid scenario. In a dry climate, beech trees declined and the number of fir trees increased.

Impact of forest fires on the regional climate

Joshi, S.C. (2003)

Current Science 85 (1): 41-45

ABSTRACT: Despite the importance of forest fires as an important source of greenhouse gases and aerosols, no research till date has focused on the impact of forest fires on regional climate. This article shows how forest fires of different severity, in terms of forest area burnt (1747.48 and 40195 ha in 1996-97 and 1999, respectively), modify the atmospheric CO2 concentrations and environmental variables such as temperature, solar radiation and relative humidity. These variables were measured for 40 days from 10 April to 19 May during the year of 1996 and 1999 at Srinagar (Garhwal, India). Data indicate that forest fires, depending upon their severity, may have the potential to cause significant changes in the CO2 content and climatic elements, particularly solar radiation and temperature only in the short-term rather than in the long-term basis. The fire impacts vanished with the onset of rainfall in May.

Assessing the impact of land-use change on soil C sequestration in agricultural soils by means of organic matter fractionation and stable C isotopes

Del Galdo, I. ¿ Six, J. ¿ Peressotti, A. ¿ Cotrufo, M.F. (2003)

Global Change Biology 9 (8): 1204-1213

ABSTRACT: Within the framework of the Kyoto Protocol, the potential mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions by terrestrial ecosystems has placed focus on carbon sequestration following afforestation of former arable land. Central to this soil C sequestration are the dynamics of soil organic matter (SOM). In North Eastern Italy, a mixed deciduous forest was planted on continuous maize field soil with a strong C4 isotopic C signature 20 years ago. In addition, a continuous maize field and a relic of the original permanent grassland were maintained at the site, thus offering the opportunity to compare the impacts on soil C dynamics by conventional agriculture, afforestation and permanent grassland. Soil samples from the afforested, grassland and agricultured systems were separated in three aggregate size classes, and inter- vs. intra-aggregate particulate organic matter was isolated. All fractions were analysed for their C content and isotopic signature. The distinct 13 C signature of the C derived from maize vegetation allowed the calculation of proportions of old vs. forest-derived C of the physically defined fractions of the afforested soil. Long-term agricultural use significantly decreased soil C content (-48%), in the top 10 cm, but not SOM aggregation, as compared to permanent grassland. After 20 years, afforestation increased the total amount of soil C by 23% and 6% in the 0-10 and in the 10-30 cm depth layer, respectively. Forest-derived carbon contributed 43% and 31% to the total soil C storage in the afforested systems in the 0-10 and 10-30 cm depths, respectively. Furthermore, afforestation resulted in significant sequestration of new C and stabilization of old C in physically protected SOM fractions, associated with micro aggregates (53-250 µm) and silt & clay ( < 53 µm).

Residue management effects on soil carbon and nutrient contents and growth of second rotation eucalypts

Mendham, D. S. - OConnell, A. M. - Grove T. S. - Rance S. J. (2003)

Forest Ecology and Management 181 (3): 357-372

ABSTRACT: We examined tree growth and dynamics of organic matter and soil nutrient pools annually for 7 years under contrasting harvest residue management treatments in south-western Australia. Two second rotation Eucalyptus globulus sites were established on soils of contrasting fertility and productivity. Harvest residues were either (i) burnt, (ii) removed, (iii) retained, or (iv) retained at double the normal quantity. More than 31 and 51 Mg ha-1 of harvest residues resulted from harvesting of 8-year-old first rotation stands at a low fertility Grey Sand site, and a higher fertility Red Earth site, respectively. Harvest residue retention increased tree growth at the lower fertility Grey Sand site, but had no effect on plantation productivity at the Red Earth site up to 7 years. Burning resulted in a direct loss of most of the organic material, and up to 200, and 350 kg ha-1 of N at the Grey Sand and Red Earth sites, respectively. Significant quantities of organic material in harvest residues (>50 Mg ha-1 C in the double residues treatment at the Red Earth site) had a limited effect on soil C pools during the 7 years of this study. Retention of residues limited immediate losses of nutrients, and resulted in higher quantities of soil exchangeable K, Ca and Mg during the 7 years after establishment. However, the content of soil exchangeable cations, especially K, decreased during the first 4 years of establishment in all treatments, including those where residues were retained. After 4 years, cation quantities in soil started to increase again, probably due to the decomposition of leaves and twigs from litter fall.

Measurement and prediction of biomass and carbon content of Pinus pinaster trees in farm forestry plantations, south-western Australia

Ritson, P. ¿ Sochacki, S. (2003)

Forest Ecology and Management 175 (1-3): 103-117

ABSTRACT: A total of 148 Pinus pinaster trees from 18 farm plantations in south-western Australia were destructively sampled to develop biomass and carbon mass prediction equations for inventory application. Sampling covered a range of ages (1¿47-year-old), sizes (e.g. DBH 0¿47 cm) and spacings (close- and open-spaced arrangements). Equations were developed to predict biomass and carbon mass of whole-trees and tree components (stems, crowns, tops and roots) as functions of stem diameter (DBH), tree height (h) and height to crown base (hc) or basal stem diameter (d10) of small trees. One equation was sufficient to predict biomass (or carbon mass) of both close- and open-spaced trees as a function of DBH and hc. For developing prediction equations a weighted non-linear (WNL) model was always best if DBH was included in the predictor variables. Either a log-transformed allometric (LTA) model or the WNL model were best for predictions as a function of d10, but a weighted combined variable (WCV) model was never best. Root:shoot (R:S) ratio decreased with increasing tree size in both close- and open-spaced trees but was higher in open-spaced trees than close-spaced trees of the same size. From literature review, we conclude that increased partitioning of biomass to roots in open-spaced stands may be due to increased light availability or, more likely, more pronounced root thickening on open-spaced trees in response to greater mechanical stress from wind sway.

The regional climate effects of replacing farmland and re-greening the desertification lands with forest or grass in West China

Wei Lai, S. ¿ Wang Han, J. ¿ Shi WL - Wang H.J. (2003)

Advances in Atmospheric Sciences 20 (1): 45-54

ABSTRACT: The West Development Policy being implemented in China causes significant land use and land cover (LULC) changes in West China, of which the two most important types of LULC change are replacing farmland and re-greening the desertification land with forest or grass. This paper modifies the prevailing regional climate model (RCM) by updating its lower boundary conditions with the up-to-date satellite database of the Global Land Cover Characteristics Database created by the United States Geological Survey and the University of Nebraska-Lincoln. The modified RCM was used to simulate the possible regional climate changes due to the LULC variations. The preliminary results can be summarized as that the two main types of LULC variation, replacing farmland and greening the desertification lands with forest or grass in west China, will affect the regional climate mostly in northwest and north China, where the surface temperature will decrease and the precipitation will increase. The regional climate adjustments in South, Southwest China and on the Tibet Plateau were uncertain.

The role of the greenhouse gas market in making forestry pay

Trexler, M.C. (2003)

Unasylva English ed. 54 (212): 34-36

ABSTRACT: This paper discusses the incentives, innovative marketing mechanisms, and the costs and benefits of the greenhouse gas market to promote profitable forestry-sector projects. Market mechanisms such as emissions trading are uniquely suitable to climate change mitigation objectives. A reduction of greenhouse gas emission has the same effect on the atmosphere no matter where the reduction occurs. Through an emissions trading market, companies in industrialized countries with emissions reduction mandates could purchase greenhouse gas credits from carbon offset projects in developing and other industrialized countries.

Climate change in Australian tropical rainforests: an impending environmental catastrophe

Williams, S.E. ¿ Bolitho, E.E. - Fox S. (2004)

Proceedings: Biological Sciences 270 (1527): 1887-1892

ABSTRACT: It is now widely accepted that global climate change is affecting many ecosystems around the globe and that its impact is increasing rapidly. Many studies predict that impacts will consist largely of shifts in latitudinal and altitudinal distributions. However, we demonstrate that the impacts of global climate change in the tropical rainforests of northeastern Australia have the potential to result in many extinctions. We develop bioclimatic models of spatial distribution for the regionally endemic rainforest vertebrates and use these models to predict the effects of climate warming on species distributions. Increasing temperature is predicted to result in significant reduction or complete loss of the core environment of all regionally endemic vertebrates. Extinction rates caused by the complete loss of core environments are likely to be severe, nonlinear, with losses increasing rapidly beyond an increase of 2 degrees C, and compounded by other climate-related impacts. Mountain ecosystems around the world, such as the Australian Wet Tropics bioregion, are very diverse, often with high levels of restricted endemism, and are therefore important areas of biodiversity. The results presented here suggest that these systems are severely threatened by climate change.

Prediction of decomposition of litter under eucalypts and pines using the FullCAM model

Paul, K. I. - Polglase P. J. (2004)

Forest Ecology and Management; In Press, Available online 2/2004

ABSTRACT: The FullCAM model was designed, by the Australian Greenhouse Office, for full carbon accounting in forests at project and national scales, and links the empirical carbon tracking model CAMFor to models of tree growth (3PG), litter decomposition (GENDEC), and soil carbon turnover (RothC). We collated data from 385 studies of decomposition of foliage, bark and wood litter in eucalypt and pine forests for calibration and validation of two alternative sub-models available within FullCAM for decomposition: empirical algorithms in CAMFor, and the process-based GENDEC (requiring additional data on the chemical properties of litter and nitrogen availability). Decomposition rates were derived using short-term litterbag studies to determine mass loss after 1 year, or using long-term rates of litter accumulation from known amounts of litterfall inputs. Half of the data from the litterbag studies were used for calibration of CAMFor, while GENDEC was calibrated using litterbag studies where the chemical properties of litter components had been measured. Remaining data for litterbag studies not used for calibration, and litter accumulation studies, were used for model validation. CAMFor accounted for 60¿67% of the variation in decomposition of foliage, bark and dead wood of eucalypts and pines, while GENDEC accounted for only 53¿56% of this variation. Therefore, despite its simpler structure, decomposition was more accurately predicted using CAMFor than GENDEC. Results suggested that it was important to account for the effect of temperature and rainfall on decomposition, but utilising data on the chemical composition of litter was less useful. Performance of the two sub-models was comparable when decomposition rates were calibrated together with the fraction of carbon in the fast, medium and slow pools of litter simulated by GENDEC, rather than this partitioning of carbon between pools being restrained by actual values of lignin, cellulose and soluble content of each component of litter.

Tropical Deforestation and the Kyoto Protocol: a new proposal

Santilli, M. - Moutinho, P. - Schwartzman, S. - Nepstad, D. - Lisa Curran, L. - Nobre, C. (2003)

ABSTRACT: Stabilizing greenhouse gas concentrations at a level that avoids ¿dangerous anthropogenic interference¿ with the climate system is the central goal of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. If Kyoto Protocol emissions reductions targets are met by 2012, and global emissions begin to decrease, the most disruptive predictable impacts of warming could be avoided1 over the long run. But tropical forests are the wild card in the global carbon emissions budget - continued deforestation at current annual rates from Brazil and Indonesia alone would equal four fifths of the emissions reductions gained by implementing the Kyoto Protocol in its first commitment period, jeopardizing the goal of avoiding dangerous interference. Conversely, were the Kyoto Protocol to include incentives for addressing deforestation, countries such as Brazil and Indonesia might lower their substantial current emissions from tropical deforestation, and others, such as Peru, Bolivia, Columbia and some African nations could avoid future increases in deforestation. We propose the novel concept of ¿compensated reduction¿, whereby countries that elect to reduce national level deforestation to below a 1980-1990 level would receive post facto compensation, and commit to, stabilize or further reduce deforestation in the future.Such a program could create large scale incentives to reduce tropical deforestation, as well as for broader developing country participation in the Kyoto Protocol, and leverage support for the ratification and continuity of Protocol beyond the 2008 ¿ 2012 first commitment period.

Source: available for download(PDF)

Carbon management and biodiversity

Huston, M.A. ¿Marland, G. (2003)

Journal of Environmental Management 67 (1): 77-86

ABSTRACT: International efforts to mitigate human-caused changes in the Earths climate are considering a system of incentives (debits and credits) that would encourage specific changes in land use that can help to reduce the atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide. The two primary land-based activities that would help to minimize atmospheric carbon dioxide are carbon storage in the terrestrial biosphere and the efficient substitution of biomass fuels and bio-based products for fossil fuels and energy-intensive products. These two activities have very different land requirements and different implications for the preservation of biodiversity and the maintenance of other ecosystem services. Carbon sequestration in living forests can be pursued on lands with low productivity, i.e. on lands that are least suitable for agriculture or intensive forestry, and are compatible with the preservation of biodiversity over large areas. In contrast, intensive harvest-and-use systems for biomass fuels and products generally need more productive land to be economically viable. Intensive harvest-and-use systems may compete with agriculture or they may shift intensive land uses onto the less productive lands that currently harbor most of the Earths biodiversity. Win¿win solutions for carbon dioxide control and biodiversity are possible, but careful evaluation and planning are needed to avoid practices that reduce biodiversity with little net decrease in atmospheric carbon dioxide. Planning is more complex on a politically subdivided Earth where issues of local interest, national sovereignty, and equity come into play.

Preliminary study of prairies forested with Eucalyptus sp. at the northwestern Uruguayan soils

Carrasco Letelier, L. - Eguren, G. - Castiñeira, C. - Parra, O. - D. Panario (2002)

Environmental Pollution 127 (1): 49-55

Abstract: The land cover change of Uruguayan Forestal Plan provoked biogeochemical changes on horizon Au1 of Argiudols; in native prairies which were replaced by monoculture Eucalyptus sp. plantation with 20 year rotations as trees. Five fields forested and six natural prairies were compared. The results not only show a statistical significant soil acidification, diminution of soil organic carbon, increase of aliphaticity degree of humic substances, and increase of affinity and capacity of hydrolytic activity from soil microbial communities for forested sites with Eucalyptus sp. but also, a tendency of podzolization and/or mineralization by this kind of land cover changes, with a net soil organic lost of 16.6 tons ha-1 in the horizon Au1 of soil under Eucalyptus sp. plantation compared with prairie. Besides, these results point out the necessity of correction of the methodology used by assigned Uruguayan commission to assess the national net emission of greenhouse gases, since the mineralization and/or podzolization process detected in forested soil imply a overestimation of soil organic carbon. The biochemical parameters show a statistical significant correlation between the soil organic carbon status and these parameters which were presented as essential for the correct evaluation of Uruguayan soil carbon sink.

Ruling on the crunch issues of land use, land-use change and forestry: impacts on project viability

Pedroni, L. (2003)

International Journal of Global Energy Issues 20 (1): 75-94

ABSTRACT: Carbon sequestration in forests is undoubtedly one of the most controversial issues of the Kyoto Protocol. Whilst there is agreement that temporary carbon storage in forests contributes to delaying climate change, there is still much controversy about the rules and procedures that should be implemented to give credits to afforestation and reforestation activities under the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM). This paper analyses the viability of two reforestation projects in Nicaragua and Honduras under different scenarios of carbon accounting methodologies, prices for Certified Emission Reductions (CERs), and levels of leakage and risks associated with the projects. Analysis of the scenarios shows that the financial viability of the projects is a function of the carbon accounting methodology used. The current price of CO2 and the rules that are being proposed to address the crunch issues of Land Use, Land-Use Change and Forestry (LULUCF) will inevitably exclude small scale projects from the CDM.

Carbon sequestration in arid-land forest

Grünzweig J.M. - Lin T. - Rotenberg E. - Schwartz A. - Vakir D. (2003)

Global Change Biology 9 (5): 791-799

ABSTRACT: Rising atmospheric CO2 concentrations may lead to increased water availability because the water use efficiency of photosynthesis (WUE) increases with CO2 in most plant species. This should allow the extension of afforestation activities into drier regions. Using eddy flux, physiological and inventory measurements we provide the first quantitative information on such potential from a 35-year old afforestation system of Aleppo pine (Pinus halepensis Mill.) at the edge of the Negev desert. This 2800 ha arid-land forest contains 6.5 ± 1.2 kg C m-2, and continues to accumulate 0.13-0.24 kg C m-2 yr-1. The CO2 uptake is highest during the winter, out of phase with most northern hemispheric forest activity. This seasonal offset offers low latitude forests 10 ppm higher CO2 concentrations than that available to higher latitude forests during the productive season, in addition to the 30% increase in mean atmospheric CO2 concentrations since the 1850s. Expanding afforestation efforts into drier regions may be significant for C sequestration and associated benefits (restoration of degraded land, reducing runoff, erosion and soil compaction, improving wildlife) because of the large spatial scale of the regions potentially involved (ca. 2 × 109 ha of global shrub-land and C4 grassland). Quantitative information on forest activities under dry conditions may also become relevant to regions predicted to undergo increasing aridity.

Implications of Land Use Changes on Carbon Dynamics and Sequestration¿Evaluation from Forestry Datasets, India

Krishna Prasad, V. - Badarinath, K.V.S. - Tsuruta, H. - Sudo, S. ¿ Yonemura, S. - Cardina, J. ¿ Stinner, B. ¿ Moore, R. ¿ Stinner, D. ¿ Hoy, C. (2003)

The Environmentalist 23 (2):175-187

ABSTRACT: Forests and soils are a major sink of carbon, and land use changes can affect the magnitude of above ground and below ground carbon stores and the net flux of carbon between the land and the atmosphere. Studies on methods for examining the future consequences of changes in patterns of land use change and carbon flux gains importance, as they provide different options for CO2 mitigation strategies. In this study, a simulation approach combining Markov chain processes and carbon pools for forests and soils has been implemented to study the carbon flows over a period of time. Markov chains have been computed by converting the land use change and forestry data of India from 1997 to 1999 into a matrix of conditional probabilities reflecting the changes from one class at time t to another class time t+1. Results from Markov modeling suggested Indian forests as a potential sink for 0.94 Gt carbon, with an increase in dense forest area of about 75.93 Mha and decrease of about 3.4 Mha and 5.0 Mha in open and scrub forests, if similar land use changes that occurred during 1997¿1999 would continue. The limiting probabilities suggested 34.27 percent as dense forest, 6.90 as open forest, 0.4 percent mangrove forest, 0.1 percent scrub and 58 percent as non-forest area. Although Indian forests are found to be a potential carbon sink, analysis of results from transition probabilities for different years till 2050 suggests that, the forests will continue to be a source of about 20.59 MtC to the atmosphere. The implications of these results in the context of increasing anthropogenic pressure on open and scrub forests and their contribution to carbon source from land use change and forestry sector are discussed. Some of the mitigation aspects to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from land use change and forestry sector in India are also reviewed in the study.


2) Forest and Climate Change News


Average temperatures in the Amazon rainforest are expected to rise half a degree Celsius within 20 years and up to 8 degrees Celsius by the end of the century, according to a study reported in the British science journal Philosophical Transactions. The study also said the death rate for flora and fauna in the Amazon has increased two times over the past two decades, accompanied by a similar rate of deforestation.

(from UN WIRE)


A growing body of evidence questions calculations by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change that the land will automatically provide a significant, long-term carbon "sink" to offset some of the effects of greenhouse gas emissions. Scientists reported these findings today at the 2004 AAAS (Triple-A-S) Annual Meeting. The latest information about carbon dioxide fertilization ¿ by which plants soak up carbon from the atmosphere ¿ "really paints a different picture of the way the world works," said panelist Chris Field of the Carnegie Institution of Washington.

(from American Association for the Advancement of Science , AAAS)


3) Forest and Climate Change Info & Events


Final Decision: In the decision (UNEP/CBD/COP/7/L.16), the COP invites Parties to use the report of the AHTEG on Biodiversity and Climate Change to promote synergies between the CBD and UNFCCC. The COP notes that climate change mitigation and adaptation activities can be implemented in ways that are mutually beneficial, and that the ecosystem approach provides a framework for the integrated management of land, water and living resources. The COP invites financial support to developing country Parties, and requests the Executive Secretary to gather relevant material for promoting synergy between climate change mitigation and adaptation activities, and the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity.

Summary of the Conference:

(from ENB; Volume 9 No. 284)

Workshop on Synergies between UNCCD, CBD and UNFCCC

With the generous invitation and support of the Government of Italy, the secretariats of the UNCCD and CBD with the cooperation of the UNFCCC secretariat are planning to hold a workshop on:

Forests and Forest Ecosystems: Promoting Synergy in the Implementation of the Three Rio Conventions

Viterbo, Italy, 5-7 April 2004



4) New Books

New evidence of impact of global changes on remote tropical rainforests

Philosophical Transactions: Biological Sciences, 2004; 359 (1443)

For an overview on papers contained in this issue please refer to:


by Thomas Langrock, Wolfgang Sterk and Maike Bunse (Wuppertal Institute)

Policy Brief No. 01/2004 for the EP Environment Committee EP/IV/A/2003/09/01

Policy recommendations on LULUCF: Certificates from CDM sink projects should be excluded since their accounting rules are markedly different from those of the usual CERs. Moreover, the potential ecological and social impacts of sink projects are not yet sufficiently understood.

Chapters relevant for LULUCF:

6.3 Eligibility of project activities and quality criteria for CDM/JI projects

7.2 Eligibility of project types and quality criteria for CDM/JI projects


Opportunities for Mitigating Greenhouse Gas Emissions?

edited by: Wassmann, R ¿ Vlek, P.L.G. (Kluwer, 2004)

Reprinted from Environment, Development and Sustainability, Volume 6: 1-2, 2004

Production from tropical agricultural systems will need to increase to satisfy the rising food demand of an increasing population coupled with changes in consumption patterns. At the same time, the agricultural sector is a significant source of greenhouse gases (GHG) in many developing countries, which can be attributed mainly to land-use change and methane emissions from rice and livestock. But how can we reconcile less GHG emissions from tropical agricultural systems while increasing productivity?

Due to the interactive nature of these issues, this book is compiled of articles on natural resource management, as well as the socio-economic aspects of GHG mitigation. The scope of mitigation options in tropical agriculture is discussed for three different activities: (a) agroforestry; (b) rice-based production systems; (c) pasture/animal husbandry.

Agronomic solutions alone will not be sufficient, as the institutional and economic frameworks within which farmers operate dictate whether a recommended agronomic management practice is acceptable. The prevention of deforestation, and the re-forestation of degraded land, could become key elements to national climate protection programs of some developing countries. Alternative management practices in rice-based and pasture systems may offer win-win options to reduce emissions and improve resource-use efficiencies.


Mitigating Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Tropical Agriculture: Scope and Research Priorities; R. Wassmann, P.L.G. Vlek.

Methane and Nitrogen Oxide Fluxes in Tropical Agricultural Soils: Sources, Sinks and Mechanisms; A. Mosier, et al.

Greenhouse Gas Fluxes in Tropical and Temperate Agriculture: the Need for a Full-Cost Accounting of Global Warming Potentials; G.P. Robertson, P.R. Grace.

Mitigating Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Rice-Wheat Cropping Systems in Asia; R. Wassmann, et al.

Is It Possible to Mitigate Greenhouse Gas Emissions in Pastoral Ecosystems of the Tropics? R.S. Reid, et al.

Implications of Land Use Change to Introduced Pastures on Carbon Stocks in the Central Lowlands of Tropical South America; M.J. Fisher, R.J. Thomas.

Estimation of Soil Carbon Gains upon Improved Management within Croplands and Grasslands of Africa; N.H. Batjes.

Mitigating GHG Emissions in the Humid Tropics: Case Studies from the Alternative to Slash-and-Burn Program (ASB); C. Palm, et al.

An Amazon Perspective on the Forest-Climate Connection: Opportunity for Climate Mitigation, Conservation and Development? G. Carvalho, et al.

Soil Respiration and Carbon Storage of an Acrisol under Forest and Different Cultivations in Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil; J.E.L. Maddock, et al.

The Clean Development Mechanism: Making it Operational; M. Mendis, K. Openshaw.

Energy Use and CO2 Production in Tropical Agriculture and Means and Strategies for Reduction or Mitigation; P.L.G. Vlek, et al.

GHG Mitigation Potential and Cost in Tropical Forestry - Relative Role for Agroforestry; W.R. Makundi, J.A. Sathaye.

Climate Variability and Deforestation-Reforestation Dynamics in the Philippines; T.B. Moya, B.S. Malayang III.


5) Climate Change Jobs


Host to the Technical Support Unit for the IPCC National Greenhouse Gas Inventories Programme

Internship at the TSU

Closing date for applications: 6 March 2004

Detailed information can be obtained at:

UNFCCC vacancy announcement



Editor P-3 (Intergovernmental and Conference Affairs)





POST NUMBER: FQB-38001-T-P-3-002

INDICATIVE NET ANNUAL SALARY: US$ 48,242 net salary (without dependents) US$ 51,682 net salary (with dependents) plus applicable post adjustment

DURATION OF APPOINTMENT: One year with possibility of extension

DUTY STATION: Bonn, Germany

EXPECTED DATE FOR ENTRY ON DUTY: as soon as possible

print version:

International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA)

Forestry/GGI position

We here at IIASA are looking for a forest modeller.

Please mind that the deadline for applications is end of March!

Best regards from Austria,

Michael Obersteiner

To obtain more information refer to the Website:

International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA)

A-2361 Laxenburg, Austria

E-Mail: [email protected]


Institute for Advanced Studies

A-1060 Vienna, Austria

E-Mail: [email protected]

Phone : +43 1 59991-151"

Fax : +43 1 59991-163"


World Resources Institute; climate position opening

Kevin Baumert, Associate Climate, Energy and Pollution Program

Position Summary: The Climate, Energy and Pollution program at WRI is seeking an Associate to work on international climate policy issues. The successful candidate will have a broad understanding of environment, finance, and development issues from an economics and institutional perspective. Under the direction of the Director of the Climate, Energy and Pollution Program, the Associate will undertake research, policy analysis, project management and fundraising on climate change policy. The Associate will work with a team of WRI staff dedicated to developing an environmentally sound and economically efficient international climate policy architecture.

World Resources Institute

Attn: Jennie Hommel

10 G Street, NE, Suite 800

Washington, DC 20002

fax: 202/729-7798

email: [email protected]

Please, no phone calls.


6) Websites of Interest

Standards for Land Based Climate Mitigation Projects - CCBA - Climate, Community & Biodiversity Alliance

The CCBA¿s three integrated goals are:

¿ Develop standards to evaluate atmospheric, community and biodiversity impacts associated with land-based climate mitigation projects. The standards will help identify ¿blue-chip¿ projects that achieve multiple tangible benefits. The draft standards will be reviewed by world-renowned experts.

¿ Test the standards in existing and planned projects, to evaluate their effectiveness while suggesting ways to improve them. Demonstration projects will provide the necessary credibility and testing grounds for the standards.

¿ Promote the standards as a credible way to solve multiple global problems and minimize trade-offs between climate change, biodiversity loss and sustainable development issues. The CCBA will promote adoption of the standards by key policymakers, individual companies, academic and scientific institutions, governments, development agencies and other decision-makers.

Visit their website at:

La Oficina de Desarrollo Limpio de Bolivia - The National Clean Development Office

The Bolivian office for the Clean Development Mechanism online.

ENCOFOR - an EU-funded project for the design of sustainable CDM forestry projects

Environment and Community based framework for designing afforestation, reforestation and revegetation projects in the CDM: methodology development and case studies.

The aim of ENCOFOR is to promote the implementation of sustainable afforestation and reforestation projects in the Clean Development Mechanism. ENCOFOR will develop an operational framework for the planning and evaluation of CDM-AR projects in (sub) tropical developing countries.

Funding agency: EuropeAID

Project coordinators:

Face Foundation

Katholieke Universiteit Leuven

Project duration: Oct 2003 - July 2007

ENCOFOR submission to the UNFCCC on Small-scale Afforestation and Reforestation CDM Projects

Website of ENCOFOR:


Thank you for your inputs for this issue:

Igino Emmer, Michael Obersteiner, Juliane Mundt


The objective of CLIM-FO-L is to be a forum for sharing current information and experiences about climate change and forestry amongst experts and non-experts. CLIM-FO-L will send periodically to subscribers synopsis of contributions, indicating how to obtain more detailed information on the topic. CLIM-FO-L is a service provided by the FAO Forest Resources Division, Forest Conservation Service.




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