19 November 2001
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"The climate convention and evolution of the market for forest-based carbon offsets" by P. Moura-Costa, pp. 34-40, Unasylva 206, Vol. 52, 2001, FAO
This article reviews the evolution of the negotiation process and how it has affected the market for carbon offsets and greenhouse gas reductions, based on the situation at the time before the second part of COP-6 in Bonn.
Starting with an explanation of the policy background of the UNFCCC and Joint Implementation, the article gives a good overview of the historical developments of the Activities Implemented Jointly Pilot Phase, the Kyoto Protocol, the project-based mechanisms, and land-use activities under the CDM. Then, the author explains the development of forestry-based carbon offsets from a theoretical idea to a market mechanism for accomplishing global environmental objectives. Forestry projects aimed at sequestering carbon started appearing after the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) in 1992. These projects were voluntary in nature in anticipation of expected changes in environmental legislation that would require polluters to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Their public relations value was also a factor. The amount paid for carbon corresponded to marginal costs. After the establishment of the Activities Implemented Jointly Pilot Phase in 1994, the level of interest in carbon offset projects declined because carbon crediting between developed and developing countries was still not allowed. After the Kyoto Protocol was conceived in December 1997, the establishment of binding commitments led to more demand for offsets and a variety of initiatives, including investments by private companies and NGOs in forestry projects, the Costa Rican national programme, the Prototype Carbon Fund launched by the World Bank, etc. After reviewing some uncertainties existing at the time of writing, the article indicates some ways forward, such as the need for market development, suppliers' needs to learn about a new production possibility involving the new environmental value of carbon sequestration, and investors' needs to identify the full extent of their environmental liabilities and to utilize market mechanisms to lower them through the purchase of credits or options.
This paper is part of the most recent issue of Unasylva, an international journal of forestry and forest industries of FAO, which focuses on global conventions related to forests.
Information on subscription to Unasylva can be found on: http://www.fao.org/forestry/FODA/UNASYLVA/ORDER-e.stm
The article will be available on-line early December on:
If you want to obtain an electronic copy of the document immediately, make a request to [email protected]
In November 2001, COP-7 closed in Marrakech, Morocco with an agreement:
- The Marrakesh Accords and the Marrakesh Declaration can be downloaded from:
- Governments ready to ratify Kyoto Protocol (Press release by the UNFCCC Secretariat) Marrakech, 10 November 2001
- UN meeting reaches accord on global warming November 12 (FT.com)
- Climate Pact Marks a Victory for Europe November 12 (Eric Pianin/IHT/ Washington Post Service)
- Global warming talks start to produce results November 08 (Reuters/ENN)
- Hopes increase of finalising Kyoto climate change deal November 7 (FT.com)
- Japan to press U.S. on warming pact November 4 (ASSOCIATED PRESS)
- U.S. Not Likely to Relent on Global Warming October 12 (ENS)
- Satellite data confirms warming of Earth's climate November 14 (ENN)
- Carbon sinks have limits, experts say November 08 (Reuters/ENN)
- Climate Change: Big Drop in Crop Yields Forecast November 7 (ENS)
- The Pew Center on Global Climate Change: Climate Talks in Marrakech - COP 7:
- WWF: Press Release, 10 November 2001
Kyoto Protocol completes its rise from the ashes
- ECO (The CAN Climate Conference Newsletter):
- The Earth Times' reporting on the COP-7:
Carbon Trading Market Expands to Chicago, Mexico City November 13(ENS)
- "Medición y Monitoreo de la Captura de Carbono en Ecosistemas Forestales" Simposio Internacional 18 al 20 de octubre, 2001. Valdivia, Chile.
- Prototype Carbon Fund Releases EcoSecurities Intelligence Report on emerging markets for greenhouse gas policies (November 16, 2001; SOURCE: EcoSecurities, Ltd.)
"EcoSecurities Ltd. is pleased to announce the release of the World Bank Prototype Carbon Fund's "Carbon Market Intelligence Report: Issue 2." Commissioned by the PCF Plus division from EcoSecurities' policy analysis division, this report details the emergence of carbon market policies up to COP 7. The focus of the report is on the development of greenhouse gas emission reduction requirements and associated policies at various national and sub-national levels.
Svetlana Morozova, a senior analyst for EcoSecurities and principal author of the report, says "The report will benefit the growing audience of private and public groups interested in the uneven progress of greenhouse gas reduction policies across the many jurisdictions of North America, the European Union and the rest of Annex B."
Both reports are supplemented by a series of Appendices are available through the Prototype Carbon Fund "PCFPLus" website in the research section. For direct access to the 2nd report, click http://www.prototypecarbonfund.org/docs/ecosecurities_2nd_report.pdf To access the earlier reports, please go to (http://www.prototypecarbonfund.org/docs/ecosecurities_1st_report.pdf) The third and final report is expected for release in the first quarter of 2002.
For further information on the Carbon Market Intelligence Report, please contact:
Telephone: (1) 909 621-1358
Fax: (1) 909 621-7438
Email: [email protected]
In Europe, contact:
Tel: (44) 1865-202-635
Fax: (44) 1865-251-438
Email: [email protected] "
- "Forestry projects: permanence, credit accounting and lifetime" OECD-IEA Information Paper, Jane Ellis, October 2001
If the carbon stored in an afforestation or reforestation project is re-released, e.g. as a result of fire, the climate benefits of that project risk being reversed. This paper identifies the different physical risks to carbon stock reduction in forestry projects and options by which these physical risks, and associated economic risks, could be managed by project participants. This paper also examines eight different regimes that could be established to allocate credits generated by forestry CDM and JI projects. How these different crediting regimes are designed can determine whether credits generated by forestry projects represent real, measurable and long-term benefits and can also influence the economic impacts of premature carbon release from a project.
- Launching of the CO2fix V.2.0 model for estimating carbon sequestration in forestry, afforestation, and agroforestry
As of today the model CO2FIX V2.0 is released and can be downloaded from the World Wide Web free of charge for the purpose of research, education or real-life application to carbon sequestration projects.
The earlier version of CO2FIX was released in June 1999; since then it was downloaded by 864 users from 78 countries world-wide.
The user friendly CO2FIX V 2.0 is a forest carbon bookkeeping model that simulates stocks and fluxes of carbon in the vegetation, the soil, and (in case of a managed forest), the wood products. It simulates these stocks and fluxes at the hectare scale with time steps of one year. This new version 2.0 is a stand level model, which was improved with respect to:
* the ability to simulate multi-species and uneven aged stands ;
* the ability to regulate growth also by varying stand density;
* the ability to deal with inter-species competition;
* allocation to different product classes, processing methods, and end-of-life disposal of harvested wood;
* soil carbon dynamics;
* the ability to deal with a wider variety of forest management types including agro-forestry systems, selective logging systems, and post harvesting mortality;
* output viewing charts.
The model can be downloaded from http://www.efi.fi/projects/casfor
Researchers, policy makers, and students with some basic understanding of forest dynamics, the carbon cycle and access to growth data will be able to use CO2FIX V2.0. We welcome feedback, comments, suggestions for improvements, and case study forest types that you have parameterised yourself. These can be send to [email protected]
The CO2FIX V 2.0 was developed in the CASFOR project. CASFOR was financed through the EU INCO-DC programme (ERBIC18 CT98 0324). Additional funding was received from the Dutch Climate Change Research Programme of the Ministry of Agriculture, Nature Management and Fisheries. We like to thank Prof. Riveill-Bounaga of the European Commission DG Research, for her support during the project.
CASFOR has a continuation in the period 2002-2005, aiming at a landscape level approach of the CO2FIX model, and closer connection to Kyoto Protocol related issues. This project will be carried out by the same partners as CASFOR-I, and will be co-ordinated by Forest Ecology and Management Group of Wageningen University.
CASFOR Team, Wageningen, Patzcuaro, Turrialba, Joensuu, 30 October 2001
Dr. ir. Gert-Jan Nabuurs, Prof.dr.ir G.M.J. Mohren & ir. M.J. Schelhaas Alterra, Wageningen University and Research Center, The Netherlands
Dr. Omar Masera & Jose Garza-Caligaris
Laboratorio de Bioenergía, Instituto de Ecología Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM), Mexico
Dr. Markku Kanninen
Centro Agronómico Tropical de Investigación y Enseñanza (CATIE)Costa Rica
Dr. Timo Karjalainen, Ari Pussinen Msc. & Simo Varis
European Forest Institute (EFI)
- SENIOR SCIENTIST, Climate Change and Energy team, Forest Research
"Vacancy Number 01/02 - 10
We are seeking to employ an experienced scientist to join our Climate Change and Energy team at Forest Research. This person is expected to have extensive experience in modelling forest production and have knowledge of LULUCF issues and climate change.
The role will focus on systems analysis and forest modelling, with data analysis and interpretation to provide policy advice on climate change response options and develop new markets for using FR carbon accounting tools in domestic and international carbon assessment and verification projects. The successful candidate will work on implementation of New Zealand's carbon monitoring system of plantation and indigenous forest, scrub, and soils, and assist in designing the carbon accounting framework in conjunction with relevant ministries, CRI's, and private sector stakeholders. The successful candidate will undertake the development of research plans, including Government applications, tendering for commercial work, and industry consulting as appropriate. The ideal candidate will have a postgraduate qualification in forestry or relevant discipline, with demonstrated computer skills, and competency in technical evaluation, and process analysis. Industry or Research experience in the forestry and climate change field with a background in forestry modelling is essential. An understanding of the Kyoto Protocol, the role that forestry has to play in climate change, and issues surrounding greenhouse gas sinks and sources is required. A good understanding of forest management software and forestry management, excellent computing and quantitative skills, including statistical analysis of forest data, and computer programming techniques. Candidates with an understanding of economics and knowledge of GIS applications and remote sensing methods are not essential but preferred.
The candidate must be able to communicate effectively with commercial clients and researchers in both oral and written form, and must have excellent organisational and time management skills and a willingness to participate in team environment. A record of publications/presentations to expert or professional groups is preferable.
A position description and an application form is available on request and written applications (quote Vacancy Number as above) including a curriculum vitae should be forwarded to the address below by 10 December 2001.
Payroll and Personnel Services
Private Bag 3020
Phone (07) 343 5899
Email: [email protected]
Forest Research is an Equal Opportunities Employer"
- Climate Ark - Climate Change Portal
- UNIDO's COP7 side event materials 'Capacity Building & Technology Needs Assessments for Industry in Africa & Asia'https://www.unido.org/doc/451673.htmls
Thank you for your inputs for this issue: Omar Masera
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