CLIM-FO-L  Electronic Journal and Newsletter            March/2009


II. Events & meetings
III. Research Articles
IV. New Publications and other media
V. Jobs
VI. Announcements
CLIM-FO Information


 10 March 2009

Sustainable forest management could become a means of creating millions of new green jobs

Ten million new "green jobs" can be created by investing in sustainable forest management. Since forests and trees are vital storehouses of carbon, such an investment could also make a major contribution to climate change mitigation and adaptation efforts.



 9 March 2009

Second CDM forestry project approved

A second reforestation project has been registered by UN authorities, a milestone for the land-use sector after years of setbacks in tree-based carbon sequestration activities under the Kyoto Protocol.


6 March 2009

World Bank Meeting Considers Design of Forest Investment Program

The second design meeting for the World Bank's Forest Investment Program (FIP), a part of its Climate Investment Framework (CIF), took place on 5-6 March 2009, in Washington DC, US.6 March 2009.


Drought threatens the Amazon rainforest as a carbon sink

Analyzing the impact of the severe Amazon drought of 2005, a team of 68 researchers across 13 countries and 40 institutions found evidence that rainfall-starved tropical forests lose massive amounts of carbon due to reduced plant growth and dying trees.


5 March 2009

Biofuels do far more harm than good

Yesterday the EU imposed temporary tariffs on US biodiesel because subsidies over there distort trade - but that shouldn't be the only reason to stop the biofuels juggernaut.


5 March 2009

Amazon deforestation drops 70% for Nov 2008-Jan 2009 period

Deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon fell to 291 square miles (754 square kilometers) in the November 2008-January 2009 window, a drop of 70 percent compared to the year earlier period when 976 sq mi (2,527 sq km).


4 March 2009

Indonesia applies for World Bank forest CO2 scheme

Indonesia has applied to join a World Bank program that supports developing nations' efforts to fight deforestation and help them earn cash through the sale of tradable carbon credits.










3 March 2009

Rainforests a huge climate buffer: Study

The vital role of tropical forests in the globe's CO2 balance are underlined in new estimates of their massive carbon uptake.


27 February

Land use tied to Indonesian forest fires

A Canadian-led study suggests severe Indonesian fires, producing some of the worst air quality worldwide, are tied to land use and population density.


26 February

Australia fires release huge amount of CO2

Bushfires that have scorched Australia's Victoria state released millions of tons of carbon dioxide and forest fires could become a growing source of carbon pollution as the planet warms.


20 February

Clinton, Indonesia need to act on climate

Top greenhouse gas emitters the United States and Indonesia should use US Secretary of State Hillary Clinton's visit to the country to take action against climate change.



Rainforests absorb 20% of emissions annually

Writing in the journal Nature, Simon Lewis and colleagues report that natural forests are an immense carbon sink, helping slow the rise in atmospheric CO2 levels.


19 February

Fifth of world carbon emissions soaked up by extra forest growth, scientists find

Trees in the tropics are getting bigger, which means they are soaking up an extra 5bn tonnes of CO2 a year.


16 February

Amazon dieback 'overstated'

The Brazilian government has launched a fund to protect the rainforest. A study by a group of UK-based scientists suggests that the Amazon rainforest may be less vulnerable to severe drying as a result of global warming than previously thought.


29 January 2009

REDD rules delayed in Indonesia

Indonesia has delayed new rules for a carbon credit market around avoided deforestation, a sign of the complexities around this new market mechanism.





II. Events & meetings

Carbon Market Insights 2009: 17-19 March, 2009 Copenhagen

17-19 March 2009

Carbon Market Insights 2009, to be held in Copenhagen, will discuss the way forward for international climate policy in the very same venue as the Copenhagen negotiations will determine the future of the carbon market later in the year. The event will also look at the impacts of the financial crisis on carbon markets and discuss whether the economic downturn could reduce the chances of reaching a new climate agreement.  Key leaders will convey their views on how a re-focusing of the global economy towards investments in the clean technology and natural resources can help restructure and revive global markets. Finally, we will also present updates on the current status and expected development for emissions trading around the world. More at carbon point.

Climate Change at the centre of the FAO Committee on Forestry and the World Forest Week

16-20 March 2009 at FAO Rome

Sustainable Forest Management for Climate Change is one of the central topics to be discussed at FAO's Committee on Forestry (COFO) and the World Forest Week to take place from 16-20 March 2009 at FAO headquarters. The UN Secretary General's Special Envoy on Climate Change, Gro Harlem Brundtland, will be opening the 19th session of the COFO which gathers heads of forest services and other senior government officials, every two years, to identify emerging policy and technical issues, seek solutions and advise FAO and others on appropriate action. For more information on the COFO session and the World Forest Week click here

Second meeting of the CBD AHTEG on biodiversity and climate change

30 March 2009 - 3 April 2009. Helsinki, Finland.

The second meeting of the Ad hoc Technical Expert Group on Biodiversity and Climate Change is organized by the CBD Secretariat. More

AWG-LCA 5 and AWG-KP 7

 30 March - 8 April 2009. Bonn, Germany.

The fifth meeting of the Ad Hoc Working Group on Long-Term Cooperative Action (AWG-LCA) and the seventh session of the Ad Hoc Working Group on Further Commitments for Annex I Parties under the Kyoto Protocol (AWG-KP) are scheduled to take place from 30 March - 8 April 2009, in Bonn, Germany. More.


UNFF8 Session
20 April - 1 May 2009, United Nations, New York, NY

Climate change is on the agenda of the eighth session of the United Nations Forum on Forests as part of the discussions on "forests in a changing environment.  UNFF8 will also discuss possibilities for a new financing mechanism for forests in conjunction with the deliberations on "means of implementation for sustainable forest management". More.

30th sessions of the UNFCCC subsidiary bodies

1-12 June 2009. Bonn, Germany.

The 30th sessions of the Subsidiary Bodies of the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) - the Subsidiary Body for Implementation (SBI) and the Subsidiary Body for Scientific and Technological Advice (SBSTA) - as well as AWG-LCA 6 and AWG-KP 8 are scheduled to take place from 1-12 June 2009, in Bonn, Germany. More.

9th session of the AWG-KP and 7th session of the AWG-LCA

28th September 2009 Bangkok, Thailand

After consultations with the Chair of the Ad Hoc Working Group on Further Commitments for Annex I Parties under the Kyoto Protocol (AWG-KP), Mr. Harald Dovland (Norway), and the Chair of the Ad Hoc Working Group on Long-term Cooperative Action under the Convention (AWG-LCA), Mr. Michael Zammit Cutajar (Malta), and taking into account guidance provided by the SBI as well as the limited availability of suitable facilities, the date and venue for the ninth session of the AWG-KP and the seventh session of the AWG-LCA have been determined. More.

13th World Forestry Congress: Forests in development - a vital balance

18-25 October 2009. Buenos Aires, Argentina.

Organized by the UN Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) and institutions from various sectors of Argentina, this Congress provides an opportunity to present an overview of the state of forests and forestry around the world, to discern trends, adapt policies and raise awareness among policy makers, the public and other stakeholders. This meeting will address themes including: forests and biodiversity; development opportunities; forests in the service of people, including forests and climate change; organizing forest development; and people and forests in harmony. More.  

15th Conference of the Parties to the UNFCCC and fifth meeting of the Parties to the Kyoto Protocol

7-18 December 2009. Copenhagen, Denmark.

UNFCCC COP 15 and Kyoto Protocol COP/MOP 5 are scheduled to take place from 7 to 18 December 2009 in Copenhagen, Denmark. These meetings will coincide with the 31st meetings of the UNFCCC's subsidiary bodies. Under the "roadmap" agreed at the UN Climate Change Conference in Bali in December 2007, COP 15 and COP/MOP 5 are expected to finalize an agreement on a framework for combating climate change post-2012. More.


III. Research Articles

A methodology to estimate impacts of domestic policies on deforestation: Compensated Successful Efforts for "avoided deforestation"

P. Combes Motel, R. Pirard, J.-L. Combes

Ecological Economics 68 (2009) 680-691

Climate change mitigation would benefit from Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation (REDD) in developing countries. The REDD mechanism, still in discussion, would be in charge of distilling the right incentives and promoting the right policies for fostering forest conservation. The estimation of reduced emissions induced by the mechanism has been raised as an issue, either for issuing the proper amount of carbon credits or for providing appropriate compensations of foregone revenues and other costs to host countries. This estimation would be based on the gap between observed deforestation and a counterfactual value. Although any prediction of deforestation rates (i.e. business-asusual scenarios) is challenging, and any negotiated target is subject to obvious political influence, these two ways have been prioritirized so far to determine the counterfactual value. In other words proposals focused on a results-based approach, the relevance ofwhich is questionable because estimations of avoided deforestation are hardly reliable. With this approach, issuance of carbon credits and distribution of financial compensations could threaten respectively environmental integrity of the scheme and equity outcomes. Rather than considering overall deforestation (predicted and observed), we argue that a REDD mechanism would gain from linking distribution of carbon finance to real efforts (opposed to "results") that developing countries implement for slowing deforestation rates. This would provide strong incentives to design and enforce suitable policies and measures. The methodology we present to measure these efforts (labeled Compensated Successful Efforts) is based on the rationale that overall deforestation is partly due to structural factors, and to domestic policies and measures. This typology differs from others presented in the literature such as proximate/underlying causes, or economic/institutional factors. Using an econometric model, our approach estimates efforts that are (i) independent of structural factors (economic development, population, initial forest area, agricultural export prices), (ii) estimated ex post at the end of the crediting period, and (iii) relative to other countries. In order to illustrate the methodology we apply the model to a panel of 48 countries (Asia, Latin America, Africa) and four periods between 1970 and 2005. We conclude on the feasibility to estimate avoided deforestation using the Compensated Successful Efforts approach.

National forest carbon inventories: policy needs and assessment capacity

Krister Andersson, Tom P. Evans, Kenneth R. Richards

Climatic Change (2009) 93:69-101

Previous research has identified the importance of the role of land cover in the global carbon cycle. In particular, forests have been identified as a significant carbon sink that can mitigate the rate of global climate change. Policy makers are faced with complex and difficult challenges in getting timely and useful information in monitoring global forest resources. Recent advances in the tools and methods of forest carbon accounting have produced new, innovative approaches to forest based carbon inventories. But it is important as new tools are developed that scientists understand the needs of policy makers and that policy makers understand the capabilities and limitations of forest inventory methods. This paper explores four different policy applications that rely, or could benefit from, national carbon inventories. The goal is to help build a bridge between the communities of climate policy makers and scientists specialized in forest carbon inventories. To this end, we pursue three specific objectives: First we provide an overview for policy makers about approaches to forest carbon inventories, paying particular attention to the contributions of remote sensing technologies. Second, we outline the issues particularly relevant to forest inventory scientists who are interested in responding to public policy needs. We then discuss the tradeoffs between information cost, accuracy, precision, transparency and timeliness that need to be balanced in long-term monitoring of forest carbon. Finally, the article concludes with a series of observations and recommendations for the implementation of forest carbon inventories as increasingly central components of global climate change policy.

The social value of carbon sequestered in Great Britain's woodlands

Julii Brainard, Ian J. Bateman, Andrew A. Lovett

Ecological Economics 68 (2009) 1257-1267

The economic value of carbon storage associated with British woodland is calculated. Models were developed to estimate C flux associated with live trees, forest floor litter, soils, wood products, harvest, fossil fuel used in manufacturing and C displacement from biofuels and products for representative British plantation species: Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis) and beech (Fagus sylvatica). Map databases of publicly and privately owned woodlands were compiled for Great Britain. Carbon flux was determined for individual woodland sites, and monetised using candidate parameters for the social discount rate (1, 3, 3.5 or 5%) and social value of carbon (US$109.5, $1, $10 or $17.10/t). A conventional discount function was applied. Final results are expressed as Net Present Values, for the base year 2001, with discounting commencing in 2002. The minimum suggested NPV (discount rate=3% and social value of carbon=$1) of GB woodlands already existing in 2001 is $82 million, with a further $72 million that might be added by future afforestation. These figures rise dramatically if a discount rate of 1% and social value of sequestered carbon=$109.5/t are assumed. The calculated total value of C stored in British woodland depends significantly on parameter assumptions, especially about appropriate discount rate and social value of sequestered carbon.

Increasing carbon storage in intact African tropical forests

Nature 457(7232) : 1003-1007 (2009)

The response of terrestrial vegetation to a globally changing environment is central to predictions of future levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide. The role of tropical forests is critical because they are carbon-dense and highly productive. Inventory plots across Amazonia show that old-growth forests have increased in carbon storage over recent decades, but the response of one-third of the world's tropical forests in Africa is largely unknown owing to an absence of spatially extensive observation networks. Here we report data from a ten-country network of long-term monitoring plots in African tropical forests. We find that across 79 plots (163 ha) above-ground carbon storage in live trees increased by 0.63 Mg C ha-1 yr-1 between 1968 and 2007 (95% confidence interval (CI), 0.22-0.94; mean interval, 1987-96). Extrapolation to unmeasured forest components (live roots, small trees, necromass) and scaling to the continent implies a total increase in carbon storage in African tropical forest trees of 0.34 Pg C yr-1 (CI, 0.15-0.43). These reported changes in carbon storage are similar to those reported for Amazonian forests per unit area, providing evidence that increasing carbon storage in old-growth forests is a pan-tropical phenomenon. Indeed, combining all standardized inventory data from this study and from tropical America and Asia together yields a comparable figure of 0.49 Mg C ha-1 yr-1 (n = 156; 562 ha; CI, 0.29-0.66; mean interval, 1987-97). This indicates a carbon sink of 1.3 Pg C yr-1 (CI, 0.8-1.6) across all tropical forests during recent decades. Taxon-specific analyses of African inventory and other data suggest that widespread changes in resource availability, such as increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations, may be the cause of the increase in carbon stocks, as some theory and models predict.


Reducing emissions from deforestation- The ''combined incentives'' mechanism and empirical simulations

Bernardo Strassburg a,*, R. Kerry Turner a, Brendan Fisher a, Roberto Schaeffer b, Andrew Lovett

Global Environmental Change in press xxx (2009) xxx-xxx

Despite accounting for 17-25% of anthropogenic emissions, deforestation was not included in the Kyoto Protocol. The UN Convention on Climate Change is considering its inclusion in future agreements and asked its scientific board to study methodological and scientific issues related to positive incentives to reduce emissions from deforestation. Here we present an empirically derived mechanism that offers a mix of incentives to developing countries to reduce emissions from deforestation, conserve and possibly enhance their ecosystem's carbon stocks. We also use recent data to model its effects on the 20 most forested developing countries. Results show that at low CO2 prices (US$ 8/t CO2) a successful mechanism could reduce more than 90% of global deforestation at an annual cost of US$ 30 billion.

Mitigating Climate Change with Managed Forests: Balancing Expectations, Opportunity, and Risk

David G Ray; Robert S Seymour; Neal A Scott; William S Keeton

Journal of Forestry; Jan/Feb 2009; 107

The forestry community is abuzz with anticipation regarding how managed forests will be able to participate in emerging markets for carbon offsets. Carbon markets may in the future offer some potential for compensating forest landowners for actions that demonstrably reduce the atmospheric CO2 burden. Foresters, however, must recognize that not all forms of enlightened forest management can, or should, qualify for credits. We caution that in the exuberance to take advantage of new, imperfectly formed cap-and-trade markets (e.g., Chicago Climate Exchange, California Climate Action Registry, and Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative), some managed forest projects may prove to confer no real climate benefit, owing to leakage or lack of additionality. Indeed, questions surrounding the credibility of certain cap-and-trade projects already being implemented in nonforestry sectors under the Clean Development Mechanism of the Kyoto Protocol may be placing this approach in jeopardy.

Land use and carbon mitigation in Europe: A survey of the potentials of different alternatives

Paola Ovando, Alejandro Caparro

Energy Policy 37 (2009) 992-1003

This paper surveys studies applied to Europe that analyse carbon emission mitigation alternatives involving the use of land. We analyse a variety of alternatives that include land-use changes, forest management and bioenergy production. Our aim is to approximate the aggregate amount of carbon offsets that can be achieved through these alternatives and to show to what extent the results of the different studies are compatible and take into account the fact that land is a finite resource. Finally, based on the surveyed studies, we estimate the potential contribution of these alternatives to the goals of emission reduction proposed by the European Union for the years 2020 and 2050. Taking into account the results of the different studies analysed in this survey, land-based alternatives can contribute from 13% to 52% of the European proposed target by 2020. The implementation of these alternatives would concurrently require from 8% to 30% of EU-25 agricultural land to be afforested or diverted to bioenergy crops in this period.

Institutional dimensions of Payments for Ecosystem Services: An analysis of Mexico's carbon forestry programme

Esteve Corbera, Carmen González Soberanis, Katrina Brown

Ecological Economics 68 (2009) 743-761

This article proposes a multi-dimensional framework for understanding the development and effectiveness of Payments for Ecosystem Services (PES) schemes, framed around the notions of institutional design, performance and interplay. The framework is applied in the context of Mexico's Programme of Payments for Carbon, Biodiversity and Agro-forestry Services (PSA-CABSA), with an emphasis on its carbon component. The analysis shows that PSA-CABSA was promoted by civil society and its rules have been subject to continuous modifications over time. In the case of the carbon component, changes have been due to an original misunderstanding of how carbon projects should be designed, implemented, and carbon traded in actual markets. From a performance point of view, the paper shows that the programme has been well received by rural communities, and carbon payments have contributed to increase household income and to enhance forest management practices and organisational skills. The paper also highlights sources of institutional interplay with local institutions and international climate policy, and it reveals the importance of capacity and scale issues in securing an effective and fair implementation of PES. The conclusion provides some policy recommendations for the future development of PES initiatives in Mexico and elsewhere.

Exploring biodiversity and climate change benefits of community-based forest management

Preet Pal Singh

Global Environmental Change 18 (2008) 468- 478

Emissions from deforestation are significant and account for more than 18% of global annual anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions. With the Bali Action Plan categorically placing reduced emissions from degradation and deforestation (REDD) activities on the agenda of future climate change negotiations, there is now a strong possibility that policy approaches and incentives relating to enhancement of carbon stocks in low biomass forests will be successfully negotiated and accepted as a legitimate greenhouse gas mitigation option in the upcoming post-2012 climate change regime. Using the institutional mechanisms provided by community-based forest management (CBFM), 833.8 Tg carbon can be sequestered by enhancement of forest carbon stocks in low biomass Indian forests. By protection refugia, restoring biodiversity, providing connectivity, mimicking nature in plantations and controlling man-made fires, CBFM as practiced in India can be an effective way of managing forests during times of climate change. Appropriately designed CBFM policy can provide means to sustain and strengthen community livelihoods and at the same time avoid deforestation, restore forest cover and density, provide carbon mitigation and create rural assets. Channeling carbon investment funds into CBFM projects can make both development and conservation economically viable and attractive for the local communities to maintain biodiversity and integrity of nature. However, before actual funding under the Clean Development Mechanism and other international C investment funds is available, policy approaches and positive incentives on issues relating to REDD need to be negotiated and agreed upon by the participating nations to UNFCCC.

A spatial analysis of global land suitability for clean development mechanism afforestation and reforestation

Robert J. Zomer a,*, Antonio Trabucco b,c, Deborah A. Bossio c, Louis V. Verchot a

Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 126 (2008) 67-80

Within the Kyoto Protocol, the clean development mechanism (CDM) is an instrument intended to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, while assisting developing countries in achieving sustainable development, with the multiple goals of poverty reduction, environmental benefits and cost-effective emission reductions. The CDM allows for a small percentage of emission reduction credits to come from afforestation and reforestation (CDM-AR) projects.We conducted a global analysis of land suitability for CDM-AR carbon 'sink' projects and identified large amounts of land (749 Mha) as biophysically suitable and meeting the CDM-AR eligibility criteria. Forty-six percent of all the suitable areas globally were found in South America and 27% in Sub-Saharan Africa. In Asia, despite the larger land mass, relatively less land was available. In South America and Sub-Saharan Africa the majority of the suitable land was shrubland/grassland or savanna. In Asia the majority of the land was low-intensity agriculture. The sociologic and ecological analyses showed that large amounts of suitable land exhibited relatively low population densities. Many of the most marginal areas were eliminated due to high aridity, which resulted in a generally Gaussian distribution of land productivity classes. If the cap on CDM-AR were raised to compensate for a substantially greater offset of carbon emission through sink projects, this study suggests that it will be increasingly important to consider implications on local to regional food security and local community livelihoods.

Tropical deforestation in a future international climate policy regime - lessons from the Brazilian Amazon

Persson, U.M. - Azar, C.

Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change. 2007; 12(7): 1277-1304

Abstract. The possibility of adopting national targets for carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from tropical deforestation in a future international climate treaty has received increasing attention recently. This attention has been prompted by proposals to this end and more intensified talks on possible commitments for developing countries beyond the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change Kyoto Protocol. We analyze four main scientific and political challenges associated with national targets for emissions from tropical deforestation: (1) reducing the uncertainties in emission inventories, (2) preserving the environmental integrity of the treaty, (3) promoting political acceptance and participation in the regime, and (4) providing economic incentives for reduced deforestation. We draw the following conclusions. (1) Although there are large uncertainties in carbon flux from deforestation, these are in the same range as for other emissions included in the current Kyoto protocol (i.e., non-CO2 GHGs), and they can be reduced. However, for forest degradation processes the uncertainties are larger. A large challenge lies in building competence and institutions for monitoring the full spectrum of land use changes in developing countries. (2 and 3) Setting targets for deforestation is difficult, and uncertainties in future emissions imply a risk of creating 'tropical hot air'. However, there are proposals that may sufficiently deal with this, and these proposals may also have the advantage of making the targets more attractive, politically speaking. Moreover, we conclude that while a full carbon accounting system will likely be politically unacceptable for tropical countries, the current carbon accounting system should be broadened to include forest degradation in order to safeguard environmental integrity. (4) Doubts can be cast over the possible effect a climate regime alone will have on deforestation rates, though little thorough analysis of this issue has been made.

Mitigation and adaptation synergy in forest sector

Ravindranath, N.H. Klein, R. - Sathaye, J.A. - Wilbanks, T.J. (Eds.)

Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change. 2007; 12(5): 843-853 - Special Issue: Challenges in integrating mitigation and adaptation as responses to climate change

Abstract. Mitigation and adaptation are the two main strategies to address climate change. Mitigation and adaptation have been considered separately in the global negotiations as well as literature. There is a realization on the need to explore and promote synergy between mitigation and adaptation while addressing climate change. In this paper, an attempt is made to explore the synergy between mitigation and adaptation by considering forest sector, which on the one hand is projected to be adversely impacted under the projected climate change scenarios and on the other provide opportunities to mitigate climate change. Thus, the potential and need for incorporating adaptation strategies and practices in mitigation projects is presented with a few examples. Firstly, there is a need to ensure that mitigation programs or projects do not increase the vulnerability of forest ecosystems and plantations. Secondly, several adaptation practices could be incorporated into mitigation projects to reduce vulnerability. Further, many of the mitigation projects indeed reduce vulnerability and promote adaptation, for example; forest and biodiversity conservation, protected area management and sustainable forestry. Also, many adaptation options such as urban forestry, soil and water conservation and drought resistant varieties also contribute to mitigation of climate change. Thus, there is need for research and field demonstration of synergy between mitigation and adaptation, so that the cost of addressing climate change impacts can be reduced and co-benefits increased.


IV. New Publications and other media

A new climate for forests

GEF action on sustainable forest management (March 2008)

The GEF's work on sustainable forest management (SFM); projects and programmes related to SFM in the GEF's current portfolio; and potential roles for promotion of SMF through the GEF in the post-2012 climate regime. Report.

Moving Ahead with REDD: Issues, Options and Implications

Center for International Forestry Research (2008)

How can we measure reductions in emissions when data are poor or do not exist? How can we raise the billions of dollars needed to put a REDD mechanism in place? How can we make sure that any reductions in deforestation and degradation are real (additional), and that they do not lead to more trees being chopped down in other forest areas (leakage) or next year (permanence)? How can we make sure that the poor benefit? This book discusses these questions. They are highly relevant to the design of the global REDD architecture in the post-2012 climate regime that is currently being negotiated under the United Nations Framework Convention for Climate Change (UNFCCC). Book.

Strategic framework for forests and climate change

The Collaborative Partnership on Forests (CPF) (2008)

CPF) has prepared this document to support the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) process, particularly the Bali Action Plan, as well as the Non-Legally Binding Instrument on All Types of Forests of the United Nations Forum on Forests and other agreements, and in response to the need for concerted action on forests and climate change. It lays the groundwork for a coordinated response from the forest sector to climate change, notably through the widespread adoption of sustainable forest management and its integration into broader development strategies. Publication.

Methods and tools for assessing the vulnerability of forests and people to climate change

Center for International Forestry Research, Working Paper No. 43. 24p (2009)

This working paper provides an overview of methods and tools suitable for assessing the vulnerability of forests, forest ecosystem services and forest-dependent people or sectors to climate change. It provides a typology of methods and tools and gives examples, taken mostly from the experience of Center for International Forest Research (CIFOR) and Tropical Agricultural Research and Higher Education Center (CATIE) in the Tropical Forests and Climate Change Adaptation (TroFCCA) project in Central America, West Africa and Asia. Working Paper.

The Little REDD Book    

Global Canopy Programme (2008)

Launched at the UNFCCC climate summit in December 2008 The Little REDD Book is a guide to the UN negotiations on Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation (REDD). REDD aims to help halt deforestation, which causes around 20% of the world's carbon emissions - more than the entire global transport sector. In addition, the mechanism could help fight poverty while conserving biodiversity and sustaining vital ecosystem services. Book.

Climate Change and Forests: Emerging Policy and Market Opportunities

Brookings Institution Press 2008 c.

After framing forestry activities within the larger context of climate-change policy, the contributors analyze the operation and efficacy of market-based mechanisms for forest conservation and climate change. Drawing on project examples from around the world, the authors present concrete recommendations for policymakers, project developers, and market participants. They discuss sequestration rights in Chile, carbon offset programs in Australia and New Zealand, and emerging policy incentives at all levels of the U.S. government. Book.

Beyond REDD: The Role of Forests in Climate Change

The Forests Dialogue (2008)

The Forests Dialogue's consensus-based Statement on Forests and Climate Change, produced after  4 international multi-stakeholder dialogs involving more than 250 leaders from around the world. Includes recommended actions and issue-specific briefing notes.

CDM in CHARTS Version 7.0

The Institute for Global Environmental Strategies (IGES), (2009)

"CDM in Charts Version 7.0" is a booklet with a good reputation for providing a straightforward and easy-to-understand description of the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM). Booklet.

Adaptation of Forests and Forest Management to Changing Climate with Emphasis on Forest Health

Conference held in Umeå 25-28 August 2008, Sweden.  About 350 forest researchers, managers and decision makers from over 50 countries convened to present and discuss ideas and concepts, facts and figures relating to the adaptation of forests and forestry to climate change. Conference Report.

Making REDD work for the poor

Poverty Environment Partnership Initiative based on Peskett et al (2008), October 2008

A synthesis of the social dimensions of reduced emissions from deforestation and degradation. Presents ten required conditions that will ensure that the implementation of REDD mechanisms yields benefits for the rural poor in developing countries. Policy Brief.

Unasylva,  Vol. 59

International journal of forestry and forest industries 230 Vol. 59 2008/1

The latest issue focuses on land use including deforestation, land-use change and REDD and sustainable development and challenging deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon. Journal.

Climate Change: Financing global forests
Office of Climate Change, UK, October 2008
By J. Eliasch for the UK Government. Review provides a analysis of international financing to reduce forest loss and its associated impacts on climate change. Paper.

Estimating the costs of reducing forest emissions: a review of methods

Center for International Forestry Research 2008

This paper reviews main approaches to estimate the costs of REDD, with a focus on the opportunity costs. These can be classified into local-empirical, global-empirical and global simulation models. In local-empirical models, per-area opportunity cost estimates are derived from detailed studies (surveys) and carbon density estimates - both specific to the particular area studied. Global-empirical models use local-empirical estimates, aggregate these to global per-area costs of reducing deforestation, and use uniform values of carbon density (ton/ha) to obtain a single, global estimate of opportunity costs ($/tCO2eq). Working paper.




Climate changing in tropical forests
ITTO, February 2008 
The International Tropical Timber Organization's newsletter on climate change and tropical forests. Articles are included on the emerging market for land-use carbon credits, the UN Collaborative Programme on Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation in Developing Countries, and carbon trading. Newsletter.

Forests and climate change: a convenient truth (film)

FAO and the Forestry Commission of the United Kingdom (2008)

This 17-minute video presentation, produced by FAO and the Forestry Commission of the United Kingdom, shows how much forests can contribute to the mitigation of climate change, stressing the importance of reversing forest loss.

Forests store more carbon than all the world's remaining oil stocks. The continuing deforestation and forest degradation account for almost one-fifth of the world's greenhouse gas emissions - more than the entire global transport sector. The presentation explains how society can combat climate change by conserving and managing existing forests, by tackling causes of deforestation and by planting new forests. It stresses the use of wood as a renewable energy source and as a raw material, pointing out that wood products store carbon for their entire lifetime, until they decay or are burned. A section on adaptation notes how the world's changing climate will affect the health and composition of forests and stresses the importance of adapting and planning ahead for the changes. The DVD.


Tropical Forests and Climate Change
ITTO, October 2008
This report summarizes the deliberations of the International Expert Meeting on Addressing Climate Change through Sustainable Management of Tropical Forests, which met for three days in Yokohama, Japan, in May/June 2008. The meeting endorsed the potential role of sustainable forest management in the tropics in both mitigating climate change and helping communities adapt to it. Report.

Forestry Carbon Standards 2008
The University of Canterbury and Albert-Ludwigs University, November 2008
This report by Eduard Merger, is a comparison of four leading forestry project standards from the voluntary carbon market. Report.


V. Jobs

International Consultant on forests sector

10 March 2009

UNDP. The objective of this short term assignment is to conduct pre-feasibility study for carbon projects development in the forestry sector and to suggest a strategy for the development of the CDM LULUCF projects in Albania.

Forest Carbon - Field Development Specialist

10 March 2009

Terra Global Capital, Forest Carbon, Field Development Specialist, Duty station: San Francisco, U.S.A. Contact person: Leslie L. Durschinger, Founder and Managing Director of Terra Global Capital, LLC - 465 California Street 12th Floor, San Francisco, CA 94104

Carbon Certification Manager, Forestry and REDD

Duty Station: The position is based in Entebbe (Uganda), London (UK), Maputo (Mozambique) or Oslo (Norway), Deadline: asap Contact Person: ([email protected])

Climate change impact, Data Collection and Analysis Expert

10 March 2009

UNOPS, The Climate Change Impact, Data Collection and Analysis Expert is responsible for leading strategic thinking on  climate change impact, data collection, analysis and application, and providing strategic guidance to participating countries. S/he will assume the following key responsibilities: (1)Strategic Guidance; (2) Development and Application of Tools; (3) Technical Support to  Participating Countries; and (4) Knowledge Management.

Climate Change Policy Advisor

6 March 2009

UNEP Regional Office for West Asia, Duty Station: West Asia, Deadline for Applications: 30 April 2009, Contact Person: Abdul-Majeid Haddad, Programme Officer - Climate Change, Coastal & Marine Environment Regional Office For West Asia (ROWA), P.O. Box 10880 Manama, Kingdom of Bahrain.


VI. Announcements

REDD and Biodiversity Newsletter


The CBD Secretariat is publishing a bi-monthly e-Newsletter to inform CBD National Focal Points and other interested recipients about biodiversity aspects in relation to 'Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation' (REDD).  To subscribe, please visit

FAO Forest and Climate Change Site


The FAO site on forest and climate change has been restructured and updated. The site contains information on forest and climate change as well as relevant forest publications. Also news and meetings are displayed and links to organisations who

deal with forest and climate change can be found. The web site.

FAO Climate Change Site


An extensive FAO site on Climate Change has been set up. The site gives an overview of FAO's work and publications related to climate change. The web site.




CLIM-FO Information

The objective of CLIM-FO-L is to compile and distribute recent information about climate change and forestry. CLIM-FO-L is issued periodically.


Past issues of CLIM-FO-L are available on the website of FAO Forest and Climate Change:

For technical help or questions contact [email protected]

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The author does not guarantee the accuracy or quality of the content of the compiled information.

The designations employed and the presentation of material in this information product do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations concerning the legal or development status of any country, territory, city or area or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries.

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last updated:  Thursday, April 30, 2009